Hebrews 9In this, and the following verses, the Apostle gives us a particular and distinct view of the typical ordinances in the old covenant under the Mosaic dispensation, and also of their accomplishment in Jesus Christ:
And here in general he acquaints us, that the first covenant had an outward legal service, with sundry rites and ordinances of divine worship, and a wordlly sanctuary, raised by men, of earthly materials; a temporary tabernacle; verily the first covenant had ordinances of divine service, &c.
Observe here, That there never was any covenant between God and man, but it had some ordinances and institutions of divine worship annexed unto it; the original covenant of works had the ordinances of the tree of life, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The covenant of Sinai, whereof the apostle here speaks, had a multitude of them, and the gospel covenant is not destitute of them; witness our sacraments and public worship.
Observe, 2. That all ordinances for worship must be resolved into divine ordination or institution, as that which renders them acceptable and well pleasing unto God: A worship not ordained by God is not acceptable to God: it had ordinances of worship.
Observe lastly, How God can animate outward carnal things with an hidden invisible spring of glory and efficacy. So he did their sanctuary with its relation unto Christ, which was an object of faith, which no eye of flesh could behold.
In these verses, the Holy Ghost, by the apostle, sets before our eyes the beautiful face of God's public worship, under the ceremonial law. And first, He describes the place appointed by God for his solemn worship.
This was, first, the tabernacle, then, the temple: The tabernacle was an ambulatory temple; the temple a standing tabernacle. The tabernacle was a type and figure of Christ's incarnation, whereby the fulness of the Godhead dwelt in him bodily, as it dwelt typically in the tabernacle; this tabernacle had two parts, the sanctuary or holy place, and the sanctum sanctorum, or the holy of holies. Our apostle tells us what sacred utensils were, by God's appointment, in both these places.
1. In the sanctuary there was the candlestick, representing that fulness of light which is Christ, and which is by him communicated to the whole church. The table whereon stood the shew-bread, typifying the saints' communion with Christ, and with one another; also the shew-bread itself, which typified Christ, as being the only bread of life to his church the only spiritual food of the soul that nourishes it unto life eternal.
2. In the holy of holies there was the golden censer, which was to hold the incense. This represented the intercession of Christ, which gives efficacy to the prayers of all believers: The prevalency of all our prayers depends on the incense which is in the hand of our merciful High Priest.
The ark of the covenant overlaid with gold; this, with the mercy-seat which covered the ark, was the most glorious and mysterious utensil of the tabernacle, the most eminent pledge of the divine presence; called the ark of the covenant, because the two tables, in which the ten commandments were writ by the finger of God, were kept in it; next the golden pot, in which the manna was laid up, and miraculously kept from putrefaction, (which of itself would have stunk in a few days), a type of Christ the bread of life.
Then Aaron's rod that budded: This originally was the rod of Moses, wherewith-he fed his sheep in the wilderness, and afterwards wrought his miracles, and particularly smoted the rock with it till it gushed out water. When Aaron was called to the office of the priesthood, it was delivered unto his keeping. This rod of Moses, wherewith he smote the rock, is commanded to be laid up in the tabernacle, because the spiritual rock that followed them was to be smitten with the rod of the law, that it might give forth the waters of life unto the church.
Last of all, The tables of the covenant; that is, the two tables of stone cut out by Moses, and written on with the finger of God, containing the ten commandments, which were the substance of God's covenant with the people. These two tables of stone were, by the express command of God, put into the ark, and there was nothing else in the ark but them. The pot of manna, and Aaron's rod, were laid up in the holy of holies, near the ark, but not in it, which were of no actual use in the service of God, but only kept as sacred memorials.
Having thus described what was in the ark, next the apostle tells us what was over the ark, namely, the cherubims and the mercy-seat. The cherubims were Alata animalis, winged creatures, of human shape, but with wings, to denote their angelical nature; there were two of them, one at each of the ark, shodowing the mercy-seat; from between these cherubims, over the mercy-seat, it was God that manifested his majestical presence, spake unto Moses, and gave out his oracles as a prince spake from his throne.
The mercy-seat was of pure beaten gold, the measure of it exactly answering the ark: This covered the ark wherein the law was; and was a type of Christ, who fully covers our sins; the transgressions of the law, out of God's sight; and is therefore called by the apostle, Rom 3:25.
