2 Corinthians 9INTRODUCTION to 2nd Corinthians Chapter 9 IN this chapter the apostle continues the subject which he had discussed in 2Cor 8 --the collection which he had purposed to make for the poor saints in Judea. The deep anxiety which he had that the collection should be liberal; that it should not only be such as to be really an aid to those who were suffering, but be such as would be an expression of tender attachment to them on the part of the Gentile converts, was the reason, doubtless, why Paul urged this so much on their attention. His primary wish undoubtedly was to furnish aid to those who were suffering. But in connexion with that, he also wished to excite a deep interest among the Gentile converts in behalf of those who had been converted to Christianity among the Jews. He wished that the collection should be so liberal as to show that they felt that they were united as brethren, and that they were grateful that they had received the true religion from the Jews. And he doubtless wished to cement as much as possible the great body of the Christian brotherhood, and to impress on their minds the great truths, that whatever was their national origin, and whatever were their national distinctions, yet in Christ they were one. For this purpose he presses on their attention a great variety of considerations why they should give liberally: and this chapter is chiefly occupied in stating reasons for that, in addition to those which had been urged in the previous chapter. The following view will present the main points in the chapter :-- (1.) He was aware of their readiness to give; and knowing this, he had boasted of it to others, and others had been excited to give liberally from what the apostle had said of them, 2Cor 9:1,2. The argument here is, that Paul's veracity and their own character were at stake, and depended on their now giving liberally. (2.) He had sent the brethren to them in order that there might by no possibility be a failure, 2Cor 9:3-5. Though he had the utmost confidence in them, and fully believed that they were disposed to give liberally, yet he knew also that something might prevent it, unless messengers went to secure the contributions; and that the consequence might be, that he and they would be "ashamed" that he had boasted so much of their readiness to give. (3.) To excite them to give liberally, Paul advances the great principles that the reward in heaven will be in proportion to the liberality evinced on earth, and that God loves one who gives cheerfully, 2Cor 9:6,7. By the prospect, therefore, of an ample reward, and by the desire to meet with the approbation of God, he calls upon them to contribute freely to aid their afflicted Christian brethren. (4.) He further excites them to liberal giving by the consideration that, if they contributed liberally, God was able to furnish them abundantly with the means of doing good on a large scale in time to come, 2Cor 9:8-11. In this way he would enable them to do good hereafter, in proportion as they were disposed to do good now; and the result of all would be, that abundant thanks would be rendered to God--thanks from those who were aided, and thanks from those who had aided them that they had been enabled to contribute to supply their wants. (5.) As a final consideration inducing them to give, the apostle states that not only would they thus do good, but would show the power of the gospel, and the affection which they had for the Jewish converts, and would thus contribute much in promoting the glory of God. The Jewish converts would see the power of the gospel on their Gentile brethren; they would feel that they now appertained to one great family; they would praise God for imparting his grace in this manner; and they would be led to pray much for those who had thus contributed to alleviate their wants, 2Cor 8:12-14. (6.) Paul closes the whole chapter, and the whole discussion respecting the contribution about which he had felt so deep an interest, by rendering thanks to God for his "unspeakable gift," JESUS CHRIST, 2Cor 9:15. Paul was ever ready, whatever was the topic before him, to turn the attention to him. He here evidently regards him as the Author of all liberal feeling, and of all true charity; and seems to imply that all that they could give would be small compared with the "unspeakable gift" of God, and that the fact that God had imparted such a gift to the world was a reason why they should be willing to devote all they had to his service. Verse 1. For as touching the ministering to the saints. In regard to the collection that was to be taken up for the aid of the poor Christians in Judea. Rom 15:26, 1Cor 16:11, 2Cor 8. It is superfluous, etc. It is needless to urge that matter on you, because I know that you acknowledge the obligation to do it, and have already purposed it. For me to write to you. That is, to write more, or to write largely on the subject. It is unnecessary for me to urge arguments why it should be done; and all that is proper is to offer some suggestions in regard to the manner in which it shall be accomplished. (*) "touching" "concerning" (a) "ministering to the saints" 2Cor 8:4 Verse 2. For I know the forwardness of your mind. I know your promptitude, or your readiness to do it. See 2Cor 8:10. Probably Paul here means that he had had opportunity