Acts 11CHAPTER 11 Verse 1. And the apostles and brethren. The Christians who were in Judea. Heard, etc. So extraordinary an occurrence as that at Caesarea, the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Gentiles, and their reception into the church, would excite attention, and be likely to produce much sensibility in regard to the conduct of Peter and those with him. It was so contrary to all the ideas of the Jews, that it is not to be wondered at that it led to contention. Verse 2. They that were of the circumcision. The Christians who had been converted from among the Jews. Contended with him. Disputed, or reproved him; charged him with being in fault. This is one of the circumstances which show conclusively that the apostles and early Christians did not regard Peter as having any particular supremacy over the church, or as being in any peculiar sense the vicar of Christ upon earth. If Peter had been regarded as having the authority which the Roman Catholics claim for him, they would have submitted at once to what he had thought proper to do. But the primitive Christians had no such idea of his authority. This claim for Peter is not only opposed to this place, but to every part of the New Testament. (m) "they that were of the circumcision" Acts 10:23,28, Gal 2:12 Verse 3. And didst eat with them. Acts 10:13,14. Verse 4. But Peter rehearsed. Greek, Peter beginning, explained it to them in order. That is, he began with the vision which he saw, and gave a narrative of the various events in order, as they actually occurred. A simple and unvarnished statement of facts is usually the best way of disarming prejudice and silencing opposition. In revivals of true religion, the best way of silencing opposition, and especially among Christians, is to make a plain statement of things as they actually occurred. Opposition most commonly arises from prejudice, or from false or exaggerated statements; and those can be best removed, not by angry contention, but by an unvarnished relation of the facts. In most cases prejudice will thus be disarmed, and opposition will die away, as was the case in regard to the admission of the Gentiles to the church. And expounded it. Explained it; stated it as it actually occurred. By order. One event after another, as they happened. He thus showed that his own mind had been as much biassed as theirs, and stated in what manner his prejudices had been removed. It often happens that those who become most zealous and devoted in any new plans for the advancement of religion, were as much opposed to them at first as others. They are led from one circumstance to another, until their prejudices die away, and the Providence and Spirit of God indicate clearly their duty, (**) "rehearsed" "Related" Verse 5. (a) "Joppa" Acts 10:9 (*) "vessel" "something" Verse 6. (+) "fastened my eyes" "looked earnestly" Verse 12. (b) "Spirit bade me go" Jn 16:13 Verse 14. And all thy house. Thy family. This is a circumstance which is omitted in the account in Acts 10. It is said, however, in Acts 10:2, that Cornelius feared God with all his house. And it is evident, from Acts 10:48, that the family also received the ordinance of baptism, and was received into the church. (c) "tell thee words" Ps 19:7-11, Jn 6:63,68 Verse 15. And as I began to speak. Or, when I was speaking. The Holy Ghost, etc. Acts 10:44 (d) "fell on them" Acts 2:4 Verse 16. The word of the Lord. Acts 1:6. (e) "John indeed baptized" Mt 3:11, Jn 1:26,33, Acts 1:5 (f) "ye shall be baptized" Isa 44:3, Joel 2:28 ( ) "Ghost" "Spirit" Verse 17. What was I. What power or right had I to oppose the manifest will of God that the Gentiles should be received into the Christian church. Withstand God. Oppose or resist God. He had indicated his will; he had showed his intention to save the Gentiles; and the prejudices of Peter were all overcome. One of the best means of destroying prejudice and false opinions, is a powerful revival of religion. More erroneous doctrines and unholy feelings are overcome in such scenes, than in all the angry controversies, and bigoted and fierce contentions, that have ever taken place. If men wish to root error out of the church, they should strive by all means to promote everywhere revivals of pure and undefiled religion. The Holy Spirit more easily and effectually silences false doctrine, and destroys heresy, than all the denunciations of fierce theologians; all the alarms of professed zeal for truth; and all the anathemas Which professed orthodoxy and love for the purity of the church ever uttered from the icebergs on which such champions usually seek their repose and their home. (g) "as God gave them" Acts 15:8,9 (h) "what was I" Rom 9:21-26 Verse 18. They held their peace. They were convinced, as Peter had been, by the manifest indications of the will of God. Then hath God, etc. The great truth is in this manner established, that the doors of the church are opened to the entire Gentile world--a great and glorious truth, that was worthy of this remarkable interposition. It