Our propitiatory, or proptiation, or mercy-seat. For if thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, according to the law, who could stand? These are the particular things which the apostle thought fit to take notice of, in the Jewish tabernacle; all which we see pointed at Christ; and there was in them all, more or less, a representation of the person and mediation of Christ. Hereunto were they designed, by divine wisdom, to denote, that in him alone is God well pleased, in him alone will he be glorified.
Our apostle having given an account, in the preceding verses, of the structure or fabric of the tabernacle, in the two parts of it which belonged to the priest; namely, the holy place, and the holy of holies, (for the first court, the court of the people, he says nothing); he comes now to discourse of this service, which, by the appointment of God, the priests were to perform in this maginificient structure.
Where observe, 1. The persons administering, the Priests only, and they of the posterity of Aaron: All others were forbidden upon pain of excision.
Observe, 2. The general foundation of the services of these priests in the sanctuary. They entered into it, but were to go no farther; they must not so much as look into the holy of holies; no, nor yet abide in the sanctuary when the high priest entered into the most holy place.
Observe, 3. The time of this their entrance into the sanctuary to discharge their service, always; that is, every day, and at all times, as occasion did require.
Observe, 4. The service itself, accomplishing the service of God; these services were either daily or weekly: Daily, were dressing the lamps, supplying them with holy oil, morning and evening; also the service of the golden altar, on which the priests burnt incense every day. The weekly service of the sanctuary was the changing of the shew-bread every sabbath in the morning.
All the service was typical, representing the continual application of the benefits of Christ's sacrifice unto his church to the end of the world. The tabernacle itself, and the inhabitation of God in it, was a type of the incarnation of the son of God. All the utensils of it were representations of his grace. He is the light and life of the church, the lamp and the bread thereof.
The incense of his intercession renders all our obedience acceptable unto God; and accordingly, there was continual application unto these things without intermission, every day: Signifying unto us that a continual application unto God by Christ, and a continual application of the mediation of Christ by faith, are the springs of light, life, and comfort of the church. Having thus described the priest's service in the first part of the temple, ver 6, he comes now to declare the service and administration of the high priest in the second part of the temple, or holy of holies, ver 7.
Observe here, 1. The person administering described, The high priest alone; none of the priests were permitted to be so near him as the sanctuary, when he administered in the most holy place. Thus sacredly was the presence of God, in the holy of holies, made inaccessible not only to the people, but even to all the priests themselves. The great truth which was represented and shadowed forth was, that there was no entrance into the gracious presence of God, but by our great High Priest the Holy Jesus. The high priest alone, and no other person, entered into the holy of holies.
Observe, 2. The high priest engaging in his service. He entered through the vail into the holy place. This was a type both of the entrance by him into the throne of grace. We read, Matt 27:15. Of the rending of this vail, at the death of our Saviour, from top to bottom: Signifying thereby, that the way was laid open into the holy place, and the gracious presence of God discovered, and made accessible to all that come unto him by Jesus Christ.
Observe, 3. The time of this service expressed, it was once only every year; and the day, the precise day of the year, determined, Lev 16:29, to wit, the tenth day of the month Tizri, answering our September called the great day of atonement; on which day such a complete atonement was made for sin, that the Jews had a saying, "That on the day of expiation all Israel was made as innocent as in the day of creation."
Observe, 4. The nature of this service; the apostle tells us, it was not without blood, that is, he did it by blood, sprinkling it seven times with his finger towards the mercy-seat, Lev 26:11-12. There is an emphasis in the expression, not without blood, to manifest the necessity of the death and blood-shedding of Jesus Christ our great High Priest, and the impossibility of our entering into the gracious presence of God without the blood of the reconciling sacrifice Christ Jesus.
Observe, 5. For whom this blood was offered; first, for himself, then for the people; that is, for his own sins, and the sins of the people: This argued the great imperfection of that state; whereas Christ our great High Priest, was not to offer up the blood of goats, but his own blood, not for himself at all, but for others only; not once a year, but once for all; by one offering he hath for ever perfected them that are sanctified.
The apostle, in this verse, declares the spiritual use and signification of the Levitical service, and what the Holy Ghost did intend thereby; namely, that the true and proper means to enter into heaven, the holy of holies, was not so fully and clearly manifested; and that heaven, represented by the holy of holies, was as yet inaccessible; for Christ first entered into heaven as our forerunner, with his blood to appear before God, and thereby to prepare the way for our entrance after him.
