Acts 10CHAPTER 10 Introduction: This chapter commences a very important part of the history of the transactions of the apostles. Before this, they had preached the gospel to the Jews only. They seem to have retained the feelings of their countrymen on this subject, that the Jews were to be regarded as the peculiarly favoured people, and that salvation was not to be offered beyond the limits of their nation. it was important, indeed, that the gospel should be offered to them first; but the whole tendency of the Christian religion was to enlarge and liberalize the mind; to overcome the narrow policy and prejudices of the Jewish people; and to diffuse itself over all the nations of the earth. In various ways, and by various parables, the Saviour had taught the apostles, indeed, that his gospel should be spread among the Gentiles. He had commanded them to go and preach it to every creature, Mk 16:15. But he had told them to tarry in Jerusalem until they were endued with power from on high, Lk 24:49. It was natural, therefore, that they should receive special instructions and Divine revelation on a point so important as this; and God selected the case of Cornelius as the instance by which he would fully establish his purpose of conveying the gospel to the Gentile world. It is worthy of observation, also, that he selected Peter for the purpose of conveying the gospel first to the Gentiles. The Saviour had told him, that on him he would build his church; that he would give to him first the key of the kingdom of heaven; that is, that he should be the agent in opening the doors of the church to both Jews and Gentiles. Mt 16:18, Mt 16:19. Peter had, in accordance with these predictions, been the agent in first presenting the gospel to the Jews, Acts 2; and the prediction was now to be completely fulfilled in extending the same gospel to the Gentile world. The transaction recorded in this chapter is one, therefore, that is exceedingly important in the history of the church; and we are not to be surprised that it is recorded at length. It should be remembered, also, that this point became afterwards the source of incessant controversy in the early church. The converts from Judaism insisted on the observance of the whole of the rites of their religion; the converts from among the Gentiles claimed exemption eruption from them all. To settle these disputes, and to secure the reception of the gospel among the Gentiles, and to introduce them to the church with all the privileges of the Jews, required all the wisdom, talent, and address of the apostles. See Acts 11:1-18 Acts 15; Rom 14; Rom 15; Gal 2:11-16. Verse 1. In Caesarea. Acts 8:40. Cornelius. This is a Latin name, and shows that the man was doubtless a Roman. It has been supposed by many interpreters that this man was "a proselyte of the gate;" that is, one who had renounced idolatry, and who observed some of the Jewish rites, though not circumcised, and not called a Jew. But there is no sufficient evidence of this. The reception of the narrative of Peter, Acts 11:1-3, shows that the other apostles regarded him as a Gentile. In Acts 10:28, Peter evidently regards him as a foreigner; one who did not in any sense esteem himself to be a Jew. In Acts 11:1, it is expressly said that "the Gentiles" had received the word of God; evidently alluding to Cornelius and those who were with him. A centurion. One who was the commander of a division in the Roman army, consisting of a hundred men. A captain of a hundred. Mt 8:6. Of the band. A division of the Roman army, consisting of from four hundred to six hundred men. Mt 27:27. The Italian band. Probably a band or regiment that was composed of soldiers from Italy, in distinction from those which were composed of soldiers born in provinces. It is evident that many of the soldiers in the Roman army would be those who were born in other parts of the world; and it is altogether probable, that those who were born in Rome or Italy would claim pre-eminence over those enlisted in other places. Verse 2. A devout man. Pious; or one who maintained the worship of God. Lk 2:25. Comp. Acts 2:5, 8:2. And one that feared God. This is often a designation of piety. Acts 9:31. It has been supposed by many that the expressions here used denote that Cornelius was Jew, or was instructed in the Jewish religion, and was a proselyte. But this by no means follows. It is probable that there might have been among the Gentiles a few at least who were fearers of God, and who maintained his worship according to the light which they had. So there may be now persons found in pagan lands, who, in some unknown way, have been taught the evils of idolatry; the necessity of a purer religion; and who may be prepared to receive the gospel. The Sandwich Islands were very much in this state when the American missionaries first visited them. They had thrown away their idols, and seemed to be waiting for the message of mercy and the word of eternal life, as Cornelius was. A few other instances have been found by missionaries