at once changed the views of the apostles and of the early Christians; gave them new, large, and liberal conceptions of the gospel; broke down all their long-cherished prejudices; taught them to look upon all men as their brethren; and impressed their hearts with the truth, never after to be eradicated, that the Christian church was founded for the wide world, and opened the same glorious pathway to life wherever man might be found, whether with the narrow prejudice of the Jew, or amidst the degradations of the pagan world. To this truth we owe our hopes; for this, we should thank the God of heaven; and impressed with it, we should seek to invite the entire world to partake with us of the rich provisions of the gospel of the blessed God. (*) "held their peace, and glorified God" "were satisfied" (i) "to the Gentiles granted" Rom 10:12,13, 15:9,16 Verse 19. Now they, etc. This verse introduces a new train of historical remark; and from this point the course of the history of the Acts of the Apostles takes a new direction. Thus far, the history had recorded chiefly the preaching of the gospel to the Jews only. From this point the history records the efforts made to convert the Gentiles. It begins with the labours put forth in the important city of Antioch, Acts 11:19,20 and as, during the work of grace that occurred in that city, the labours of the apostle Paul were especially sought, Acts 11:25,26, the sacred writer thenceforward confines the history mainly to his travels and labours. Which were scattered abroad. See Acts 8:1. As far as Phenice. Phoenice, or Phoenicia, was a province of Syria, which in its largest sense comprehended a narrow strip of country lying on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, and extending from Antioch to the borders of Egypt. But Phoenice Proper extended only from the cities of Laodicea to Tyre, and included only the territories of Tyre and Sidon. This country was called sometimes simply Canaan. Mt 15:22. And Cyprus. An island off the coast of Asia Minor, in the Mediterranean Sea. Acts 4:36. And Antioch. There were two cities of this name, one situated in Pisidia in Asia Minor, see Acts 13:14; the other, referred to here, was situated on the river Orontes, and was long the capital of Syria. It was built by Seleucus Nicanor, and was called Antioch, in honour of his father Antiochus. It was founded three hundred and one years before Christ. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, but is several times mentioned in the Apocrypha, and in the New Testament. It was long the most powerful city of the East, and was inferior only to Seleucia and Alexandria. It was famous for the fact that the right of citizenship was conferred by Seleucus on the Jews, as well as the Greeks and Macedonians, so that here they had the privilege of worship in their own way without molestation. It is probable that the Christians would be regarded merely as a sect of Jews, and would be here suffered to celebrate their worship without interruption. On this account it may have been that the early Christians regarded this city as of such particular importance, because here they could find a refuge from persecution, and be permitted to worship God without molestation. This city was honoured as a Roman colony, a metropolis, and an asylum. It was large; was almost square; had many gates; was adorned with fountains; and was a city of great opulence. It was, however, subject to earthquakes, and was several times nearly destroyed. In the year 588 it experienced an earthquake, in which 60,000 persons were destroyed. It was taken by the Saracens in A. D. 638; and, after some changes and revolutions, it was taken during the crusades, after a long and bloody siege; by Godfrey of Bouillon, June 3, A. D. 1098. In 1268, it was taken by the sultan of Egypt, who demolished it, and placed it under the dominion of the Turk. Antioch is now called Antakia, and contains about 10,000 inhabitants. (Robinson's Calmet.) Preaching the word. The word of God, the gospel. To none but unto the Jews only. They had the common prejudices of the Jews, that the offers of salvation were to be made only to Jews. (k) "they which were scattered abroad" Acts 8:1 (l) "unto the Jews only" Mt 10:6 Verse 20. Were men of Cyprus and Cyrene. Were natives of Cyprus and Cyrene. Cyrene was a province and city of Libya in Africa. It is at present called Cairoan, and is situated in the kingdom of Barca. In Cyprus, the Greek language was spoken; and from the vicinity of Cyrene to Alexandria, it is probable that the Greek language was spoken there also. From this circumstance it might have happened that they were led more particularly to address the Grecians who were in Antioch. It is possible, however, that they might have heard of the vision which Peter saw, and felt themselves called on to preach the gospel to the Gentiles. Spake unto the Grecian. προςτουςελληνιστας To the Hellenists. This word usually denotes, in the New Testament, those Jews residing in foreign lands who