Hence learn, 1. That the Holy Ghost's design, in all the Levitical service, was to direct the faith of believers to Christ the promised Messiah, who was signified thereby; the Holy Ghost thus signifying.
Learn, 2. That although typical institutions, attended diligently unto, were sufficient to direct the faith of the Jews unto the expectation of a real expiation of sin, and a gracious acceptance with God thereupon; yet the clear manifestation of the way of expiation of sin by the blood of Christ, is the great privilege and discovery of the gospel.
Learn, 3. Although the standing of the first tabernacle was a great mercy and privilege, yet the removal of it was a greater, because it made way for the bringing in of that which was much better, the gospel state.
As if the apostle had said, "The first tabernacle was but a figure, or typical representation of good things to come, serving only for the present nonage of the church: for the gifts and sacrifices then offered could not, of themselves, perfectly justify, sanctify, or save any man, nor could they pacify the conscience of the sinner."
Where note, That conscience cannot be satisfied until God's wrath be pacified. Now, the ceremonial rites could not pacify God's wrath, because they could not satisfy God's justice: nothing but the blood of Christ could do that, which those sacrifices were only typical representations and prefigurations of.
Observe farther, The apostle's reasons why those legal rites could not make them perfect; namely, because the nature of them was such, that they reached only to the outward man, consisting only, for the most part, in meats, drinks, and divers washings, that concerned the flesh and body of man, which did not, of themselves, commend any man to God and were imposed upon them as a yoke, until the times of reformation; that is, the time of the Messiah, the times of the New Testament dispensaton.
Note here, The great imperfection of the Jewish dispensation, it was weak and imperfect, and consequently not to be continued.
Note farther, That nothing can give peace to conscience but what gives satisfaction to God's justice. Whoever seeks it in any other way, than by virtue of Christ's atonement, will never attain it in this world, or in that which is to come: No offerings could make him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience.
Our apostle having showed, in the preceding verses, how, and after what manner, the Levitical priests executed their office, he comes now to declare how, and after what manner, Christ, our great High Priest, did also execute his.
And, 1. As the Levitical priests had a tabernacle, and earthly sanctuary, to officiate in; so Christ had a greater and more perfect tabernacle to execute his office in, namely, that of his own body, not like theirs, made with hands, but miraculously formed in the virgin's womb, by the overshadowing power of the Holy Ghost; in which tabernacle the fulness of the Godhead dwelt substantially.
The human nature of Christ was that tabernacle in which the Son of God administered his sacerdotal office in this world, and wherein he continueth yet to do so in heaven by his intercession.
And well may his tabernacle be called greater, being so not in quantity and measure, but in dignity and worth; and more perfect, that is, more perfectly fitted and suited to the end of a tabernacle, both for the inhabitation of the divine nature, and the means of exercising the sacerdotal office, in the making atonement for sin, than the other was.
Learn hence, That the human nature of Christ, in which he exercised and discharged the duties of his sacerdotal office in making atonement for sin, is the greatest, most perfect and excellent ordinance of God, far excelling those that were most excellent under the Old Testament. The glory of this tabernacle of our Saviour's body in heaven, will be the object of holy admiration unto all eternity, as it was admirably fitted and perfected for service and usefulness here on earth.
Observe, 2. The apostle declares, That as Christ had a more excellent tabernacle, so he was incomparably a more excellent High Priest than ever the legal dispensation had; they entered the holy of holies, He entered heaven; they entered often, He but once; they entered with the blood of goats and calves, He in his own blood. And the effect, fruit, and benefit of it was unspeakable: Thereby he obtained eternal redemption for us.
Note here, That where as it is said that Christ entered into heaven with his own blood, it is not so to be understood, as if he carried the material blood which he shed with him into heaven, in a vessel or otherwise, as the high priest carried the blood of the sacrifice in his hand into the most holy place; but that Christ presented his body in heaven, out of which the blood was shed, and, by the merit of his death, made expiation for sin, and purchased eternal redemption for sinners.
Learn hence, That the entrance of our Lord Jesus Christ, as our Great High Priest, into heaven, to appear in the presence of God for us, and to save thereby to the uttermost was a matter so great and glorious, that it could not be accomplished but by his own blood. No other sacrifice was sufficient to this end; not by the blood of bulls and goats.
