Luke 22Captains; that is, officers of the temple, (v. 52.)—Communed with, consulted with them privately.
Unleavened bread was used for seven days, in connection with the celebration of the passover, in commemoration of the haste in which the children of Israel fled from Egypt, which prevented the proper preparation of bread. (Ex. 12:14-20, 34.)
The good man of the house; the master of the house, the other being a servant.—The Master. This expression seems to imply that the person thus applied to was a disciple.
Furnished. Many rooms were undoubtedly thus prepared in Jerusalem to accommodate the great number of strangers that were accustomed to resort to the city on such occasions.
These verses convey the impression very strongly, that it was the Passover which Jesus celebrated at this time with his disciples on what we should call Thursday evening, as he was crucified on the following day, which was the day before the Jewish Sabbath,—our Saturday. But, from several allusions in John s Gospel, particularly John 13:1, 29; 18:28; 19:14, it would seem the Passover was not celebrated by the Jews till the following day, that is, Friday. Several ingenious hypotheses have been advanced by the learned to account for this discrepancy. It is, perhaps, on the whole, most probable that the allusions in John refer not to the eating of the paschal lamb, which took place on the first evening, but to the services of the remaining seven days, during which the feast of the passover continued. Some, not satisfied with this explanation, suppose that Jesus anticipated the time one day, on account of his approaching crucifixion.
This cup is the new testament; that is, the wine, representing blood, is the symbol of the new covenant, by which God grants remission of sins through the atoning sufferings of Jesus. The Roman Catholic church understands the expressions, "This is my body," and "This is my blood," (Mark 14:24,) literally, and maintain that when the bread and wine are consecrated by their priests, they become really and truly the body and blood of Christ, although to the senses they remain as before. They accordingly sometimes bear their consecrated elements in processions, and pay divine honors to them.
In all ages of the world, the Gordian knot of moral philosophy has been the seeming incompatibility of an absolute overruling power on the part of the Creator, with the moral accountability of man. How can every thing that comes to pass be prearranged by the power and purpose of God, while yet the moral responsibility of the human acts, by which his will is accomplished, rests with guilty instruments alone? Yet Jesus calmly states the fact that it is so, in this, the strongest case imaginable.
This is the third occasion on which a similar controversy arose. (See Matt. 20:20-28, Luke 9:46-48.) As the disciples must have referred to Christ's kingdom on earth, the fact that these discussions arose seems to be wholly inconsistent with the idea that Jesus assigned the official superiority to Peter, as some contend.
Temptations; trials and sufferings.
That is, be associated with their Redeemer in sacred enjoyments and trusts.
Sifting, being performed by a rough and violent shaking, is a proper emblem of any malevolent injury.
The first mission of the disciples was a peaceful one, and pursued through a region where they every where found friends, on whose hospitality they could safely rely. Now, however, Jesus teaches them, by this strong, figurative language, that the were about to enter upon a service full of difficulty and danger, in which they would have to put in requisition all their resources and means of self-protection, referring, however, under a figure taken from military life, undoubtedly to moral, measures alone; though his disciples seem to have understood him literally.
It is enough; not they are enough; that is, he did not refer to the words which they presented, but only terminated the conversation, finding, apparently, that they were not in a state of mind to understand his meaning.
There has been much speculation upon this passage, but to little purpose; since, in any case, the description is plainly intended to denote something preternaturally awful in this agony. The expression ceases to be surprising, when we consider that the mental anguish here endured was undoubtedly a part of that mysterious and protracted series of sufferings, which, commenced at Gethsemane, and ending upon the cross, constituted, in the closing scenes of the Savior's life, a great expiatory sacrifice to atone for the sins of the world.
Sleeping for sorrow; exhausted with anxiety and sorrow.
One of them; Peter.
These were all Jewish forces.
Among them; among, the servants who had kindled the fire. The examination of Jesus was going forward before the high priest at another part of the hall.
Earnestly looked upon him; indistinctly recognizing him as the disciple whom she had admitted at John's request. (John 18:16, 17.)
He is a Galilean; they judged from some peculiarity of his language.
Mocked him; mocked and ridiculed his alleged claim to the character of king.
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