spoke the Greek language. Acts 6:1. But to them the gospel had been already preached; and yet in this place it is evidently the intention of Luke to affirm, that the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached to those who were not Jews, and that thus their conduct was distinguished from those Acts 11:19 who preached to the Jews only. It is thus manifest that we are here required to understand the Gentiles, as those who were addressed by the men of Cyprus and Cyrene. In many Mss. the word used here is ελληνας, Greeks, instead of Hellenists. This reading has been adopted by Griesbach, and is found in the Syriac, the Arabic, the Vulgate, and in many of the Fathers. The AEthiopic version reads, "to the Gentiles." There is no doubt that this is the true reading; and that the sacred writer means to say that the gospel was here preached to those who were not Jews, for all were called Greeks by them who were not Jews, Rom 1:16. The connexion would lead us to suppose that they had heard of what had been done by Peter, and that, imitating his example, they preached the gospel now to the Gentiles also. (*) "Grecians" "Hellenists" (a) "preaching" Acts 6:1, 9:29 Verse 21. And the hand of the Lord. Lk 1:66. Comp. Ps 80:17. The meaning is, that God showed them favour, and evinced his power in the conversion of their hearers. (b) "hand of the Lord" Lk 1:66 Verse 22. Then tidings, etc. The church at Jerusalem heard of this. It was natural that so remarkable an occurrence as the conversion of the Gentiles, and the extraordinary success of the gospel in a splendid and mighty city, should be reported at Jerusalem, and excite deep interest there. And they sent forth. To aid the disciples there, and to give them their sanction. They had done a similar thing in the revival which occurred in Samaria. Acts 8:14. Barnabas. See Acts 4:36,37. He was a native of Cyprus, and was probably well acquainted with Antioch. He was, therefore, peculiarly qualified for the work on which they sent him. (+) "tidings" "report" (d) "sent forth Barnabas" Acts 9:27 Verse 23. Had seen the grace of God. The favour or mercy of God, in converting sinners to himself. Was glad. Approved of what had been done in preaching the gospel to the Gentiles, and rejoiced that God had poured down his Spirit on them. The effect of a revival is to produce joy in the hearts of all those who love the Saviour. And exhorted them all. Entreated them. They would be exposed to many trials and temptations, and he sought to secure their affections in the cause of religion. That with purpose of heart. With a firm mind; with a fixed, settled resolution; that they would make this their settled plan of life, their main object. A purpose, προθεσει is a resolution of the mind, a plan, or intention, Rom 8:28, Eph 1:11, 3:11, 2Ti 1:9, 3:10. It is a resolution of the mind in regard to future conduct; and the doctrine of Barnabas here was, undoubtedly, that it should be a regular, fixed, determined plan, or design, in their minds, that they would henceforward adhere to God. This plan must be formed by all Christians in the beginning of their Christian life, and without such a plan there can be no evidence of piety. We may also remark that such a plan is one of the heart. It is not simply of the understanding, but is of the entire mind, including the will and affections. It is the leading principle; the strongest affection; the guiding purpose of the will to adhere to God. And unless this is the prevalent, governing desire of the heart, there can be no evidence of conversion. That they would cleave. Greek, That they would remain; that is, that they would adhere constantly and faithfully attached to the Lord. (e) "was glad" 3Jn 1:4 (f) "exhorted" Acts 13:43, 14:22 (g) "purpose" Ps 17:3, 2Cor 1:17 (h) "of heart" Prov 23:15,26 Verse 24. For he was a good man. This is given as a reason why he was so eminently successful. It is not said that he was a man of distinguished talents or learning; that he was a splendid or an imposing preacher; but simply that he was a pious, humble man of God. He was honest, and devoted to his master's work. We should not undervalue talent, eloquence, or learning in the ministry; but we may remark, that humble piety will often do more in the conversion of souls than the most splendid talents. No endowments can be a substitute for this. The real power of a minister is concentrated in this; and without this his ministry will be barrenness and a curse. There is nothing on this earth so mighty as goodness. If a man wished to make-the most of his powers, the true secret would be found in employing them for a good object, and suffering them to be wholly under the direction of benevolence. John Howard's purpose to do good has made a more permanent impression on the interests of the world than the mad ambition of Alexander or Caesar. Perhaps the expression, "he was a good man," means that he was a man of a kind, amiable, and sweet disposition. Full of the Holy Ghost. Was entirely under the influence of the Holy