before of witnessing their readiness to do good, and that he had learned in particular of Titus that they had formed the plan to aid in this contribution. For which I boast of you to them of Macedonia. To the church in Macedonia. See 2Cor 8:1. So well assured was he that the church at Corinth would make the collection as it had proposed, that he boasted of it to the churches of Macedonia as if it were already done, and made use of this as an argument to stimulate them to make an effort. That Achaia was ready a year ago. Achaia was that part of Greece of which Corinth was the capital. Acts 18:12. It is probable that there were Christians in other parts of Achaia besides Corinth, and indeed it is known that there was a church in Cenchrea, (see Rom 16:1,) which was one of the ports of Corinth. Though the contribution would be chiefly derived from Corinth, yet it is, probable that, the others also would participate in it. The phrase was ready means that they had been preparing themselves for this collection, and doubtless Paul had stated that the collection was already made and was waiting. He had directed them (1Cor 16:1) to make it on the first day of the week, and to lay it by in store, and he did not doubt that they had complied with his request. And your zeal. Your ardour and promptitude. The readiness with which you entered into this subject, and your desire to relieve the wants of others. Hath provoked. Has roused, excited, impelled to give. We use the word provoke commonly now in the sense of to irritate, but in the Scriptures it is confined to the signification of exciting, or rousing. The ardour of the Corinthians would excite others, not only by their promptitude, but because Corinth was a splendid city, and their example would be looked up to by Christians at a distance. This is one instance of the effect which will be produced by the example of a church in a city. Verse 3. Yet have I sent the brethren. The brethren referred to in 2Cor 8:18,22,23. Lest our boasting of you. That you were disposed to contribute, and that you were already prepared, and that the contribution was ready. Should be in vain. Lest anything should have occurred to prevent the collection. I have sent them that they may facilitate it, and that it may be secure and certain. In this behalf. In this respect. That is, lest our boasting of you, in regard to your readiness to contribute to relieve the wants of others, should be found to have been ill-grounded. Verse 4. Lest haply if they of Macedonia. If any of the Macedonians should happen to come with me, and should find that you had done nothing. He does not say that they would come with him, but it was by no means improbable that they would. It was customary for some of the members of the churches to travel with Paul from place to place, and the intercourse was constant between Macedonia and Achaia. Paul had, therefore, every reason to suppose that some of the Macedonians would accompany him when he should go to Corinth. At all events it was probable that the Macedonians would learn from some quarter whether the Corinthians were or were not ready when Paul should go to them. We (that we say not, ye) should be ashamed, etc., In this," says Bloomfield, "one cannot but recognise a most refined and delicate turn, inferior to none of the best classical writers." Paul had boasted confidently that the Corinthians would be ready with their collection. He had excited and stimulated the Macedonians by this consideration, he had induced them in this way to give liberally, 2Cor 8:1-4. If now it should turn out after all that the Corinthians had given nothing, or had given stintedly, the character of Paul would suffer. His veracity and his judgment would be called in question, and he would be accused of trick, and artifice, and fraud, in inducing them to give. Or if he should not be charged with dishonesty, yet he would be humbled and mortified himself that he had made representations which had proved to be so unfounded. But this was not all. The character of the Corinthians was also at stake. They had purposed to make the collection. They had left the impression in the mind of Paul that it would be done. They had hitherto evinced such a character as to make Paul confident that the collection would be made. If now by any means this should fail, their character would suffer, and they would have occasion to be ashamed that they had excited so confident expectations of what they would do. (b) "boasting" 2Cor 8:24 Verse 5. Therefore I thought it necessary, etc. In order to secure the collection, and to avoid all unpleasant feeling on all hands. That they would go before unto you. Before I should come. And make up beforehand your bounty. Prepare it before I come. The word "bounty" is in the Marg. rendered "blessing." The Greek (ευλογιαν) means, properly, commendation, eulogy. Then it means blessing, praise applied to God. Then that which blesses--a gift, donation, favour, bounty--whether of God to men, or of one man to another. Here it refers to their contribution as that which would be adapted to confer a blessing on others, or fitted to produce happiness. That the same might be ready, as a matter of bounty. That it may truly appear as a liberal and voluntary offering, as an act of generosity, and not as wrung or extorted from you. That it may be truly a blessing--a thank offering to God, and adapted to do good to men. And not as of covetousness. "And not like a sort of extortion, wrung from you by mere dint of importunity."