The Apostle had asserted, in the former verse, That eternal redemption was the fruit of Christ's sacrifice; he proves it in these, and that by an argument drawn from the less to the greater: Thus, "If," says he, "the blood of bulls and goats, and the water that was mixed with the ashes of the burnt heifer, (or red cow, mentioned, Num 19:1-22) purified from ceremonial uncleanness, and procured the external sanctification of the flesh, or outward man; how much more shall the blood of Christ, who by the eternal spirit, (that is, Godhead, his divine nature) offered up himself, his whole man, soul, and body, a sacrifice, without spot, to God the Father, be able to purge our consciences from all spiritual impurity and uncleaness of sin, (that dead, because deadly work), and render us fit to serve the living God in an holy course of christian obedience?
Note here, 1. That Christ's offering himself to God was a special act, as High Priest of the church, wherein he gave up himself in a way of most profound obedience, to do and to suffer whatever the justice of God required unto the expiation of sin, even to the shedding of his blood.
Note, 2. That Christ's Godhead it was, which rendered the suffering of his manhood infinitely meritorious; or that Christ's blood was effectual, not simply, as it was material blood, but as offered by the eternal spirit; his blood, though not the blood of God, yet was the blood of him that was God.
Note, 3. That the purging of our consciences from dead works is and immediated effect of the death of Christ, and a benefit which, upon our faith and obedience, we are made partakers of.
Note, 4. That the best works of men, antecedently unto the purging of their consciences by the blood of Crist, are but dead works, unsuitable to the nature of the living God.
Lord help us to remember, that when we come to hear, to pray, or perform any act of worship, that we are doing it to the living God.
O how improper for, and unsuitable to, a living God, are dead services wihout life, wihout heart, without spirit!
These words represent unto us one special benefit accruing by the death of Christ, namely, the ratification of the gospel-covenant; for by this means he took upon him the glorious office to be the Mediator of the new covenant, that by the intervention of his death he might make satisfaction of the sins of believers under the Old Testament, as well as for those that live under the New; and that as well those that lived before Christ's coming in the flesh as since, might, by virtue of his death, obtain the promised eternal inheritance.
Note here, That God designed an eternal inheritance unto some persons; that the persons designed are them that are called; that the way and manner of conveying a right and title to his inheritance enjoyed, God made a new covenant, which had a Mediator, who expiated sin by the sacrifice of his death.
Note farther, That the efficacy and merit of Christ's death and mediation extends itself to all that are effectually called, as well those that lived before his coming in the flesh, as to those that lived since.
Note lastly, How the covenant of grace is here called a Testament, because it received its ratification and confirmation by the blood of Christ. All things required in a testament are here found, namely, a testator deceased, Christ Jesus: Legacies bequeathed, temporal, spiritual, and eternal blessings; legates named, the heirs of promise; conditions required, upon which only the legacies may be obtained, faith, repentance, and sincere obedience; seals annexed, baptism, and the Lord's supper; witnesses subscribing, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost.
The sum is this, That the death of Christ is the foundation, life, and soul of the new covenant; and that the new covenant is of the nature of a testament, and the benefits promised therein: To wit, remission of sin, reconciliation with God, sanctification on earth, and glorification in heaven, are legacies freely left us by our deceased Testator, who was dead but is alive again, and lives for evermore, to execute his own will and testament, of which the Scripture is the instrument, and the sacraments the seals.
Learn from the whole, 1. That there is an irrevocable grant of the whole inheritance of grace and glory made unto believers in the new covenant.
2. That as the grant of these things is free and gracious, so the enjoyment of them is secured against contingencies, by the death of Jesus Christ the great Testator. A testament is of force after men are dead; but of no strength at all whilst the testator liveth.
Our apostle heving entered upon a comparison between the first and second covenant in the former verses, he goes on to prosecute it in these; showing that both of them were dedicated, that is, confirmed by blood.
The first covenant which God made with Israel in Horeb, had not its sanction without typical blood and life for the observation of them. Now that the covenant between God and Israel was thus solemnized, and received its confirmation by blood, the apostle makes appear from the history of Moses, Exod 24:1-18 unto which he appeals; where we find the sprinkler to be Moses, the sprinkling to be blood the things sprinkled were the book wherein the covenant was written, and the people who engaged themselves in the covenant.