Spirit. He was eminently a pious man. This is the second qualification here mentioned of a good minister. He was not merely exemplary for mildness and kindness of temper, but he was eminently a man of God. He was filled with the influences of the sacred Spirit, producing zeal, love, peace, joy, etc. See Gal 5:22,23. Comp. Acts 2:4. And of faith. Confidence in the truth and promises of God. This is the third qualification mentioned; and this was another cause of his success. He confided in God. He trusted to his promises. He depended not on his own strength, but on the strength of the arm of God. With these qualifications he engaged in his work, and he was successful. These qualifications should be sought by the ministry of the gospel. Others should not indeed be neglected, but a man's ministry will usually be successful only as he seeks to possess those endowments which distinguished Barnabas--a kind, tender, benevolent heart; devoted piety; the fulness of the Spirit's influence; and strong, unwavering confidence in the promises and power of God. And much people. Many people. Was added unto the Lord. Became Christians. (i) "full of" Acts 6:5 (++) "Ghost" "Spirit" (k) "much people" Acts 11:21 Verse 25. Then departed, etc. Why Barnabas sought Saul, is not known. It is probable, however, that it was owing to the remarkable success which he had in Antioch. There was a great revival of religion; and there was need of additional labour. In such scenes the ministers of the gospel need additional help, as men in harvest-time seek the aid of others. Saul was in this vicinity, Acts 9:30 and he was eminently fitted to aid in this work. With him Barnabas was well acquainted, Acts 9:27 and probably there was no other one in that vicinity whom he could obtain. To Tarsus. Acts 9:11. (l) "departed Barnabas" Acts 9:27,30 Verse 26. That a whole year. Antioch was a city exceedingly important in its numbers, wealth, and influence. It was for this reason, probably, that they spent so long a time there, instead of travelling in other places. The attention of the apostles was early and chiefly directed to cities, as being places of influence and centres of power. Thus Paul passed three years in the city of Ephesus, Acts 20:31. And thus he continued a year and a half at Corinth, Acts 18:11. It may be added, that the first churches were founded in cities; and the most remarkable success attended the preaching of the gospel in large towns. They assembled themselves, etc. They came together for worship. With the church. Marg., in the church. The Greek εν will bear this construction; but there is no instance in the New Testament where the word church refers to the edifice in which a congregation worships. It evidently here means that Barnabas and, Saul convened with the Christian assembly at proper times, through the space of a year, for the purposes of public worship. And the disciples were called Christians, etc. As this became the distinguishing name of the followers of Christ, it was worthy of record. The name was evidently given because they were the followers of Christ. But by whom, or with what views it was given, is not certainly known. Whether it was given by their enemies in derision, as the names Puritan, Quaker, Methodist, etc., have been; or whether the disciples assumed it themselves; or whether it was given by Divine intimation, has been a matter of debate. That it was given in derision is not probable. For in the name Christian there was nothing dishonourable. To be the professed friends of the Messiah, or the Christ, was not with Jews a matter of reproach, for they all professed to be the friends of the Messiah. The cause of reproach with the disciples was that they regarded Jesus of Nazareth as the Messiah; and hence, when they wished to speak of them with contempt, they would speak of them as Galilaeans, Acts 2:7 or as Nazarenes, Acts 24:6 "And a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes." It is possible that the name might have been given to them as a mere appellation, without intending to convey by it any reproach. The Gentiles would probably use this name to distinguish them; and it might have become thus the common appellation. It is evident from the New Testament, I think, that it was not designed as a term of reproach. It is but twice used besides this place: Acts 26:28, "Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian;" 1Pet 4:16, "Yet if any man suffer as a Christian, let him not be ashamed." No certain argument can be drawn in regard to the source of the name from the word which is used here. The word χρηματιζω used here, means, (1.) to transact any business; to be employed in accomplishing anything, etc. This is its usual signification in the Greek writers. It means, (2.) to be divinely admonished, to be instructed by a Divine communication, etc., Mt 2:12, Lk 2:26, Acts 10:22, Heb 8:5, 11:7, 12:26. It also means, (3.) to be named, or called, in any way, without a Divine communication. Rom 7:3, "She shall be called an adulteress." It