--Doddridge. The word here used (πλεονεξιαν) means usually covetousness, greediness of gain which leads a person to defraud others. The idea here is, that Paul would have them give this as an act of bounty or liberality on their part, and not as an act of covetousness on his part, not as extorted by him from them. (1) "bounty" "blessing" (2) "whereof ye had notice" "which hath been so much spoken of before" Verse 6. But this I say. This I say in order to induce you to give liberally. This I say to prevent your supposing that because it is to be a voluntary offering you may give only from your superfluity, and may give sparingly. He which soweth sparingly. This expression has all the appearance of a proverb, and doubtless is such. It does not Occur indeed elsewhere in the Scriptures, though substantially the same sentiment exciting to liberality often occurs. See Ps 41:1-3, Prov 11:24,25; Prov 19:17, 22:9. Paul here says that it is in giving as it is in agriculture. A man that sows little, must expect to reap little. If he sows a small piece of land, he will reap a small harvest; or if he is niggardly in sowing, and wishes to save his seed and will not commit it to the earth, he must expect to reap little. So it is in giving. Money given in alms, money bestowed to aid the poor and needy, or to extend the influence of virtue and pure religion, is money bestowed in a way similar to the act of committing seed to the earth. It will be returned again in some way with an abundant increase. It shall not be lost. The seed may be buried long. It may lie in the ground with no indication of a return or of increase. One who knew not the arrangements of Providence might suppose it was lost and dead. But in due time it shall spring up and produce an ample increase. So with money given to objects of benevolence. To many it may seem to be a waste, or may appear to be thrown away. But in due time it will be repaid in some way with abundant increase. And the man who wishes to make the most out of his money for future use and personal comfort, will give liberally to deserving objects of charity--just as the man who wishes to make the most out of his grain will not suffer it to lie in his granary, but will commit the seed to the fertile earth. "Cast thy bread upon the waters: for thou shalt find it after many days," Eccl 11:1, that is, when the waters, as of the Nile, have over flowed the banks, and flooded the whole adjacent country, then is the time to cast abroad thy seed. The waters will retire, and the seed will sink into the accumulated fertile mud that is deposited, and will spring up in an abundant harvest. So it is with that which is given for objects of benevolence. Shall reap also sparingly. Shall reap in proportion to what he sowed. This every one knows is true in regard to grain that is sowed. It is also no less true in regard to deeds of charity. The idea is, that God will bestow rewards in proportion to what is given. These rewards may refer to results in this life, or to the rewards in heaven, or both. All who have ever been in the habit of giving liberally to the objects of benevolence can testify that they have lost nothing, but have reaped in proportion to their liberality. This follows in various ways. (1.) In the comfort and peace which results from giving. If a man wishes to purchase happiness with his gold, he can secure the most by bestowing it liberally on objects of charity. It will produce him more immediate peace than it would to spend it in sensual gratifications, and far more than to hoard it up useless in his coffers. (2.) In reflection on it hereafter. It will produce more happiness in remembering that he has done good with it, and promoted the happiness of others, than it will to reflect that he has hoarded up useless wealth, or that he has squandered it in sensual gratification. The one will be unmingled pleasure when he comes to die; the other will be unmingled self-reproach and pain. (3.) In subsequent life, God will in some way repay to him far more than he has bestowed in deeds of charity. By augmented prosperity, by health and future comfort, and by raising up for us and our families, when in distress and want, friends to aid us, God can and often does abundantly repay the liberal for all their acts of kindness and deeds of beneficence. (4.) God can and will reward his people in heaven abundantly for all their kindness to the poor, and all their self-denials in endeavouring to diffuse the influence of truth and the knowledge of salvation. Indeed, the rewards of heaven will be in no small degree apportioned in this manner, and determined by the amount of benevolence which we have shown on earth. See Mt 25:34-40. On all accounts, therefore, we have every inducement to give liberally. As a farmer who desires an ample harvest scatters his seed with a liberal hand; as he does not grudge it though it falls into the earth; as he scatters it with the expectation that in due time it will spring up and reward his labours, so should we give with a liberal hand to aid the cause of benevolence; nor should we deem what we give to be lost or wasted though we wait long before we are recompensed, or though we should be in no other way rewarded than by the comfort which arises from the act of doing good. Verse 7. Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, etc. The main idea in this verse is, that the act of giving should be voluntary and cheerful. It should not seem to be extorted by the importunity of others, (@Co 9:6;) nor should it be given from urgent necessity, but it should be given as an offering of the heart. On this part of the verse we may remark, (1.) that the heart is usually more concerned in the business of giving than the head. If liberality is evinced, it will be the heart which prompts to it; if it is not evinced, it will be because the heart has some bad passions to gratify, and is under the influence of avarice, or selfishness, or some other improper attachment. Very often a man is convinced he ought to give liberally, but a narrow heart and a parsimonious spirit prevent it. (2.) We should follow the dictates of the heart in giving. I mean that a man will usually give more correctly who follows the first promptings of his heart when an object of charity is presented, than be will if he takes much time to deliberate. The instinctive prompting of a benevolent heart is to give liberally. And the amount which should be given will usually be suggested to a man by the better feelings of his heart. But if he resolves to deliberate much, and if he suffers the heart to grow cold, and if he defers it, the pleadings of avarice will come in, or some object of attachment or plan of life will rise to view, or he will begin to compare himself with others, and he will give much less than he would have done if he had followed the first impulse of feeling. God implanted the benevolent feelings in the bosom that they should prompt us to do good; and he who acts most in accordance with them is most likely to do what he ought to do; and in general it is the safest and best rule for a man to give just what his heart prompts him to give when an object of charity is presented. Man at best is too selfish to be likely to give too much, or to go beyond his means; and if in a few instances it should be done, more would be gained in value in the cultivation of benevolent feeling than would be lost in money. I know of no better rule on the subject, than to cultivate as much as possible the benevolent feelings, and then to throw open the soul to every proper appeal to our charity, and to give just according to the instinctive prompting of the heart. (3.) Giving should be voluntary and cheerful. It should be from the heart. Yet there is much, very much that is not so, and there is, therefore, much benevolence that is spasmodic and spurious; that cannot be depended on, and that will not endure. No dependence can be placed on a man in regard to giving, who does not do it from the steady influences of a benevolent heart. But there is much obtained in the cause of benevolence that is produced by a kind of extortion. It is given because others give, and the man would be ashamed to give less titan they do. Or, it is given because he thinks his rank in life demands it, and he is prompted to it by pride and vanity. Or, he gives from respect to a pastor or a friend, or because he is warmly importuned to give; or because he is shut up to a kind of necessity to give, and must give or he would lose his character, and become an object of scorn and detestation. In all this there is nothing cheerful and voluntary; and there can be nothing in it acceptable to God. Nor can it be depended on permanently. The heart is not in it, and the man will evade the duty as soon as he can, and will soon find excuses for not giving at all. Not grudgingly. Greek, "Not of grief," (μηεκλυπης.) Not as if he were sorry to part with his money. Not as if he were constrained to do a thing that was extremely painful to him. Or of necessity. As if he were compelled to do it. Let him do it cheerfully. For God loveth a cheerful giver. And who does not? Valuable as any gift may be in itself, yet if it is forced and constrained; if it can be procured only after great importunity and persevering effort, who can esteem it as desirable? God desires the heart in every service. No service that is not cheerful and voluntary, none that does not arise from true love to him, can be acceptable in his sight. God loves it because it shows a heart like his own--a heart disposed to give cheerfully, and to do good on the largest scale possible; and because it shows a heart attached from principle to his service and cause. The expression here has all the appearance of a proverb, and expressions similar to this occur often in the Scriptures. In an uninspired writer, also, this idea has been beautifully expanded. "In all thy gifts show a cheerful countenance, and dedicate thy tithes with gladness. Give unto the Most High according as he hath enriched thee; and as thou hast gotten give with a cheerful eye. For the Lord recompenseth, and will give thee seven times as much."