John 11This chapter relates unto us the miraculous power of Christ, in raising of dead Lazarus, which, as it was one of his last, so was it one of the greatest miracles which he wrought: and yet we find none of the Evangelists make mention of it, but only St. John: the reason is supposed to be this, because when the other Evangelists make mention of it, but only St. John: the reason is supposed to be this, because when the other Evangelists wrote their history, Lazarus was then alive; (for Epiphanius says, he lived thirty years after he was raised by Christ) and probably, the mention of this relation might have brought Lazarus into danger and trouble; but St. John wrote his gospel after Lazarus's death. This miracle was a sufficient demonstration of Christ's godhead: none but an almighty power could recall a man four days dead, from a settled corruption to a state of life. None but he that created Lazarus could thus make him anew.
Here observe, 1. The tender sympathy of these two endeared sisters with their afflicted brother; they feel his sorrows, and acquaint their Saviour with his sufferings, Lord! behold he whom thou lovest is sick. They do not say, Our brother that loves thee is sick; he whom thou lovest is sick; thereby pleading not the merit of Lazarus, but the merit of Christ. For how can the love of Christ, which is infinite and eternal, have any cause but itself; Note, The person whom Christ loved is sick, and dies.
Learn hence, That strength of grace, and dearness of respect, even from Christ himself, cannot prevail either against death or against diseases. Lazarus, whom Christ loved, is sick.
Observe, 2. The gracious answer which Christ sent to the sister's message; This sickness is not unto death; but for the glory of God; that is, this sickness shall not bring upon him such a death as he shall remain under the power of, to the general resurrection; but is only designed to give me an opportunity of glorifying God, by exerting my miraculous power in restoring him to life.
Learn hence, 1. That as God's own glory is his supreme aim and end in all his actions, so in particular it is designed by him in sending afflictions upon his people, to glorify his power and wisdom, mercy and love, in and upon them. The saints sicknesses are all for the glory of God.
2. That God is glorified when his Son is glorified: as none do honour the Father, who do not honour the Son; so the Father accounts himself glorified, when the glory of the Son is advanced. This sickness is for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby.
Observe, 1. What an happy, because an holy and religious family, was here, and much honoured by Christ; Jesus loved Martha, Mary, and Lazarus: wherever true piety dwells, it draws the eye and heart of Christ towards it. Christ had frequently and familiarly lodged under their roof, and he rewards them for their entertainment with his love; Jesus loved Martha, and her sister.
Where note, That Martha is here named first, though elsewhere Mary had the precedency, to shew, no doubt, that they were both equally dear to Christ.
Observe, 2. That although Christ loved Lazarus, yet he seems to neglect him, he delays going to him for some days: but could Christ absent himself from one so long, whom he loved so well? We find he did. Let us take heed then that we do not misinterpret Christ's delays. He seldom comes at our time, but never stays beyond his own; our Saviour had a double end in staying thus long: namely, for greatening of the miracle, and confirming of their faith. Had Christ gone before Lazarus was dead, they might have attributed his recovery rather to the strength of nature, than to Christ's miraculous power; or had Christ raised Lazarus as soon as he was dead, they might peradventure have thought it rather some trance or ecstasy, than a death and dissolution: therefore Christ stays so many days, that God might be the more glorified, and his own omnipotent power the more magnified.
We learn then, That when Christ delays to help them whom he dearly loves, it is always for wise ends and holy purposes.
Observe, 3. How the disciples, though they were dearly affected to Lazarus (for they had learned to love where their Master loved) yet they discourage Christ from going to him into Judea, for fear of violence offered to him. Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee, and goest thou thither again? Here the disciples pleaded for their Master's safety, at the same time aiming at their own: they were to go with him into Judea, and they well knew that their danger was inwrapped in his, therefore they seek to divert him from his intention.
O how has the fear of suffering made many of the friends of Christ decline an opportunity of glorifying God, and doing good to others!
But cannot God give safety in the midst of danger, if he pleaseth? Let us then not chuse our way according to our own apprehension, either of danger or safety: but as we see God going before us, if our call be clear, let us go on with courage, whatever difficulties lie in our way.