cannot be denied, however, that the most usual signification in the New Testament is that of a Divine monition, or communication; and it is certainly possible that the name was given by Barnabas and Saul. I incline to the opinion, however, that it was given to them by the Gentiles who were there, simply as an appellation, without intending it as a name of reproach, and that it was readily assumed by the disciples as a name that would fitly designate them. If it had been assumed by them, or if Barnabas and Saul had conferred the name, the record would probably have been to that effect; not simply that they "were called," but that they took this name, or that it was given by the apostles. It is, however, of little consequence whence the name originated. It soon became a name of reproach; and has usually been in all ages since, by the wicked, the gay, the licentious, and the ungodly. It is, however, an honoured name; the most honourable appellation that can be conferred on a mortal. It suggests at once to a Christian the name of his great Redeemer; the idea of our intimate relation to him; and the thought that we receive him as our chosen Leader, the source of our blessings, the author of our salvation, the fountain of our joys. It is the distinguishing name of all the redeemed. It is not that we belong to this or that denomination; it is not that our names are connected with high and illustrious ancestors; it is not that they are recorded in the books of heralds; it is not that they stand high in courts, and among the gay, and the fashionable, and the rich, that true honour is conferred on men. These are not the things that give distinction and peculiarity to the followers of the Redeemer. It is that they are Christians; that this is their peculiar name, and by this they are known; that this at once suggests their character, their feelings, their doctrines, their hopes, their joys. This binds them all together--a name which rises above every other appellation; which unites in one the inhabitants of distant nations and tribes of men; which connects the extremes of society, and places them, in most important respects, on a common level; and which is a bond to unite in one family all those who love the Lord Jesus, though dwelling in different climes, speaking different languages, engaged in different pursuits in life, and occupying distant graves at death. He who lives according to the import of this name is the most blessed and eminent of mortals. The name shall be had in remembrance when the names of royalty shall be remembered no more, and when the appellations of nobility shall cease to amuse or to dazzle the world. (1) "assembled themselves" or, "in" (a) "much people" Mt 28:19 Verse 27. And in these days. While Barnabas and Saul were at Antioch. Came prophets. The word prophet denotes, properly, one who foretells future events. Mt 7:16. It is sometimes used in the New Testament to denote simply religious teachers, instructors sent from God, without particular reference to future events. To teach the people in the doctrines of religion was a part of the prophetic office; and this idea only was sometimes denoted by the use of the word. See Rom 12:6, 1Cor 12:10,28, 13:2,8, 14:3,5,24. These prophets seem to have been endowed in a remarkable manner with the knowledge of future events; with the power of explaining mysteries; and in some cases with the power of speaking foreign languages. In this case, it seems that one of them at least had the power of foretelling future events. (b) "prophets" Acts 2:17, 13:1, Eph 4:11 Verse 28. Named Agabus. This man is mentioned but in one other place in the New Testament. In Acts 21:10,11, he is mentioned as having foretold that Paul would be delivered into the hands of the Gentiles. It is not expressly said that he was a Christian, but the connexion seems to imply that he was. And signified. See Jn 12:33. The word usually denotes, to indicate by signs, or with a degree of obscurity and uncertainty, not to declare in explicit language. But here it seems to denote simply to foretell, to predict. By the Spirit. Under the influence of the Spirit. He was inspired. A great dearth. A great famine. Throughout all the world. The word here used, οικουμενην, usually denotes the inhabitable world, the parts of the earth which are cultivated and occupied. It is sometimes limited, however, to denote an entire land or country, in contradistinction from the parts of it; thus, to denote the whole of the land of Palestine in distinction from its parts, or to denote that an event would have reference to all the land, and not be confined to one or more parts, as Galilee, Samaria, etc. Lk 2:1. The meaning of this prophecy evidently is, that the famine would be extensive; that it would not be confined to a single province or region, but that it would extend so far as that it might be called general. In fact, though the famine was particularly severe in Judea, yet it extended much farther. This prediction was uttered not long after the conversion of Saul, and probably, therefore, about the year A.D. 38, or A.D. 40. Dr. Lardner has attempted to show that the prophecy had reference only to the land of Judea, though in fact there were famines in other places.