in heathen lands, who have thus been prepared by a train of providential events, or by the teaching of the Spirit, for the gospel of Christ. With all his house. With all his family. It is evident here that Cornelius instructed his family, and exerted his influence to train them in the fear of God. True piety will always lead a man to seek the salvation of his family. Much alms. Large and liberal charity. This is always an effect of piety. See Jas 1:27, Ps 41:1. Prayed to God alway. Constantly; meaning that he was in the regular habit of praying to God. Comp. Rom 12:12, Lk 18:1, Ps 119:2, Prov 2:2-5. As no particular kind of prayer is mentioned except secret prayer, we are not authorized to affirm that he offered prayer in any other manner. It may be observed, however, that he who prays in secret will usually pray in his family; and as the family of Cornelius is mentioned as being also under the influence of religion, it is perhaps not a forced inference that he observed family worship. (+) "devout" "pious" (f) "man" Acts 8:2, 22:12 (g) "feared" Eccl 7:18 Verse 3. He saw in a vision. Acts 9:10. Evidently. Openly; manifestly. About the ninth hour. About three o'clock, P.M. This was the usual hour of evening worship among the Jews. An angel of God. Mt 1:20. Comp Heb 1:14. This angel was sent to signify to Cornelius that his alms were accepted by God as an evidence of his piety, and to direct him to send for Peter to instruct him in the way of salvation. The importance of the occasion--the introduction of the gospel to a Gentile, and hence to the entire Gentile world--was probably the chief reason why an angel was commissioned to visit the Roman centurion. Comp. Acts 16:9,10. (d) "an angel of God" Heb 1:14 Verse 4. And when he looked on him. Greek, Having fixed his eyes attentively on him. He was afraid. At the suddenness and unexpected character of the vision. What is it, Lord? This is the expression of surprise and alarm. The word Lord should have been translated Sir, as there is no evidence that this is an address to god, and still less that he regarded the personage present as the Lord. It is such language as a man would naturally use who was suddenly surprised; who should witness a strange form appearing unexpectedly before him; and who should exclaim, "Sir, what is the matter?" Are come up for a memorial. Are remembered before God. Comp. Isa 45:19. They were an evidence of piety towards God, and were accepted as such. Though he had not offered sacrifice according to the Jewish laws--though he had not been circumcised--yet, having acted according to the light which he had, his prayers were heard, and his alms accepted. This was done in accordance with the general principle of the Divine administration, that God prefers the offering of the heart, to external forms; the expressions of love, to sacrifice without it. This he had often declared, Isa 1:11-15, Amos 5:21,22, 1Sam 15:22, "To obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams;" Hoss 6:6, Eccl 5:1. It should be remembered, however, that Cornelius was not depending on external morality. His heart was in the work of religion. It should be remembered, further, that he was ready to receive the gospel when it was offered to him, and to become a Christian. In this there was an important difference between him and those who are depending for salvation on their morality in Christian lands. Such men are apt to defend themselves by the example of Cornelius, and to suppose that as he was accepted before he embraced the gospel, so they may be without embracing it. But there is an important difference in the two cases. For, (1.) there is no evidence that Cornelius was depending on external morality for salvation. His offering was that of the heart, and not merely an external offering. Moral men in Christian lands depend on their external morality in the sight of men. But God looks upon the heart. (2.) Cornelius did not rely on his morality at all. His was a work of religion. He feared God; he prayed to him; he exerted his influence to bring his family to the same state. Moral men do neither. All their works they do to be "seen of men;" and in their heart there is "no good thing towards the Lord God of Israel." Comp. 1Kgs 14:13, 2Chr 19:3. Who hears of a man that "fears God," and that prays, and that instructs his household in religion, that depends on his morality for salvation? (3.) Cornelius was disposed to do the will of God, as far as it was made known to him. Where this exists there is religion. The moral man is not. (4.) Cornelius was willing to embrace a Saviour, when he was made known to him. The moral man is not. He hears of a Saviour with unconcern; he listens to the message of God's mercy from year to year without embracing it. In all this there is an important difference between him and the Roman centurion; and while we hope there may be many in pagan lands who are in the same state of mind that he was --disposed to do the will of God as far as made known, and therefore accepted and saved by