Observe, 4. How our Saviour corrects these fears of his disciples, by acquainting them with his call from God, to undertake this journey into Judea, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If man walk therein, he stumbleth not: but in the night he stumbleth. As if Christ had said, "As he that walks in the day is in no danger of stumbling, but in the night he is in danger; so as long as I have a call from God, and my working time lasts, there is a divine providence that will watch over me, and secure me from all danger; now my day is not fully spent, and therefore it is not in the power of mine enemies to precipitate my passion, or to bring the night of sufferings upon me before the appointed time; but ere long the night will come on, the working time will get over, and then shall both I and you stumble upon death; but while the day lasteth we are safe."
Learn hence, 1. Every man has his twelve hours, that is, his working time, assigned him by God in this world.
2. Whilst these hours are not spent, and whilst his working time is unexpired, he shall not stumble, he shall not die, he shall not be disabled from working, while God has any work for him to do: neither the malice of men, nor the rage of devils, shall take him off till his work be finished.
3. Every man has his night as well as his day, in which he must expect and prepare to stumble; that is, to fall by death; for, when God has done his work by us and with us, he will withdraw his protection from us, but not his care over us.
We stumble upon death, and fall into the grave: but God receives us to himself, and at the end of our working season rewards us for our work.
Observe here, 1. Our Saviour, coming near to Bethany, tells his disciples that Lazarus sleepeth; that is plainly, he was dead. This shews his omnisciency, and that he was truly God: for he had received no advice of his death from any person, but as God he knew that he was deceased.
Observe, 2. The sweet title given both to death and Lazarus; death is called a sleep, Lazarus is tiles a friend: yet Christ says, not my friend, but our friend Lazarus sleepeth; intimating that gracious familiarity and mutual friendship which was betwixt himself and all his members.
Learn hence, 1. That all true believers are Christ's friends.
2. That the friends of Christ must die as well as others.
3. That their death is but a sleep, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth. It followeth, but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep.
Observe, Christ says not, We will go and awake him, but I will go, and I will awake him. The disciples who were companions in the way, must not be partners in the work; witnesses they may be, actors they cannot be; none can awake Lazarus, but the Maker of Lazarus. Who can command the soul to come down and meet the body; and who can command the body to rise up and meet the soul, but that God that created both soul and body?
Lord! it is our comfort against the dread and terror of death, that our resurrection depends upon thy almighty power. I will go, that I may awake him out of sleep.
Observe here, 1. How desirous the disciples were that Christ should not go to Bethany where Lazarus was, Bethany being within two miles of Jerusalem, where the seat of our Saviour's enemies was. But our Lord, knowing his call to be clear, resolves to go; Nevertheless, says Christ, let us go unto him.
O love, stronger than death! the grave cannot separate betwixt Christ and his friends: other friends accompany us to the brink of the grave, and there they leave us to worms and dust; for death hath both horror and noisomeness to attend it: but for thee, O Saviour, the grave-stone, the earth, the coffin, are no bounders of thy dear respects.
Blessed be God, that neither life nor death can separate from the love of Christ: but even after death and burial he is graciously affected to those he loves. Christ has a gracious regard to the dust of his saints: though his holy ones see corruption, they not always lie under the power of corruption; their dead bodies are a part of the undoubted members of Christ's mystical body.
Blessed be God, the time is coming, when Christ shall knock at the door of his children's graves, and call them up out of their bed of dust, and they shall hear the voice of he Son of God, and live.
Observe, 2. The wise and holy design of Christ in delaying to go to Bethany till Lazarus was dead; namely, that he might at once raise Lazarus's dead body, and his disciples faith, confirming them in the belief, that he was the Son of God, and the true Messias.
But could the faith of the apostles want confirmation, who had seen so many miracle wrought by our Saviour, and had lived under his minstry all the time of it?
Yes; the faith of the most eminent saint, even of the apostles themselves, want confirmation in this state of weakness and imperfection, and is capable of growth. I am glad for your sakes, that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe.
Observe, 3. The great passion which Thomas expresses upon the notice given by Christ of Lazarus's death: plainly, Lazarus is dead, says Christ; Let us go, and die with him, says Thomas.
Oh what passionate and impatient expressions do sometimes drop from our mouths, on occasion of the death of our dear relations! we are ready to be so affected with the death of our friends, as to wish ourselves out of the world, that we might be with them. But we must remember, that it is God that appoints us our several posts, and particular stations, which we must keep, till the wisdom of God sees fit to remove us.