--Wisdom of the Son of Sirach, chap. xxxv. 9--11. In nothing, therefore, is it more important than to examine the motives by which we give to the objects of benevolence. However liberal may be our benefactions, yet God may see that there is no sincerity, and may hate the spirit with which it is done. (a) "grudgingly" De 15:7,8 (*) "necessity" "by constraint" (b) "cheerful giver" Ex 35:5, Rom 12:8 Verse 8. And God is able, etc. Do not suppose that by giving liberally you will be impoverished and reduced to want. You should rather confide in God, who is able to furnish you abundantly with what is needful for the supply of our necessities. Few persons are ever reduced to poverty by liberality. Perhaps in the whole circle of his acquaintance it would be difficult for an individual to point out one who has been impoverished or made the poorer in this way. Our selfishness is generally a sufficient guard against this; but it is also to be added, that the Divine blessing rests upon the liberal man, and that God keeps him from want. But in the mean time there are multitudes who are made poor by the want of liberality. They are parsimonious in giving, but they are extravagant in dress, and luxury, and in expenses for amusement or vice, and the consequence is poverty and want. "There is that withholdeth more than is meet, but it tendeth to poverty," Prov 11:24. The Divine blessing rests upon the liberal; and while every person should make a proper provision for his family, every one should give liberally, confiding in God that he will furnish the supplies for our future wants. Let this maxim be borne in mind, that no one is usually made the poorer by being liberal. All grace. All kinds of favour. He is able to impart to you those things which are needful for your welfare. That ye always, etc. The sense is, "If you give liberally, you are to expect that God will furnish you with the means, so that you will be able to abound more and more in it. You are to expect that he will abundantly qualify you for doing good in every way, and that he will furnish you with all that is needful for this. The man who gives, therefore, should have faith in God. He should expect that God will bless him in it; and the experience of the Christian world may be appealed to in proof that men are not made poor by liberality. (c) "God is able" Php 4:19 (+) "grace" "every blessing" Verse 9. As it is written. Ps 112:9. The idea is, "in this way will the saying in the Scriptures be verified, or the promise confirmed." The psalmist is describing the character of the righteous man. One of his characteristics, he says, is, that he has scattered abroad, he has given liberally to the poor. On such a man a blessing is pronounced, (2Cor 9:1;) and one of the blessings will be that he shall be prospered. Some difficulty has been felt by commentators to see how the quotation here made sustains the position of Paul that the liberal man would be blessed of God, and would receive an increase according to his liberality. In order to this, they have supposed (see Doddridge, Bloomfield, and Clarke) that the word "righteousness" means the same as almsgiving, or that "he would always have something to bestow." But I would suggest that perhaps Paul quoted this, as quotations are frequently made in the Scriptures, where a passage was familiar, he quotes only a part of the passage, meaning that the whole passage confirms the point under consideration. Thus the whole passage in the Psalm is, "he hath dispersed; he hath given to the poor; his righteousness endureth for ever; his horn shall be exalted with honour;" that is, he shall be abundantly blessed with prosperity and with the favour of God. Thus the entire promise sustains the position of Paul, that the liberal man would be abundantly blessed. The phrase "he hath dispersed," (εσκορπισεν,) may refer either to the act of sowing, as a man scatters seed upon the earth; or there may be an allusion to the oriental custom of scattering money among an assembled company of paupers. Comp. Prov 11:24. His righteousness, his deeds of beneficence. Remaineth. In its fruits and consequences; that is, either in its effects on others, or on himself. It may mean that the sums so distributed will remain with him for ever, inasmuch as he will be supplied with all that is needful to enable him to do good to others. This interpretation accords with the connexion. (a) "He hath" Ps 112:9 Verse 10. Now he that ministereth seed to the sower. This is an expression of an earnest wish. In the previous verses he had stated the promises, or had shown what we had a right to expect as a consequence of liberality, he here unites the expression of an earnest desire that they might experience this themselves. The allusion is to the act of sowing seed. The idea is, that when a man scatters seed in his field, God provides him with the means of sowing again, he not only gives him a harvest to supply, his wants, but he blesses him also in giving him the ability to sow again. Such was the benevolent wish of Paul. He desired not only that God would supply their returning wants, but he desired also that he would give them the ability to do good again; that he would furnish them the means of future benevolence, he acknowledges God as the source of all increase, and wishes that they may experience the results of such increase. Perhaps in this language there is an allusion to Isa 55:10; and the idea is, that it is God who furnishes by his providence the seed to the sower. In like manner he will furnish you the means of doing good. Minister bread for your food. Furnish you with an ample supply for your wants. Multiply your seed sown. Greatly