his mercy in the Lord Jesus--yet this cannot be adduced to encourage the hope of salvation in those who do know his will, and yet will not do it. (e) "memorial before God" Isa 14:19 Verse 6. He lodgeth.He remains as a guest at his house. See Acts 9:43. By the sea side. Joppa was a seaport on the Mediterranean. Tanneries are erected on the margin of streams, or of any body of water, to convey away the filth produced in the operation of dressing skins. (f) "Simon a tanner" Acts 9:43 (g) "what thou oughtest" Acts 11:14 Verse 7. A devout soldier. A pious man. This is an instance of the effect of piety in a military officer. Few men have more influence; and in this case the effect was seen not only in the piety of his family, but of this attending soldier. Such men have usually been supposed to be far from the influence of religion; but this instance shows that even the labours and disadvantages of a camp are not necessarily hostile to the existence of piety. Comp. Lk 3:14. (+) "devout" "Pious" Verse 8. And when, etc. "It has been remarked, that from Joppa Jonah was sent to preach to the Gentiles at Nineveh; and that from the same place Peter was sent to preach to the Gentiles at Caesarea." (Clarke.) Verse 9. Peter went up, etc. The small room in the second story, or on the roof of the house, was the usual place for retirement and prayer, Mt 6:6, Mt 9:2. About the sixth hour. About twelve o'clock at noon. The Jews had two stated seasons of prayer--morning and evening. But it is evident that the more pious of the Jews frequently added a third season of devotion, probably at noon. Thus David says, Ps 55:17 "Evening and morning, and at noon, will I pray, and cry aloud." Thus Daniel "kneeled upon his knees three times a day and prayed," Dan 6:10,13. It was also customary in the early Christian church to offer prayer at the third, sixth, and ninth hours. Clem. Alex. as quoted by Doddridge. Christians will, however, have not merely stated seasons for prayer, but they will seize upon moments of leisure, and when their feelings strongly incline them to it, to pray. (h) "Peter went up" Acts 6:5 ( ) "housetop" "House-roof" Verse 10. And he became very hungry. From the connexion, where it is said that they were making ready, that is, preparing a meal, it would seem that this was the customary hour of dining. The Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, however, had but two meals, and the first was usually taken about ten or eleven o'clock. This meal usually consisted of fruit, milk, cheese, etc. Their principal meal was about six or seven in the afternoon; at which time they observed their feasts. See Jahn's Bib. Archae 145. He fell into a trance. Greek, An ecstasy--εκστασις--fell upon him. In Acts 11:5, Peter says that in a trance he saw a vision. The word trance, or ecstasy, denotes a state of mind when the attention is absorbed in a particular train of thought, so that the external senses are partially or entirely suspended. It is a high species of abstraction from external objects; when the mind becomes forgetful of surrounding things, and is fixed solely on its own thoughts, so that appeals to the external senses do not readily rouse it. The soul seems to have passed out of the body, and to be conversant only with spiritual essences. Thus Balaam is said to have seen the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, Nu 24:4,16; thus Paul, in praying in the temple, fell into a trance, Acts 22:17 and perhaps a similar state is described in 2Cor 12:2. This effect seems to be caused by so intense and absorbing a train of thought, as to overcome the senses of the body, or wholly to withdraw the mind from their influence, and to fix it on the unseen object that engrosses it. It is often a high state of revery, or absence of mind, which Dr. Rush describes as "induced by the stimulus of ideas of absent subjects, being so powerful as to destroy the perception of present objects." (Diseases of the Mind, p. 310, Ed. Phila. 1812.) In the case of Peter, however, there was a supernatural influence that drew his attention away from present objects. Verse 11. And saw heaven opened. Acts 7:56; Mt 3:16. This language is derived from a common mode of speaking in the Hebrew Scriptures, as if the sky above us was a solid, vast expanse, and [as] if it were opened to present an opportunity for anything to descend. It is language that is highly figurative. And a certain vessel. Acts 9:15. As it had been. It is important to mark this expression. The sacred writer does not say that Peter literally saw such all object descending; but he uses this as an imperfect description of the vision. It was not a literal descent of a vessel, but it was such a kind of representation to him, producing the same impression, and the same effect, as if such a vessel had descended. Knit at the four corners. Bound, united, or tied. The corners were collected, as would be natural in putting anything into a great sheet. (a) "saw heaven" Acts 7:56 (*) "vessel" "and something" (+) "knit" "bound