Clean and Unclean Animals1 The LORD spoke again to Moses and Aaron, saying, 2 “Say to the Israelites, ‘ . . . Of all the beasts of the earth, you may eat 3 any animal with split hooves and that chews the cud. 4 But of those that chew the cud or have split hooves, you are not to eat the following: ▼
▼ The precise identification of some animals in this chapter is uncertainThe camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you. 5 The rock badger, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you. 6 The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a split hoof; it is unclean for you. 7 And the pig, though it has a split hoof, does not chew the cud; it [is] unclean for you. 8 You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you. 9 Of all [the creatures] that [live] in the water, whether salt water or fresh water, you may eat any that have fins and scales. 10 But the following among all the teeming life and creatures in the water are detestable to you: everything in the seas or streams that does not have fins and scales. 11 They shall be an abomination to you; you must not eat their meat, and you must detest their carcasses. 12 Everything in the water that does not have fins and scales shall be detestable to you. 13 Additionally, you are to detest the following birds, and they must not be eaten because they are detestable: the eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture, 14 the kite, and any kind of falcon; 15 every kind of raven; 16 the ostrich, the night hawk, the gull, and any kind of hawk; 17 the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18 the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, 19 the stork, and any kind of heron; the hoopoe and the bat. 20 All flying insects that walk on [all] fours are detestable to you. 21 However, you may eat the following kinds of winged creatures that walk on all fours: those having jointed legs above their feet for hopping on the ground— 22 any kind of locust, katydid, cricket, or grasshopper. 23 All other winged creatures that have four legs are detestable to you. 24 These [creatures] will make you unclean. Whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean until evening, 25 and whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean until evening. 26 All animals that have hooves that are split but not completely divided and do not chew the cud are unclean for you. Whoever touches them will be unclean. 27 All the four-footed animals that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean until evening, 28 and anyone who picks up a carcass must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean until evening. They are unclean for you. 29 The following creatures that move along the ground are unclean for you: the mole, the mouse, any kind of great lizard, 30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the common lizard, the skink, and the chameleon. 31 These [animals] are unclean for you among all the crawling creatures. Whoever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until evening. 32 When one of them dies and falls on something, it becomes unclean; any article of wood, clothing, leather, sackcloth, or any implement used for work must be rinsed with water and will remain unclean until evening; then it will be clean. 33 If any of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean; you must break [the pot] . 34 Any edible food coming into contact with water [from that pot] will be unclean, and anything drinkable in such a container will be unclean. 35 Anything upon which one of their carcasses falls will be unclean. If it is an oven or cooking pot, it must be smashed; it is unclean and will remain unclean for you. 36 Nevertheless, a spring or cistern containing water will remain clean, but one who touches a carcass in it will be unclean. 37 If a carcass falls on any seed for sowing, [the seed] is clean; 38 but if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you. 39 If an animal that you may eat dies, anyone who touches the carcass will be unclean until evening. 40 Anyone who eats from the carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening, and anyone who picks up the carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until evening. 41 Every creature that moves along the ground is detestable; it must not be eaten. 42 Do not eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it crawls on its belly or walks on four or more feet; for such [creatures] are detestable. 43 Do not defile yourselves by any crawling creature; do not become unclean or defiled by them. 44 For I am the LORD your God; consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, because I am holy. You must not defile yourselves by any creature that crawls along the ground. 45 For I am the LORD, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy. 46 This is the law regarding animals, birds, all living creatures that move in the water, and all creatures that crawl along the ground. 47 You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between animals that may be eaten and those that may not.’”
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