increase your means of doing good; make the results of all your benefactions so to abound that you may have the means of doing good again, and on a larger scale, as the seed sown in the earth is so increased that the farmer may have the means of sowing more abundantly again. And increase the fruits of your righteousness. This evidently means, the results and effects of their benevolence. The word "righteousness" here refers to their liberality; and the wish of the apostle is, that the results of their beneficence might greatly abound, that they might have the means of doing extensive good, and that they might be the means of diffusing happiness from afar. (b) "he that ministereth" Is 55:10 (c) "of your righteousness" Hoss 10:12 Verse 11. Being enriched in every thing, etc. In all respects your riches are conferred on you for this purpose. The design of the apostle is to state to them the true reason why wealth was bestowed. It was not for the purposes of luxury and self-gratification; not to be spent in sensual enjoyment, not for parade and display; it was that it might be distributed to others in such a way as to cause thanksgiving to God. At the same time, this implies the expression of an earnest wish on the part of Paul. He did not desire that they should be rich for their own gratification or pleasure; he desired it only as the means of their doing good to others. Right feeling will desire property only as the means of promoting happiness and producing thanksgiving to God. They who truly love their children and friends will wish them to be successful in acquiring wealth only that they may have the means and the disposition to alleviate misery, and promote the happiness of all around them. No one who has true benevolence will desire that any one in whom he feels an interest should be enriched for the purpose of living amidst luxury, and encompassing himself with the indulgences which wealth can furnish. If a man has not a disposition to do good with money, it is not true benevolence, to desire that he may possess it. To all bountifulness. Marg., Simplicity, or liberality. The word (απλοτητα) means, properly, sincerity, candour, probity; then also simplicity, frankness, fidelity, and especially as manifesting itself in liberality. See Rom 12:8, 2Cor 8:2. Here it evidently means liberality; and the idea is, that property is given for this purpose, in order that there may be liberality evinced in doing good to others. Which causeth through us, etc. That is, we shall so distribute your alms as to cause thanksgiving to God. The result will be, that by our instrumentality thanks will be given to the great Source and Giver of all wealth. Property should always be so employed as to produce thanksgiving. If it is made to contribute to our own support and the support of our families, it should excite thanksgiving. If it is given to others, it should be so given, if it is possible, that the recipient should be more grateful to God than to us; should feel that though we may be the honoured instrument in distributing it, yet the true benefactor is God. (1) "all bountifulness" "simplicity, or liberality" (d) "causeth through us" 2Cor 1:11, 4:15 Verse 12. For the administration of this service. The distribution of this proof of your liberality. The word service here, says Doddridge, intimates that this was to be regarded not merely as an act of humanity, but religion. The want of the saints. Of the poor Christians in Judea on whose behalf it was contributed. But is abundant also by many thanksgivings unto God. Will abound unto God in producing thanksgivings. The result will be that it will produce abundant thanksgiving in their hearts to God. (e) "the want of the saints" 2Cor 8:14 Verse 13. Whiles by the experiment, etc. Or rather, by the experience of this ministration; the proof, (δοκιμης,) the evidence here furnished of your liberality. They shall in this ministration have experience or proof of your Christian principle. They glorify God. They will praise God as the source of your liberality, as having given you the means of being liberal, and having inclined your hearts to it. For your professed subjection, etc. Literally, "For the obedience of your profession of the gospel." It does not imply merely that there was a profession of religion, but that there was a real subjection to the gospel which they professed. This is not clearly expressed in our translation. Tindal has expressed it better, "Which praise God for your obedience in acknowledging the gospel of Christ." There was a real and sincere submission to the gospel of Christ, and that was manifested by their giving liberally to supply the wants of others. The doctrine is, that one evidence of true subjection to the gospel, one proof that our profession is sincere and genuine, is a willingness to contribute to relieve the wants of the poor and afflicted friends of the Redeemer. And unto all men. That is, all others whom you may have the opportunity of relieving. (*) "experiment" "experience" (f) "glorify God" mt 5:16 Verse 14. And by their prayer for you. On the grammatical construction of this difficult verse, Doddridge and Bloomfield may be consulted. It is probably to be taken in connexion with 2Cor 9:12, and 2Cor 9:13 is a parenthesis. Thus interpreted, the sense will be, "The administration of this service 