Observe here, 1. The length of time which Christ designedly delayed before he would come to Lazarus's grave; he was not above six miles off Bethany, being within two miles of Jerusalem, and Jerusalem within four miles of Bethabara, where Christ now was, and yet our Saviour comes not of four days; doubtless, that the miracle of Lazarus being sick, as have raised him being dead, and as easily have raised him the first day, as the fourth day; but that had not carried along with it such a full conviction of Christ's almighty power. Therefore, that he might draw the eyes of their faith more stedfastly to behold and admire his almighty power, our Saviour defers his coming till Lazarus had been dead four days.
Observe, 2. The civil usage of mourning with those that mourned for the dead: anciently they mourned thirty days, and sometimes forty, for a dear relation, Num 20:29. During which time, neighbours and friends came to visit and relieve them in their sadness, with such consolatory arguments as they had. Christian religions doth not condemn natural affection: human passions are not sinful, if not excessive; to be above the stroke of passions is a condition equal to angels; to be in a state of sorrow without the sense of sorrow is a disposition beneath the beasts: but duly to regulate our sorrows, and set boundaries to our grief, is the wisdom, the duty, the interest, and the excellency, of a Christian. As to be above all passions will be our happiness in heaven, so to regulate and rectify our passions is a great part of our holiness on earth.
Observe, 3. Although Martha was a true mourner for the death of her brother, yet she doth not so far indulge to grief, but, upon the first notice of Christ's approach, she arises to go forth to meet him, with a mournful moan in her mouth, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. But then her infirmity appeared in limiting Christ both to time and place; to place, If thou hadst been here: as if Christ could not (if he had pleased) save his life, absent as well as present.
Then to time, Now he stinketh; as if she had said, "You are come, but, alas! too late: you have staid too long, he is past recovery, the grave hath swallowed him up." As if death would not deliver up his prisoner at the command of Christ:
Oh! the imperfect compostiion of the best of saints! what a mixture of faith and infirmity is found in the holiest and best of Christians! This also farther appears in her next words, I know, that whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, he will give it thee Joh 11:22: she seems not to believe that Christ was able to raise him by his own immediate power, but must obtain power of God to do it, as the prophets were wont to do that raised the dead. She thought Christ a person highly in God's favour, but scarce believed him able to raise Lazarus by his own power; had her faith extended to a belief that Christ was equal with the Father, and that the fulness of the godhead dwelt in him, whe would not have questioned his power to raise him from the grave; for though Christ as Mediator did apply himself by prayer to God at the raising of dead Lazarus, an almighty power communicated with his essence from the Father, by an eternal and ineffable generation.
Here observe, 1. Christ's meek answer to Martha's passionate discourse. He takes no notice of the forementioned failings, but comforts her with a promise of her brother's resurrection: Thy brother shall rise again.
Thence learn, That the knowledge and belief of the general resurrection, is, and ought to be, a sufficient support under the loss of our endeared friends, who die in the Lord.
Observe, 2. That the doctrine of the general resurrection was no new doctrine; Job believed it, Job 19:26. Daniel published it, Dan 12:1; the Pharisees had a notion of it; but Martha here makes it an article of faith, I know he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
Observe, 3. How Christ particularly instructs Martha in the cause of her resurrection, acquainting her, that he himself is the author and efficient cause of it: I am the resurrection and the life: that is, I am the author, and principal efficient cause of the resurrection; and this with respect to both natures:
1. His divine nature is the efficient cause of the resurrection; he shall raise our bodies out of the dust, by the power of his godhead.
2. His human nature is the exemplary cause or pattern of the resurrection; for which reason Christ is called the first born from the dead. For though some were raised before him, yet was his resurrection the cause of their resurrection.
Hence St. Paul argues, from Christ's resurrection, the certainty of the resurrection of his members; Christ and believers are one mystical body, therefore is not Christ perfectly risen till all his members are risen with him. Indeed Christ's, personal resurrection was perfect when he arose, and all believers arose representatively in him; yet, has not received its utmost perfection: but there is somewhat behind of the resurrection of Christ. Most fitly then might our Saviour assert, I am the resurrection and the life.