together" Verse 12. Wherein, etc. This particular vision was suggested by Peter's hunger, Acts 10:10. It was designed, however, to teach him an important lesson in regard to the introduction of all nations to the gospel. Its descending from heaven may have been an intimation that that religion which was about to abolish the distinction between the Jews and other nations was of Divine origin. See Rev 21:2. Verse 13. (+) "kill, and eat" "Slay" Verse 14. I have never eaten, etc. In the Old Testament, God had made a distinction between clean and unclean animals. See Lev 11:2-27, De 14:3-20. This law remained in the Scriptures, and Peter pleaded that he had never violated it, implying that he could not now violate it; as it was a law of God, and as it was unrepealed, he did not dare to act in a different manner from what it required. Between that law, and the command which he now received in the vision, there was an apparent variation; and Peter naturally referred to the well-known and admitted written law. One design of the vision was to show him that that law was now to pass away. That is common. This word properly denotes that which pertains to all; but among the Jews, who were bound by special laws, and who were prohibited from many things that were freely indulged in by other nations, the word common came to be opposed to the word sacred, and to denote that which was in common use among the heathens--hence that which was profane or polluted. Here it means the same as profane, or forbidden. Unclean. Ceremonially unclean; i.e., that which is forbidden by the ceremonial law of Moses. (b) "common" Lev 11:2, 20:25, De 14:3, Eze 4:14 Verse 15. What God hath cleansed. What God hath pronounced or declared pure. If God has commanded you to do a thing, it is not impure or wrong. Its use is lawful if he has commanded it. Perhaps Peter would have supposed that the design of this vision was to instruct him that the distinction between clean and unclean food, as recognized by the Jews, was about to be abolished, Acts 17. But the result showed that it had a higher and more important design. It was to show him that they who had been esteemed by the Jews as unclean or profane--the entire Gentile world--might now be admitted to similar privileges with the Jews. That barrier was to be broken down, and the whole world was to be admitted to the same fellowship and privileges in the gospel. See Eph 2:14; Gal 3:28. It was also true that the ceremonial laws of the Jews in regard to clean and unclean beasts was to pass away, though this was not directly taught in this vision. But when once the barrier was removed that separated the Jews and Gentiles, all the laws which supposed such a distinction, and which were framed to keep up such a distinction, passed away of course. The ceremonial laws of the Jews were designed solely to keep up the distinction between them and other nations. When the distinction was abolished-- when other nations were to be admitted to the same privileges--the laws which were made to keep up such a difference received their death-blow, and expired of course. For it is a maxim of all law, that when the reason why a law was made ceases to exist, the law becomes obsolete. Yet it was not easy to convince the Jews that their laws ceased to be binding. This point the apostles laboured to establish; and from this point arose most of the difficulties between the Jewish and Gentile converts to Christianity. See Ac 15, Rom 14, Rom 15. (c) "that call not" Acts 10:28, Mt 15:11, Rom 14:14, 1Cor 10:25, 1Timm 4:4 Verse 16. This was done thrice. Three time, doubtless, to impress the mind of Peter with the certainty and importance of the vision. comp. Gen 41:32. ( ) "vessel" "Sheet" Verse 17. Doubted in himself. Doubted in his own mind. He was perplexed to understand it. Behold, the men, etc. We see here an admirable arrangement of the events of Providence to fit each other. Every part of this transaction is made to harmonize with every other part; and it was so arranged, that, just in the moment when the mind of Peter was filled with perplexity, the very event should occur which should relieve him of his embarrassment. Such a coincidence is not uncommon. An event of Divine Providence may be as clear an expression of his will, and may as certainly serve to indicate our duty, as the most manifest revelation would do; and a state of mind may, by an arrangement of circumstances, be produced, that shall be extremely perplexing until some event shall occur, or some field of usefulness shall open, that shall exactly correspond to it, and shall indicate to us the will of God. We should observe then the events of God's Providence. We should mark and record the train of our own thoughts, and we should watch with interest any event that occurs, when we are perplexed and embarrassed, to obtain, if possible, an expression of the will of God. Before the gate. The word here rendered "gate" --πυλωνα--refers, properly, to the porch or principal entrance to an eastern house. Mt 9:2; Mt 26:71. It