1 Samuel 1

Elkanah and His Wives

Now there was a man named Elkanah [who was] from Ramathaim-zophim
Or from Ramathaim, a Zuphite; See LXX and 1 Chronicles 6:26-35.
in the hill country of Ephraim. [He was] the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite.
He had two wives, one named Hannah and the other Peninnah. And Peninnah had children, but Hannah had none. Year after year [Elkanah] would go up from his city to worship and sacrifice to the LORD of Hosts at Shiloh, where Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, were priests to the LORD. And whenever the day came for Elkanah to present his sacrifice, he would give portions to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters. But to Hannah he would give a double portion,
Or a choice portion
for he loved her even though the LORD had closed her womb.
Because the LORD had closed [Hannah's] womb, her rival would provoke her and taunt her severely. And this went on year after year. Whenever [Hannah] went up to the house of the LORD, her rival taunted her until she wept and would not eat. “Hannah, why are you crying?” her husband Elkanah asked. “Why won't you eat? Why is your heart so grieved? Am I not better to you than ten sons?”

Hannah Prays for a Son

So after they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh, Hannah got up. Now Eli the priest was sitting on a chair by the doorpost of the temple of the LORD. 10  In her bitter distress, Hannah prayed to the LORD and wept with many tears. 11  And she made a vow, pleading, “O LORD of Hosts, if only You will look upon the affliction of Your maidservant and remember me, not forgetting [Your maidservant] but giving [her] a son, then I will dedicate him to the LORD all the days of his life, and no razor shall ever come over his head.” 12  As [Hannah] kept on praying before the LORD, Eli watched her mouth. 13  Hannah was praying in her heart, and though her lips were moving, her voice could not be heard. So Eli thought she was drunk 14  and said to her, “How long will you be drunk? Put away your wine!” 15  “No, my lord,” Hannah replied. “I am a woman oppressed in spirit. I have not had any wine or strong drink, but I have poured out my soul before the LORD. 16  Do not take your servant for a wicked woman; for all this time I have been praying out of the depth of my anguish and grief.” 17  “Go in peace,” Eli replied, “and may the God of Israel grant the petition you have asked of Him.” 18  “May your maidservant find favor with you,” said Hannah. Then [she] went on her way, eating and no longer downcast.

The Birth of Samuel

19  The next morning Elkanah and Hannah got up early to bow in worship before the LORD, and then returned home to Ramah. And Elkanah had relations with his wife Hannah, and the LORD remembered her. 20  So in the course of time, Hannah conceived and gave birth to a son. She named him Samuel,
Samuel sounds like the Hebrew for heard of God
[saying,] “Because I have asked for him from the LORD.”
21  Then Elkanah and all his house went up to make the annual sacrifice to the LORD and [to fulfill] his vow, 22  but Hannah did not go. “After the boy is weaned,” she said to her husband, “I will take him to appear before the LORD and to stay there always.”
MT; DSS adds I will offer him as a Nazirite for all time.
23  “Do what you think is best,” her husband Elkanah replied , “and stay here until you have weaned him. Only may the LORD confirm His word.”
MT; DSS, LXX and Syriac your word
So Hannah stayed and nursed her son until she had weaned him.
24  Once she had weaned him, [Hannah] took [the boy] with her, along with a three-year-old bull,
DSS, LXX, Syriac; MT three bulls
an ephah
That is, about 23 quarts or 22 liters (probably about 36 pounds or 16 kilograms of flour)
. . . of flour, and a skin of wine. Though the boy was still young, she brought him to the house of the LORD at Shiloh.
25  And when they had slaughtered the bull, they brought the boy to Eli. 26  “Please, my lord,” said [Hannah] , “as surely as you live, my lord, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the LORD. 27  I prayed for this boy, and since the LORD has granted me what I asked of Him, 28  I now dedicate the boy to the LORD. For as long as he lives, he is dedicated to the LORD.” So they worshiped the LORD there.
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