2Cor 9:12 will produce abundant thanks to God. It will also 2Cor 9:14 produce another effect. It will tend to excite the prayers of the saints for you, and thus produce important benefits to yourselves. They will earnestly desire your welfare; they will anxiously pray to be united in Christian friendship with those who have been so signally endowed with the grace of God." The sentiment is, that charity should be shown to poor and afflicted Christians because it will lead them to pray for us and to desire our welfare. The prayers of the poorest Christian for us are worth more than all we usually bestow on them in charity; and he who has secured the pleadings of a child of God, however humble, in his behalf, has made a good use of his money. Which long after you. Who earnestly desire to see and know you. Who will sincerely desire your welfare, and who will thus be led to pray for you. For the exceeding grace of God in you. On account of the favour which God has shown to you; the strength and power of the Christian principle, manifesting itself in doing good to those whom you have never seen. The apostle supposes that the exercise of a charitable disposition is to be traced entirely to God. God is the Author of all grace; he alone excites in us a disposition to do good to others. (a) "grace of God" 2Cor 8:1 Verse 15. Thanks be unto God. Whitby supposes that this refers to the charitable disposition which they had manifested; and that the sense is, that God was to be adored for the liberal spirit which they were disposed, to manifest, and the aid which they were disposed to render to others. But this, it is believed, falls far below the design of the apostle. The reference is rather to the inexpressible gift which God had granted to them in bestowing his Son to die for them; and this is one of the most striking instances which occur in the New Testament, showing that the mind of Paul was full of this subject; and that wherever he began, he was sure to end with a reference to the Redeemer. The invaluable gift of a Saviour was so familiar to his mind, and he was so accustomed to dwell on that in his private thoughts, that the mind naturally and easily glanced on that whenever anything occurred that by the remotest allusion would suggest it. The idea is, "Your benefactions are indeed valuable; and for them, for the disposition which you have manifested, and for all the good which you will be enabled thus to accomplish, we are bound to give thanks to God. All this will excite the gratitude of those who shall be benefited. But how small is all this compared with the great gift which God has imparted in bestowing a Saviour! That is unspeakable. No words can express it, no language convey an adequate description of the value of the gift, and of the mercies which result from it." His unspeakable gift. The word here used (ανεκδιηγητω) means, what cannot be related, unutterable. It occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. The idea is, that no words can properly express the greatness of the gift thus bestowed on man. It is higher than the mind can conceive; higher than language can express. On this verse we may observe, (1.) that the Saviour is a gift to men. So he is uniformly represented. See Jn 3:16, Gal 1:4, 2:20, Eph 1:22, 1Timm 2:6, Tit 2:14. Man had no claim on God. He could not compel him to provide a plan of salvation; and the whole arrangements the selection of the Saviour, the sending him into the world, and all the benefits resulting from his work, are all an undeserved gift to man. (2.) This is a gift unspeakably great, whose value no language can express, no heart fully conceive. It is so because (a.) of his own greatness and glory; (b.) because of the inexpressible love which he evinced; (c.) because of the unutterable sufferings which he endured; (d.) because of the inexpressibly great benefits which result from his work. No language can do justice to this work in either of these respects; no heart in this world fully conceives the obligation which rests upon man in virtue of his work. (3.) Thanks should be rendered to God for this. We owe him our highest praises for this. This appears, (a.) because it was mere benevolence in God. We had no claim; we could not compel him to grant us a Saviour. The gift might have been withheld, and his throne would have been spotless. We owe no thanks where we have a claim; where we deserve nothing, then he who benefits us has a claim on our thanks. (b.) Because of the benefits which we have received from him. Who can express this? All our peace and hope; all our comfort and joy in this life; all our prospect of pardon and salvation; all the offers, of eternal glory are to be traced to him. Man has no prospect of being happy when he dies, but in virtue of the "unspeakable gift" of God. And when he thinks of his sins, which may now be freely pardoned; when he thinks of an agitated and troubled conscience, which may now be at peace; when he thinks of his soul, which may now be unspeakably and eternally happy; when he thinks of the hell from which he is delivered, and of the heaven to whose eternal glories he may now be raised up by the gift of a Saviour, his heart should overflow with gratitude, and the language should be continually on his lips and in his heart, "THANKS BE UNTO GOD FOR HIS UNSPEAKABLE GIFT." Every