does not mean, as with us, a gate, but rather a door. See Acts 12:13. (d) "inquiry for Simon's" Acts 9:43 Verse 19. The Spirit. Acts 8:29; comp. Is 65:24, "And it shall come to pass, that before they call I will answer," etc. (e) "Spirit" Acts 11:12 Verse 20. (f) "Arise" Acts 15:7 Verse 22. To hear words of thee. To be instructed by thee. (a) "Cornelius" Acts 10:1 (b) "good report" Acts 22:12, Heb 11:2 Verse 23. And lodged them. They remained with him through the night. Four days were occupied before Peter met Cornelius at Caesarea. On the first, the angel appeared to Cornelius; on the second, the messengers arrived at Joppa, Acts 10:9; on the third, Peter returned with them, Acts 10:23; and on the fourth, they arrived at Caesarea, Acts 10:24,30. And certain brethren. Some Christians. They were six in number, Acts 11:12. It was usual for the early Christians to accompany the apostles in their journeys. Rom 15:24, Acts 15:3, 3Jn 1:6, 1Cor 16:6,11. As this was an important event in the history of the church--the bearing of the gospel to a Gentile--it was more natural rant proper that Peter should be attended with others. (c) "certain brethren" Acts 10:45 Verse 24. His kinsman. His relatives, or the connexions of his family. A man may often do vast good by calling his kindred and friends to hear the gospel. (*) "waited for them" "Was expecting them." Verse 25. Fell down at his feet. This was an act of profound regard for him as an ambassador of God. In Oriental countries it was usual to prostrate themselves at length on the ground before men of rank and honour. Worshipped him. This does not mean religious grinage, but civil respect; the homage, or profound regard, which was due to one in honour. Mt 2:2. (+) "worshipped him" "Did obeisance" Verse 26. Stand up, etc. This does not imply that Peter supposed that Cornelius intended to do him religious reverence. It was practically saying to him, "I am nothing more than a man, as thou art, and pretend to no right to such profound respects as these, but am ready in civil life to show thee all the respect that is due."--Doddridge. (d) "stand up" Acts 14:14,15, Rev 19:10, 22:9 Verse 27. And as he talked with him. He probably met with him at the door, or at a small distance from the house. It was an expression of joy thus to go out to meet him. Verse 28. It is an unlawful thing. This was not explicitly enjoined by Moses, but it seemed to be implied in his institutions, and was at any rate the common understanding of the Jews. The design was to keep them a separate people. To do this, Moses forbade alliances by contract, or marriage, with the surrounding nations, which were idolatrous. See Lev 18:24-30, De 7:3-12; comp. Ezr 9:11,12. This command the Jews perverted; and explained as referring to intercourse of an kinds, even to the exercise of friendly offices and commercial transactions. Comp. Jn 4:9. Of another nation. Greek, Another tribe. It refers here to all who were not Jews. God hath shewed me. Comp. Acts 15:8,9. He had showed him by the vision, Acts 10:11,12. Any man common or unclean. Acts 10:14. That no man was to be regarded as excluded from the opportunity of salvation; or be despised and abhorred. The gospel was to be preached to all; the barrier between Jews and Gentiles to be broken down; and all were to be regarded as capable of being saved. (e) "unlawful thing" Jn 4:9 (f) "God hath shewed me" Jn 15:8,9, Eph 3:6 Verse 29. Without gainsaying. Without saying anything against it; without hesitation or reluctance. I ask therefore, etc. The main design for which Cornelius had sent for him had been mentioned to Peter by the messenger, Acts 10:22. But Peter now desired from his own Ups a more particular statement of the considerations which had induced him to send for him. For what intent. For what purpose or design. (+) "intent" "On what account" Verse 30. Four days ago. Acts 10:23. Until this hour. The ninth hour, or three o'clock P.M. See Acts 10:3. A man. Called, in Acts 10:3, am angel. He had the appearance of a man. Comp. Mk 16:5. In bright clothing. Mt 28:3 (g) "in bright clothing" Mt 28:3, Acts 1:10 Verse 31. (h) "thy prayer is heard" Acts 10:4 Verse 33. Thou hast well done. This is an expression of grateful feeling. Before God. In the presence of God. It is implied that they believed that God saw them, and that they were assembled at his command, and that they were disposed to listen to his instructions. (i) "Now therefore" De 5:27 Verse 34. Then Peter opened his mouth. Began to speak, Mt 5:2. Of a truth. Truly; evidently. That is, I have evidence here that God is no respecter of persons. Is no respecter of persons. The word used here denotes the act of showing favour to one on account of rank, family, wealth, or partiality, arising from any cause. It is explained in Jas 2:1-4. A judge is a respecter of persons when he favours one of the parties on account of private friendship; or because he is a man of rank, influence, or power; or because he belongs to the same political party, etc. The Jews supposed