Now the use and end of this sprinkling upon of it upon the altar was the confirmation of God's part. And the words added to the action were, this is the blood of the covenant; that is, this is the blood by which the covenant is confirmed, and made inviolable betwixt God and you: He calls is the blood of the covenant, because it was a sign of it, and a seal confiming it.
In like manner, the new covenant was confirmed by blood, ever by the blood of Christ, as is evident from his own words. Luke 22:20. "This cup is the new testament in my blood for remission of sins."
Remission of sin is one principal blessing promised in the new covenant; but this promise had been in vain, if Christ's blood made it remissible: So that the blood of Christ is the firm and immoveable basis and foundation upon which the new covenant was fixed. This is the first part of our apostle's design in these words: Namely, to prove the necessity of Christ's blood for confirmation of the new covenant.
Next, he proves the efficacy of that blood for taking away of sin; telling us, that the tabernacle, the vessels, and all the utensils thereunto belonging, yea, all the things which were purified, were ceremonially purified by blood; and that as without shedding of blood then there could be no remission, so no acceptance with God now without the shedding of the blood of Christ.
Learn hence, That in all things wherein we have to do with God, and whereby we approach unto him, it is the blood of Christ, and the application of it to our consciences, that gives a gracious acceptance with God; without this all is unclean and defiled now, as without shedding of blood there was no purification then.
As if the apostle had said, "If the tabernacle and utensils thereunto belonging, which were patterns and types of heavenly things, must be consecrated by the blood of bulls and goats, much more must the heavenly things themselves, which were shadowed by them, be purified and consecrated by better blood than the blood of beasts, even with the precious blood of Jesus Christ."
Learn hence, 1. That there is such uncleanness in our natures, in our persons, in our duties, in all our services, that, unless they and we are purified by the blood of Christ, neither we nor they can have any acceptance with God.
Learn, 2. That the sacrifice of Christ is the one only everlasting fountain and spring of all sanctification and sacred dedication, whereby the whole new creation is purified and dedicated unto God.
Learn, 3. That neither heaven itself, nor heavenly things, could have been made meet for us, or we for them, had not they been dedicated, and we purged, by the sacrifice of Christ. By heavenly things here we may understand heaven itself, of which the tabernacle was a type.
Now as the purification which their persons might be presented before God; in like manner, was heaven itself prepared and purified for us by our Lord's entrance into it, with his own atonement, or propitiatory sacrifice. Christ's entering into heaven, and his appearing with his blood of sprinkling in the presence of God for us, procures the acceptance of our prayers and praises whilst we live, and our admission into those heavenly mansions of bliss and glory prepared for us when we die.
Observe here, 1. The person spoken of, and that is Christ, our Great High Priest, the mediator of the new covenant.
Observe, 2. What is spoken of him:
1. Negatively, That he is not entered into the holy place of the sanctuary, or tabernacle made with hands, that is, built by the hands of men, which was a figure of the true holy of holies, to wit, heaven. All God's appointments in his service have their proper season, their proper glory, beauty, and use; even the tabernacle, and the external utensils thereof, made with men's hands, had so, whilst they had the force of a divine institution.
2. Positively, He is entered into the heaven itself, the place of the peculiar residence of the presence, majesty, and glory of God; where all his blessed saints enjoy him, and his holy angels minister unto him.
Observe, 3. The end of our Great High Priest's entrance into heaven declared, now to appear in the presence of God for us. The priests of old, when they entered the holy place, were forced soon to go out again to prepare for a new sacrifice: But this word now is expressive of the whole season and duration of time, from the entrance of Christ into heaven, until the consummation of all things: There is no moment of time in which it may not be said, he now appeareth in the presence of God for us.
Learn hence, That the continual appearance of our Lord Jesus Christ for us in heaven, as our Great High Priest, in the presence of his Father, is the foundation both of our safety and our comfort, from whence relief may he derived upon all occasions, whatever difficulties, temptation and trials may be before us.