-- (Lardner's Works, vol. i. pp. 253, 254. Ed. Lond., 1829.) Which came to pass, etc. This is one of the few instances in which the sacred writers in the New Testament affirm the fulfillment of a prophecy. The history having been written after the event, it was natural to give a passing notice of the fulfillment. In the days of Claudius Caesar. The Roman emperor. He began his reign A.D. 41, and reigned thirteen years. He was at last poisoned by one of his wives, Agrippina, who wished to raise her son Nero to the throne. During his reign no less than four different famines are mentioned by ancient writers, one of which was particularly severe in Judea, and was the one doubtless to which the sacred writer here refers. (1.) The first happened at Rome, and occurred in the first or second year of the reign of Claudius. It arose from the difficulties of importing provisions from abroad. It is mentioned by Dio, whose words are these: "There being a great famine, he (Claudius) not only took care for a present supply, but provided also for the time to come." He then proceeds to state the great expense which Claudius was at in making a good port at the mouth of the Tiber, and a convenient passage from thence up to the city.--Dio, lib. Ix. pp. 671, 672. See also Suetonius, Claud. cap. 20. (2.) A second famine is mentioned as having been particularly severe in Greece. Of this famine Eusebius speaks in his Chronicon, p. 204: "There was a great famine in Greece, in which a modius of wheat (about half a bushel) was sold for six drachms." This famine is said by Eusebius to have occurred in the ninth year of the reign of Claudius. (3.) In the latter part of his reign, A. D. 151, there was another famine at Rome, mentioned by Suetonius, (Claud. cap. 18,) and by Tacitus, (Ann. xii. 43.) Of this Tacitus says, that "it was so severe, that it was deemed to be a Divine judgment." (4.) A fourth famine is mentioned as having occurred particularly in Judea. This is described by Josephus, (Ant. b. xx. chap. 2, 5.) "A famine," says he, "did oppress them at the time, (in the time of Claudius ;) and many people died for the want of what was necessary to procure food withal. Queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus to bring a cargo of dried figs." This famine is described as having continued under the two procurators of Judea--Tiberius Alexander, and Cassius Fadus. Fadus was sent into Judea on the death of Agrippa, about the fourth year of the reign of Claudius; and the famine, therefore, continued probably during the fifth, sixth, and seventh years of the reign of Claudius. See Note in Whiston's Josephus, Ant. b. xx. chap. 2, 5; also Lardner as quoted above. Of this famine, or the want consequent on the famine, repeated mention is made in the New Testament. (c) "Agabus" Acts 21:10 (*) "dearth" "A great famine" Verse 29. Then the disciples. The Christians at Antioch. According to his ability. According as they had prospered. It does not imply that they were rich, but that they rendered aid as they could afford it. Determined to send relief. This arose not merely from their general sense of their obligation to aid the poor, but they felt themselves particularly bound to aid their Jewish brethren. The obligation to aid the temporal wants of those from whom they had received so important spiritual mercies, is repeatedly enforced in the New Testament. Comp. Rom 15:25-27, 1Cor 16:1,2, 2Cor 9:1,2, Gal 2:10. (a) "relief" Rom 15:26, 1Cor 16:1, 2Cor 9:1,2 Verse 30. Sent it to the elders. Greek, To the presbyters. This is the first mention which we have in the New Testament of elders, or presbyters, in the Christian church. The word literally denotes aged men, but it was a name of office only in the Jewish synagogue. It is clear, however, I think, that the elders of the Jewish synagogue here are not included, for the relief was intended for the "brethren," Acts 11:29 that is, the Christians who were at Jerusalem, and it is not probable that a charity like this would have been entrusted to the hands of Jewish elders. The connexion here does not enable us to determine anything about the sense in which the word was used. I think it probable that it does not refer to officers in the church, but that it means simply that the charity was entrusted to the aged, prudent, and experienced men in the church, for distribution among the members. Calvin supposes that the apostles were particularly intended. But this is not probable. It is possible that the deacons, who were probably aged men, may be here particularly referred to; but I am rather inclined to think that the charity was sent to the aged members of the church without respect to their office, to be distributed according to their discretion. (b) "and sent" Acts 12:25
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