Observe, 4. That Christ not only asserts himself to be the resurrection, but also the life; I am the resurrection and the life: that is, I am the cause of life natural, spiritual, and eternal; And whosoever liveth and believeth in me, shall never die; that is, eternally: though his body shall die because of sin, yet his spirit shall live because of righteousness.
Observe here, 1. The full confession which Martha makes of her faith in Christ: Thou art the Christ the Son of God, which should come into world. A confession which comes nearest to that of St. Peter ( Matt 16:16.) of any that we meet with in scripture: nay, it seems more full than Peter's confession; for those additional words, Which should come into the world, are not in his confession; the sum is, she believed Christ to be the very Messias who was typified and prefigured, prophesied of, and promised to, the Old Testament saints, as the person that in the fulness of time should come into the world for the redemption and salvation of it. Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.
Hence learn, That Christ is never rightly believed in, nor regularly depended upon, for salvation, except he be owned and acknowledged to be the eternal Son of God. Martha was now fully persuaded of Christ's divine nature, of which the best of the disciples, till after our Saviour's resurrection, had but a faint and uncertain persuasion.
Observe, 2. How earnest and intent our Saviour was to dispatch the errand he came upon, namely, to raise Lazarus from the grave, and to comfort the two mournful sisters: he would not so much as enter the house, till he had effected his work: and therefore he goes straight to the grave, which probably was the place where Mary met him: Lord! It was thy meat and drink to do the will of thy Father: it was thy meat and drink by day, thy rest and repose by night. How unlike are we to thyself, if we suffer either our pleasures or our profits to divert us from our duty!
Observe, 3. What haste and speed Mary makes to attend upon our Saviour: she arose quickly, and came unto him. Mary's love added wings to her motion. The Jews observing her hasty motion, have a loving suspicion that she is gone to the grave to weep there; but their thoughts were too low; for whilst they supposed that she went to a dead brother, she was waiting upon a living Saviour. And she that used to sit at Jesus's feet, now falls at his feet, with an awful veneration: the very gesture was supplicatory. And her humble prostration was seconded with a doleful lamentation, Lord, hadst thou been here, any brother had not died: full of affection, but not free from frailty and infirmity; however Christ takes no notice of her errors and infirmity; but all the reply we hear of, is a compassionate groan, which the following verses acquaint us with.
Observe here, 1. The condolency and tender sympathy expressed by our Saviour upon this occasion: He groaned in his spirit, and was troubled: or, as the original has it, he troubled himself, intimating that our Saviour's passions were pure and holy, not like ours, muddy and mixed with sinful imperfection. The commotions of his affections were like the shaking of pure water in a crystal glass, which still remains clear; and they arose and were calmed at his pleasure; he was not overpowered by them, but had them at his command.
Learn hence, That as Christ took upon him the human nature so he did assume also human affections, thereby evidencing himself to be our brother and near kinsman, according to the flesh.
Learn, 2. That the passions and affections, which our Saviour had and expressed, were always holy and innocent: he was not without them, but he was above them; they did never violently and immoderately trouble him, but when he pleased, he troubled himself Jesus groaned in spirit, and troubled himself.
Observe, 2. How our Saviour manifests his condolency and tender sympathy with Martha and Mary, by his weeping. Jesus wept: partly from compassion, and partly for example; in compassion first to humanity to see how miserably sin had debased the human nature and rendered man like unto the brute beasts that perish.
Secondly, in compassion to Lazarus, whom he was now about to bring back into a sinful and troublesome world. Thus St. Jerome, Non flevit Chrystus lachrymas nostras, &c. "Christ, says he, did not weep tears, he mourned over Lazarus, not because dead, but because now to be brought again to life."
Again Christ wept for our example, to fetch sighs and tears from us, at the sight of others' miseries, and especially at the funerals of our godly friends.
Learn hence, That mourning and sorrow, and this expressed by tears and weeping, is an affection proper for those that go to funerals, provided it be decently kept within due bounds and is not excessive: for immoderate sorrow is hurtful to the living, and dishonourable to the dead: neither is it an argument of more love, but an evidence of less grace.