Our apostle, in these words, sets forth the excellency of Christ's sacrifice from its singularity; it needeth no repetition, as their sacrifices of old did: Their sacrifices were repeated often, and their repetition was an evidence of their imperfecton; but Christ's once offering himself a sacrifice was sufficient, in regard of the infinite worth and dignity of his person: Once in the end of the world, in the gospel-age, the last age of the world, hath he appeared to take away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
Here note, That the virtue of Christ's sacrifice once offered, did extend itself to all times, and purchased pardon for sins committed in all ages, even long before it was offered: For the death of Christ must be considered, not as a natural, but as a moral cause: Not as a medicine that heals, but as a ransom that frees a captive. A captive may be released upon assurance given that a ransom shall be paid, though it be not actually paid.
Thus the death of Christ was available to purchase pardon for believers before his coming, because he interposed as their Surety; and is therefore called the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world, not only in respect of God's decree, but Christ's efficacy: The salvation we derive form him, was ever in him; Christ's once offering was sufficient; his sacrifice may be often commemorated, but only once offered. Such indeed is the absolute perfection of the once offering of Christ, that it stands in need of, and will admit of no repetition in any kind.
Note farther, That this once offering of Christ is always effectual unto all the ends of it, now and hereafter, even no less than it was in the day and hour when it was actually offered. This sacrifice needs no repetition like those of old, but is always fresh in the virtue of it, and needs nothing but revewed application by faith for the communication of its effects and fruits unto us; for by one offering he hath forever perfected them that are sanctified. Though the sufferings of Christ were necessary to the expiation of sin, yet he suffered neither more nor oftener than was necessary; to have suffered often was altogether needless, and would have been useless.
Note lastly, The great end for which Christ once became a sacrifice, namely, to put away sin; plainly implying, that sin had erected a dominion, a tyranny over all men, as by a law; that no power of any mere creature was able to disannul or abolish this law of sin; that the destruction and dissolution of this law of sin, was the great end of Chirst's coming, to discharge his priestly office in the sacrifice of himself: Now in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away, to abolish and destroy sin by the sacrifice of himself.
These words may be considered relatively and absolutely. Relatively thus; "As God hath appointed that all men should once die penally for sin, and then be judged, so did he determine that Christ should once suffer penally, to expiate sin, and take away the guilt of it fully. And as after death men must appear the second time to judgment, so, after his once offering to take away sin and death, Christ shall appear the second time to bestow upon us eternal salvation."
Note here, That Christ's being offered to take away the sins of many, cannot be meant of his taking them away in the Socinian sense, to wit, by his holy doctrine, which was confirmed by his death, but of his bearing our sins by way of imputation: For this is evident from the opposition here between his first appearance and his second: Christ was once offered to bear our sins, but he shall appear a second time without sin:
Why? Did he not appear the first time without sin?
Yes, certainly he did, as to any inherent guilt; for the scripture assures us he had no sin.
What then is the meaning of the opposition, at his first coming he bore our sins; at his second coming he shall appear without sin?
The words can have no other imaginable sense but this: That at his first coming he sustained the person of sinner, and died as a sacrifice; but at this second coming he shall appear as a judge, to confer eternal life on those who are made partakers of the sacrifice of his death. Thus the words are to be considered relatively: Absolutely thus, "It is appointed for all men once to die.
Here is the first word of certainty, All men must die: Then the word of sigularity, they must once die, not often; once and but once; they die by statute and appointment. The supreme Lord of life and death appoints man his time, both for coming into the world, and going out of it; We come in at his command, and leave it at his dispose.
And after death the judgment: The word after signifies the order of time; for death goes before, and judgment follows it. The judgment is both particular of every individual person, and general and universal of all: After which follows the final, eternal, and unalterable condition of man, either in a state of misery, or felicity.
The parties judged will be angels and men; the person judging, Jesus Christ: He, by redeeming mankind, obtained right and power to judge mankind; such a Judge as the power of the mightiest cannot daunt: Such a Judge as the subtlity of the wisest cannot delude; such a Judge as the riches of the wealthiest cannot bribe: In a word, such a Judge as there is no appealing from, or repealing of his sentence.
O great day! When the stiffest knee shall bow at the tribunal of Jesus Christ, and the strongest back shall break under the insupportable burden of a Redeemer's wrath! When the Alexanders and Caesars, which once shook the earth, and made the world to tremble, shall revere and lie prostrate at the foot of Christ!
And, Lord, seeing that judgment is before us, let us seriously believe it, daily expect, duly prepare for it; let no profit tempt us, no pleasure entice us, no power embolden us, no privacy encourage us, to do that thing which we cannot account for at thy tribunal. AMEN.
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