that they were peculiarly favoured by God, and that salvation was not extended to other nations, and that the fact of being a Jew entitled them to this favour. Peter here says that he has learned the error of this doctrine. That a man is not to be accepted because he is a Jew, nor is he to be excluded because he is a Gentile. The barrier is broken down, the offer is made to all, and God will save all on the same principle--not by external privileges, or rank, but according to their character. The same doctrine is elsewhere explicitly stated in the New Testament, Rom 2:11, Eph 6:9, Col 3:25. It may be observed here, that this does not refer to the doctrine of Divine sovereignty or election. It simply affirms that God will not save a man because he is a Jew; nor because he is rich, or learned, or of elevated rank; nor by any external privileges. Nor will he exclude any man because he is destitute of these privileges. But this does not affirm that he will not make a difference in their character, and then treat them according to their character; nor that he will not pardon whom he pleases, which is a different question. The interpretation of this passage should be limited strictly to the case in hand--to mean that God will not accept and save a man on account of external national rank and privileges. That by receiving some, and leaving others, on other grounds, he will not make a difference, is not anywhere denied. Comp. 1Cor 4:7, Rom 12:6. It is worthy of remark, further, that the most strenuous advocate for the doctrines of sovereignty and election in the New Testament--the apostle Paul--is also the one that laboured most to establish the doctrine that God was no respecter of persons; that is, that there was no difference between the Jews and Gentiles in regard to the way of salvation; that God would not save a man because he was a Jew, nor destroy a man because he was a Gentile. Yet, in regard to the whole race viewed as lying on a level, he maintained that God had a right to exercise the prerogatives of a sovereign, and to have mercy on whom he would have mercy. The doctrine may be thus stated: (1.) The barrier, between the Jews and Gentiles was broken down. (2.) All men thus were placed on a level--none to be saved by external privileges, none to be lost by the want of them. (3.) All were guilty, Rom 1, 2, 3 and none had a claim on God. (4.) If any were saved, it would be by God's showing mercy on such of this common mass as he chose. Rom 3:22, 10:12, 2:11, Gal 2:6; compared with Rom 9, Eph 1. (k) "God is no respector of persons" De 10:17, 2Chr 19:7, Job 34:19 Rom 2:11, Gal 2:6, 1Pet 1:17 Verse 35. But in every nation, etc. This is given as a reason for what Peter had just said, that God was no respecter of persons. The sense is, that he now perceived that the favours of God were not confined to the Jew, but might be extended to all others on the same principle. The remarkable circumstances here, the vision to him, and to Cornelius, and the declaration that the alms of Cornelius were accepted, now convinced Peter that the favours of God were no longer to be confined to the Jewish people, but might be extended to all. This was what the vision was designed to teach; and to communicate this to the apostles was an important step in their work of spreading the gospel. In every nation. Among all people; Jews or Gentiles. Acceptance with God does not depend on the fact of being descended from Abraham, or of possessing external privileges, but on the state of the heart. He that feareth him. This is put for piety towards God in general. Acts 9:31. It means, that he that honours God and keeps his law--that is a true worshipper of God, according to the light and privileges which he has--is approved by him, as giving evidence that he is his friend. And worketh righteousness. Does that which is right and just. This refers to his conduct towards man. He that discharges conscientiously his duty to his fellow-men, and evinces by his conduct that he is a righteous man. These two things comprehend the whole of religion, the sum of all the requirements of God--piety towards God, and justice towards an men; and as Cornelius had showed these, he showed that, though a Gentile, he was actuated by true piety. We may observe here, (1.) that it is not said that Cornelius was accepted on account of his good works. Those works were simply an evidence of true piety in the heart; a proof that he feared and loved God, and not a meritorious ground of acceptance. (2.) He improved the light which he had. (3.) He embraced the Saviour when he was offered to him. This circumstance makes an essential difference between the case of Cornelius, and those who depend on their morality in Christian lands. They do not embrace the Lord Jesus, and they are, therefore, totally unlike the Roman centurion. His example should not be pleaded, therefore, by those who neglect the Saviour, for it furnishes no evidence that they will be accepted, when they are totally unlike him. (a) "in every nation" Rom 