other mercy should seem small compared with this; and every manifestation of right feeling in the heart should lead us to contemplate the source of it, and to feel, as Paul did, that all is to be traced to the unspeakable gift of God. REMARKS on 2nd Corinthians Chapter 9 (1.) This chapter, with the preceding, derives special importance from the fact that it contains the most extended discussion of the principles of Christian charity which occurs in the Bible. No one can doubt that it was intended by the Redeemer that his people should be distinguished for benevolence. It was important, therefore, that there should be some portion of the New Testament where the principles on which charity should be exercised, and the motives by which Christians should be induced to give, should be fully stated. Such a discussion we have in these chapters; and they therefore demand the profound and prayerful attention of all who love the Lord Jesus. (2.) We have here a striking specimen of the manner in which the Bible is written. Instead of abstract statements and systematic arrangement, the principles of religion are brought out in connexion with a case that actually occurred. But it follows that it is important to study attentively the Bible, and to be familiar with every part of it. In some part of the Scriptures, statements of the principles which should guide us in given circumstances will be found; and Christians should, therefore, be familiar with every part of the Bible. (3.) These chapters are of special importance to the ministers of religion, and to all whose duty it is to press upon their fellow Christians the duty of giving liberally to the objects of benevolence. The principles on which it should be done are fully developed here. The motives which it is lawful to urge are urged here by Paul. It may be added, also, that the chapters are worthy of our profound study on account of the admirable tact and address which Paul evinces in inducing others to give. Well he knew human nature. Well he knew the motives which would influence others to give. And well he knew exactly how to shape his arguments and adapt his reasoning to the circumstances of those whom he addressed. (4.) The summary of the motives presented in this chapter contains still the most important argument which can be urged to produce liberality. We cannot but admire the felicity of Paul in this address--a felicity not the result of craft and cunning, but resulting from his amiable feelings, and the love which he bore to the Corinthians and to the cause of benevolence. He reminds them of the high opinion which he had of them, and of the honourable mention which he had been induced to make of them, (2Cor 9:1,2;) he reminds them of the painful result to his own feelings and theirs if the collection should in any way fail, and it should appear that his confidence in them had been misplaced, (2Cor 9:3-5;) he refers them to the abundant reward which they might anticipate as the result of liberal benefactions, and of the fact that God loved those who gave cheerfully, (2Cor 9:6,7;) he reminds them of the abundant grace of God, who was able to supply all their wants and to give them the means to contribute liberally to meet the wants of the poor, (2Cor 9:8;) he reminds them of the joy which their liberality would occasion, and of the abundant thanksgiving to God which would result from it, (2Cor 9:12,13;) and he refers them to the unspeakable gift of God, Jesus Christ as an example, and an argument, and as urging the highest claims in them, 2Cor 9:15. "Who," says Doddridge, "could withstand the force of such oratory?" No doubt it was effectual in that case, and it should be in all others. (5.) May the motives here urged by the apostle be effectual to persuade us all to liberal efforts to do good! Assuredly there is no less occasion for Christian liberality now than there was in the time of Paul. There are still multitudes of the poor who need the kind and efficient aid of Christians. And the whole world now is a field in which Christian beneficence may be abundantly displayed, and every land may and should experience the benefits of the charity to which the gospel prompts, and which it enjoins. Happy are they who are influenced by the principles of the gospel to do good to all men! Happy they who have any opportunity, to illustrate the power of Christian principle in this; any ability to alleviate the wants of one sufferer, or to do anything in sending that gospel to benighted nations which alone can save the soul from eternal death! (6.) Let us especially thank God for his unspeakable gift, Jesus Christ. Let us remember that to him we owe every opportunity to do good; that it was because he came that there is any possibility of benefiting a dying world; and that all who profess to love him are bound to imitate his example, and to show their sense of their obligation to God for giving a Saviour. How poor and worthless are all our gifts compared with the great gift of God; how slight our expressions of compassion, even at the best, for our fellow-men, compared with the compassion which he has shown for us ! When God has given his Son to die for us, what should we not be willing to give that we may show our gratitude, and that we may benefit a dying world!
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