Note, 3. How the Jews observing Christ's sorrow for, admire his love to, dead Lazarus: Behold, how he loved him! Christ's love to his people is admirable and soul amazing: such as see it may admire it, but can never fully comprehend it.
Note, 4. How some of the malicious Jews attempt to lessen the reputation of our Saviour, not willing to own him to be God, because he did not keep Lazarus from dying; as if Christ could not be the Son of God, because he did not at all times, and in all cases, exert and put forth his divine power. Whereas Christ acted freely, and not necessarily, governing his actions by his own wisdom, as he saw most conducing to the ends and purposes of his own glory.
In these verses we find our Lord addressing himself to the miracle of raising Lazarus from the grave.
First, he commands them to take away the stone. But could not that voice which raised the dead, remove the stone? Yes, no doubt; but it is always the will of Christ that we put forth our utmost endeavours, and do what we can in order to our own deliverance. To remove the stone, and untie the napkin, was in their power; this therefore they must do; but to raise the dead was out of their power; this therefore Christ will do alone. Our hands must do their utmost, before Christ will put forth his help.
The stone being thus removed, his eyes begin; they are lifted up to heaven, his Father's throne, from whence he expects to derive his power: his tongue seconds his eyes, and prays unto his Father. Christ, as God, wrought this miracle by his own power. Consider him as a Mediator, and so he looks up to his Father by prayer, yet we hear of no prayer, but a thanksgiving only. Christ's will was his prayer; whatever Christ willed, God granted Christ and his Father having one essence, one nature, and one will. Neither was it fit for Christ to pray vocally and audibly, lest the unbelieving Jews should say, he did all by entreaty, nothing by power.
Observe farther, That as Christ, when he spake to his Father, lifted up his eyes; so, when he spake to dead Lazarus, he lifted up his voice, and cried aloud. This Christ did, that the strength of the voice might answer the strength of the affection, since we vehemently utter what we earnestly desire; also that the greatness of the voice might answer to the greatness of the work; but especially that the hearers might be witnesses, this mighty work was performed, not by any magical enchantments, which are commonly mumbled forth with a low voice, but by an authoritative and divine command.
In a word, might not Christ utter a loud voice at the raising of Lazarus, that it might be a representation of that shrill and loud voice of the last trumpet at the general resurrection; which shall sound into all graves, and raise all flesh from the bed of dust?
Observe next, At the manner of our Lord's speaking with a loud voice, so the words spoken by him: Lazarus, come forth.
Mark, Christ doth not say, Lazarus, revive: but, as if he supposed him already alive, he says, Lazarus come forth; to let us know that they are alive to him, who are dead to us.
Mark also, What a commanding word this was, Come forth. Not that it was in the power of these loud commanding words to raise Lazarus, but in the quickening power of Christ which attended these words.
O blessed Saviour! it is thy voice which we shall ere long hear sounding into the bottom of the grave, and raising us from our bed of dust. It is thy voice that shall pierce the rocks, divide the mountains, and echo forth throughout the universe saying, Arise, ye dead, and come to judgment.
Observe lastly, How readily obedient Lazarus was to the call and command of Christ: He that was dead came forth: and if Lazarus did thus instantly start up at the voice of Christ in the day of his humiliation, how shall the dead be roused up out of their graves by that voice which will shake the powers of heaven, and move the foundations of the earth, in the day of his glorification!
Question, But where was Lazarus's soul all that while that he was dead? If in heaven, was it not wrong to him to come from thence? if not, doth it not prove that the soul sleeps as well as the body.
Answer, Souls go not to heaven by necessitation, as the fire naturally and necessarily ascends upwards; but are disposed of by God as the supreme Governor; those that hath served him to go to heaven, and those that have served the devil go to hell, and those that are not adjudged to either place, but are to live presently again upon earth, as Lazarus was, are reserved by God accordingly: whether shut up in the body as in a swoon, or whether kept in the custody and hands of an angel not far form the body, waiting his pleasure either to restore it to the body, or to return it to its proper place of bliss or misery, the scripture has not told us whether; and it would be too great curiosity to inquire, and greater presumption to determine.
Observe here, 1. The different effects which this miracle had upon those Jews who were present at the raising of Lazarus; some of them believed on Christ: but others, persisting in their unbelief, went to the Pharisees and informed against him. Notwithstanding all the evidence which our Saviour gave of his being the Messias, by the miracles which he wrought, yet many rejected him, and refused to believe in him, to their unutterable and inevitable condemnation.