2:13,27, 3:22,29, 10:12,13, Eph 2:13-18 (*) "with" "by" Verse 36. The word. That is, this is the word, or the doctrine. Few passages in the New Testament have perplexed critics more than this. It has been difficult to ascertain to what the term "word" in the accusative case (τονλογον) here refers. Our translation would lead us to suppose that it is synonymous with what is said in the following verse. But it should be remarked, that the term used there, and translated "word," as if it were a repetition of what is said here, is a different term. It is not λογον, but ρημα a word, a thing; not a doctrine. I understand the first term "word" to be an introduction of the doctrine which Peter set forth, and to be governed by a preposition understood. The whole passage may be thus expressed: Peter had been asked to teach Cornelius and his assembled friends. It was expected, of course, that he would instruct him in regard to the true doctrines of religion--the doctrine which had been communicated to the Jews. He commences, therefore, with a statement respecting the true doctrine of the Messiah, or the way of salvation which was now made known to the Jews. "In regard to the "word," or the doctrine which God sent to the children of Israel, proclaiming peace through Jesus Christ, (who is Lord of all,) you know already that which was done, or the transactions which occurred throughout all Judea, from Galilee, where he commenced after John had preached, that this was by Jesus Christ, since God had anointed him," etc. Peter here assumes that Cornelius had some knowledge of the principal events of the life of the Saviour, though it was obscure and imperfect; and his discourse professes only to state this more fully and clearly. He commences his discourse with stating the true doctrine on the subject, and explaining more perfectly that of which Cornelius had been only imperfectly informed. Unto the children of Israel. To the Jews. The Messiah was promised to them, and spent his life among them. Preaching. That is, proclaiming or announcing. God did this by Jesus Christ. Peace. This word sometimes refers to the peace or union which was made between Jews and Gentiles, by breaking down the wall of division between them. But it is here used in a wider sense, to denote peace or reconciliation with God. He announced the way by which man might be reconciled to God, and might find peace. He is Lord of all. That is, Jesus Christ. He is Sovereign, or Ruler, of both Jews and Gentiles; he is their Proprietor; and hence Peter saw the propriety of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles as well as Jews. See Jn 17:2, Mt 28:18, Eph 1:20-22. This does not necessarily imply divinity; but only that the Lord Jesus, as Mediator, had been constituted or appointed Lord over all nations. It is true, however, that this is a power which we cannot conceive to have been delegated to one that was not divine. Comp. Rom 9:5. (b) "peace" Isa 57:19, Col 1:20 (c) "Lord of all" Ps 24:7-10, Mt 28:18, Rom 14:9, 1Cor 15:27, Eph 1:20-22 1Pet 3:22, Rev 17:14 Verse 37. That word. Greek, ρημα--a different word from that in the previous verse. It may be translated thing, as well as word. Which was published. Greek, Which was done. "You know, though it may be imperfectly, what was done or accomplished in Judea," etc. Throughout all Judea. The miracles of Christ were not confined to any place, but were wrought in every part of the land. For an account of the divisions of Palestine, Mt 2:22. And began, etc. Greek, Having been begun in Galilee. Galilee was not far from Caesarea. There was, therefore, the more probability that Cornelius had heard of what had occurred there, indeed, the Gospels themselves furnish the highest evidence that the fame of the miracles of Christ spread into all the surrounding regions. (+) "word" "Doctrine" Verse 38. How God anointed, etc. That is, set him apart to this work, and was with him, acknowledging him as the Messiah. Mt 1:1. With the Holy Ghost. Lk 4:19. The act of anointing the kings and priests seems to have been emblematic of the influences of the Holy Ghost. Here it means, that God communicated to him the influences of the Holy Spirit, thus setting him apart for the work of the Messiah. See Mt 3:16,17, Jn 3:34: "God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him." And with power. The power of healing the sick, raising the dead, etc. Who went about doing good. Whose main business it was to travel from place to place to do good. He did not go for applause, or wealth, or comfort, or ease, but to diffuse happiness as far as possible. This is the simple but sublime record of his life. This, in few, but most affecting words, tells us all about the Saviour. It gives us a distinct portrait of his character, as he is distinguished from conquerors and kings, and false prophets, and the mass of men. And healing, etc. Restoring to health. All that were oppressed of the devil. All that were possessed by him. Mt 4:23,24. God was with him. God appointed him, and furnished by