Observe, 2. How greatly disturbed the Pharisees were upon the account of our Saviour's miracles' knowing how proper an argument they were to convince men, they concluded, that if Christ were suffered to go on and work miracles, he would draw all men after him.
Learn hence, That Jesus proved himself to be the true Messias by the miracles which he wrought, his enemies themselves being judges. For we find here, the worst of our Saviour's enemies were afraid of his miracles, that by them he would draw all men after him; If we let him alone, all men will believe on him.
Observe, 3. What was the ground of the Pharisees fear, if they let Christ go on to work miracles, that he would have so many followers as would alarm the Romans, and awaken their jealousy, and cause them to come upon them with an army, to deprive them of the little liberty they indulged them, and take away their place and nation: their place: that is, their place of worship, the temple: and their nation: that is, bring the whole body of the Jewish nation to utter destruction.
Learn hence, How all the enemies and opposers of Christ and his kingdom do endeavour to colour their quarrel with some specious pretences, that they may hide the odiousness of their practices from the eye of the world, and may not be openly seen to fight against God. Thus the Pharisees here persecute our Saviour, not as the Messias (though the miracles he wrought were a sufficient evidence that he was such) but as one who would bring ruin upon their nation. If we let him alone, the Romans will come, and take away both our place and nation.
The foregoing verses acquainted us with the apprehension which the chief priests had of the necessity of taking away the life of our blessed Savious; Lest the Romans should take away both their place and nation.
Now here in these verses Caiaphas the high priest delivers his opinion for the preventing of this danger; he tells the rest, that they ought not to to boggle at the matter, but come to a positve and peremptory resolution to provide for the public safety, right or wrong: and that it is a great folly to prefer one man's life, thoguh ever so innocent, before a nation's welfare; a most wicked and devilish speech; as a judge he regarded not what was lawful, but as a wicked politician, he consulted what was expedient; he declares, that one man, though ever so good and holy, though ever so just and innocent, had better die, than a whole nation suffer; as where it is in any case unlawful to do evil that good may come.
Learn hence, That although it be the duty of all persons to pray for, and endeavour after, the public welfare of a church and nation, whereof they are members; yet it is altogether unlawful to promote the greatest national good, by wicked and unlawful means.
Observe farther, How God over-ruled the tongue of Caiaphas beyond his own intention, prophetically to foretell that great good, which, by our Saviour's death, should redound to the world, and that the fruit and benefit of his death should not only extend to the Jews, but to the Gentiles also; and that he should gather in one body, or church, all that truly believe in him, though far and wide dispersed upon the face of the earth.
Hence learn, 1. That the spirit of prophecy did fall sometimes upon very bad men, and God has been pleased to reveal some part of his mind to the worst of men. Thus Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar had in their dreams a revelation form God, what things he intended to do.
Learn, 2. That it is consistent with the holiness of God, sometimes to make use of the tongues of the worst of men, to publish and declare his will. Caiaphas here, though a vile and wicked man, was influenced by God to prophecy and speak as an oracle. Almighty God may, when he pleases, employ wicked men this way, without any prejudice to his holiness. This Caiaphas spake not of himself, but, being high priest that year, he prophesied, that Jesus should die for that nation.
Observe here, 1. How baneful and destructive evil counsel is, especially out of the mouths of leading men, and how soon embraced and followed. Caiaphas no sooner propounds the putting of Christ to death, but from that day forward they lie in wait to take him. The high priests had satisfied their consciences, and now they make all possible speed to put their malicious designs and purposes in execution.
Observe, 2. The prudential care and means which our Lord used for his own preservation: to avoid their fury, he withdraws himself privately into a place called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples.
Learn, As Christ himself fled, so is it lawful for his servants to flee, when their life is conspired against by their bloody enemies, and the persecution is personal.
Observe, 3. When the time was come that he was to expose himself, when the time of the passover drew near, in which he, being the true Paschal Lamb, was to be slain, to put an end to that type, he withdraws no more, but surrenders himself to the rage and fury of his enemies, and dies a shameful death for shameless sinners, as the next chapter more at large informs us.
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