his miracles the highest evidence that he had sent him. His miracles were such that they could be wrought only by God. (d) "anointed Jesus" Lk 4:18, Heb 1:9 (e) "who went about" Mt 12:15 (+) "healing" "curing" (f) "oppressed of the devil" 1Jn 3:8 (g) "for God was with him" Joh 3:2 Verse 39. And we are witnesses. We who are apostles. Lk 24:48. In the land of the Jews. In the country of Judea. Whom they slew, etc. Our translation would seem to imply that there were two separate acts--first slaying him, and then suspending him. But this is neither according to truth nor to the Greek text. The original is simply, "whom they put to death, suspending him on a tree." On a tree. On a cross. Acts 5:30. (h) "we are witnesses" Lk 24:48, Acts 2:32 ( ) "tree" "cross" Verse 40. Shewed him openly. Manifestly; so that there could be no deception, no doubt of his resurrection. (a) "raised up the third day" Mt 28:1,2 Verse 41. Not to all the people. Not to the nation at large; for this was not necessary in order to establish the truth of his resurrection. He, however, showed himself to many persons. See the Harmony of the accounts of the resurrection of Jesus, at the close of the Notes on Matthew. Chosen of God. Appointed by God, or set apart by his authority through Jesus Christ. Who did eat and drink, etc. And by doing this he furnished the clearest possible proof that he was truly risen; and that they were not deceived by an illusion of the imagination, or by a phantasm. Compare Jn 21:12,13. (b) "Not to all people" Jn 14:22 Joh 20 Joh 21 (c) "before of God" Jn 15:16 Verse 42. And he commanded us, etc. Mt 28:19,20, Mk 16:15,16. And to testify. To bear witness. That it is he, Jn 5:22-27. Compare the references in the margin. Of quick. The living. The doctrine of the New Testament is, that those who are alive when the Lord Jesus shall return to judge the world, shall be caught up in vast numbers like clouds, to meet him in the air, without seeing death, 1Thes 4:16,17. Yet before this, they shall experience such a change in their bodies as shall fit them for the judgment and for their eternal residence--a change which shall liken them to those who have died, and have been raised from the dead. What this change will be, speculation may fancy, but the Bible has not revealed. See 1Cor 15:52: "The dead shall be raised, and we shall be changed." (d) "commanded us to preach" Mt 28:19,20 (e) "that it is he" Jn 5:22,27, Acts 17:31, 2Cor 5:10, 1Pet 4:5 (*) "quick" "living" Verse 43. To him give, etc. Lk 24:27,44. That through his name, etc. This was implied in what the prophets said. See Rom 10:11. It was not, indeed, expressly affirmed that they who believed in him should be pardoned; but this was implied in what they said. They promised a Messiah; and their religion consisted mainly in believing in a Messiah to come. See the reasoning of the apostle Paul in Rom 4. (f) "To him" Lk 24:27 (+) "witness" "All the prophets bear testimony" (g) "whosoever believeth" Jn 3:14,16, Rom 10:11 Verse 44. The Holy Ghost fell, etc. Endowing them with the power of speaking with other tongues, Acts 10:46. Of this the apostle Peter makes much in his argument in Acts 11:17. By this God showed that the Gentiles were to be admitted to the same privileges with the Jews, and to the blessings of salvation in the same manner. Comp. Acts 2:1-4. Which heard the word. The word of God; the message of the gospel. (h) "Holy Ghost fell" Jn 4:31 Verse 45. And they of the circumcision. Who had been Jews. Were astonished. Were amazed that Gentiles should be admitted to the same favour as themselves. (i) "they of the circumcision" Acts 10:23 (�) "Ghost" "Spirit" Verse 46. Speak with tongues. In other languages than their native language, Acts 2:4. And magnify God. (k) "speak" Acts 2:4 ( ) "tongues" "different languages" Verse 47. Can any man forbid water, etc. They have shown that they are favoured in the same way as the Jewish converts. God has manifested himself to them, as he did to the Jews on the day of Pentecost. Is it not clear, therefore, that they are entitled to the privilege of Christian baptism? The expression here used is one that would naturally refer to water being brought; that is, to a small quantity; and would seem to imply that they were baptized, not by immersion, but by pouring or sprinkling. (l) "Can any man forbid" Acts 8:12 (�) "Ghost" "Spirit" Verse 48. And he commanded them, etc. Why Peter did not himself baptize them is unknown. But it might be, perhaps, because he chose to make use of the ministry of the brethren who were with him, to prevent the possibility of future cavil. If they did it themselves, they could not so easily be led by the Jews to find fault with it. It may be added, also, that it seems not to have been the practice of the apostles themselves to baptize very extensively. This was left to be performed by others. See 1Cor 1:14-17: "Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel." ( ) "certain days" "abide some days"
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