1 Samuel 4


A battle between Israel and the Philistines, in which the former

are defeated, with the loss of four thousand men, 1, 2.

They resolve to give the Philistines battle once more, and bring

the ark of the Lord, with Hophni and Phinehas the priests, into

the camp, 3, 4.

They do so, and become vainly confident, 5.

At this the Philistines are dismayed, 6-9.

The battle commences; the Israelites are again defeated, with

the loss of thirty thousand men; Hophni and Phinehas are among

the slain; and the ark of the Lord is taken, 10, 11.

A Benjamite runs with the news to Eli; who, hearing of the

capture of the ark, falls from his seat, and breaks his neck,


The wife of Phinehas, hearing of the death of her husband, and

father-in-law, and of the capture of the ark, is taken in

untimely travail, beings forth a son, calls him I-chabod, and

expires, 19-22.


Verse 1. The word of Samuel came to all Israel] This clause

certainly belongs to the preceding chapter, and is so placed by

the Vulgate, Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic.

Pitched beside Eben-ezer] This name was not given to this place

till more than twenty years after this battle, see 1Sa 7:12;

for the monument called haeben haezer, the "Stone of

Help," was erected by Samuel in the place which was afterwards

from this circumstance, called Eben-ezer, when the Lord had given

the Israelites a signal victory over the Philistines. It was

situated in the tribe of Judah, between Mizpeh and Shen, and not

far from the Aphek here mentioned. This is another proof that this

book was compiled after the times and transactions which it

records, and probably from memoranda which had been made by a

contemporary writer.

Verse 2. Put themselves in array] There is no doubt that both

the Philistines and Israelites had what might be called the art of

war, according to which they marshalled their troops in the field,

constructed their camps, and conducted their retreats, sieges,

&c.; but we know not the principles on which they acted.

They slew of the army in the field about four thousand men.]

This must have been a severe conflict, as four thousand were left

dead on the field of battle. The contest also must have lasted

some considerable time, as these were all slain hand to hand;

swords and spears being in all probability the only weapons then


Verse 3. Let us fetch the ark] They vainly supposed that the ark

could save them, when the God of it had departed from them because

of their wickedness. They knew that in former times their fathers

had been beaten by their enemies, when they took not the ark with

them to battle; as in the case of their wars with the Canaanites,

Nu 14:44, 45; and that they had

conquered when they took this with them, as in the case of the

destruction of Jericho, Jos 6:4. From the latter clause they took

confidence; but the cause of their miscarriage in the former they

laid not to heart. It was customary with all the nations of the

earth to take their gods and sacred ensigns with them to war. The

Persians, Indians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Philistines, &c.,

did so. Consecrated crosses, blessing and hallowing of colours and

standards, are the modern remains of those ancient superstitions.

Verse 4. The Lord of hosts] See on 1Sa 1:3.

Dwelleth between the cherubims] Of what shape the cherubim were,

we know not; but there was one of these representative figures

placed at each end of the ark of the covenant; and between them,

on the lid or cover of that ark, which was called the propitiatory

or mercy-seat, the shechinah, or symbol of the Divine presence,

was said to dwell. They thought, therefore, if they had the ark,

they must necessarily have the presence and influence of Jehovah.

Verse 5. All Israel shouted] Had they humbled themselves, and

prayed devoutly and fervently for success, they would have been

heard and saved. Their shouting proved both their vanity and


Verse 7. God is come into the camp.] They took for granted, as

did the Israelites, that his presence was inseparable from his ark

or shrine.

Verse 8. These mighty Gods] miyad haelohim

haaddirim, from the hand of these illustrious Gods. Probably this

should be translated in the singular, and not in the plural: Who

shall deliver us from the hand of this illustrious God?

Verse 9. Be strong, &c.] This was the address to the whole army,

and very forcible it was. "If ye do not fight, and acquit

yourselves like men, ye will be servants to the Hebrews, as they

have been to you; and you may expect that they will avenge

themselves of you for all the cruelty you have exercised towards


Verse 11. Hophni and Phinehas were slain.] They probably

attempted to defend the ark, and lost their lives in the attempt.

Verse 12. Came to Shiloh the same day] The field of battle could

not have been at any great distance, for this young man reached

Shiloh the same evening after the defeat.

With his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head.] These were

signs of sorrow and distress among all nations. The clothes rent,

signified the rending, dividing, and scattering, of the people;

the earth, or ashes on the head, signified their humiliation:

"We are brought down to the dust of the earth; we are near to our

graves." When the Trojan fleet was burnt, AEneas is represented

as tearing his robe from his shoulder, and invoking the aid of his


Tum pius AEneas humeris abscindere vestem,

Auxilioque vocare Deos, et tendere palmas.

VIRG. AEn. lib. v., ver. 685.

"The prince then tore his robes in deep despair,

Raised high his hands, and thus address'd his prayer."


We have a remarkable example in the same poet, where he

represents the queen of King Latinus resolving on her own death,

when she found that the Trojans had taken the city by storm:-

Purpueros moritura manu discindit amictus.

AEn. lib. xii., ver. 603.

She tears with both her hands her purple vest.

But the image is complete in King Latinus himself, when he heard

of the death of his queen, and saw his city in flames:-

_______It scissa veste Latinus,

Conjugis attonitus fatis, urbisque ruina,

Canitiem immundo perfusam pulvere turpans.

Ib., ver. 609.

Latinus tears his garments as he goes.

Both for his public and his private woes:

With filth his venerable beard besmears,

And sordid dust deforms his silver hairs.


We find the same custom expressed in one line by Catullus:-

Canitiem terra, atque infuso pulvere foedans.

EPITH. Pelei et Thetidos, ver. 224.

Dishonouring her hoary locks with earth and sprinkled dust.

The ancient Greeks in their mourning often shaved off their




HOM. Odyss. lib. iv., ver. 197.

"Let each deplore his dead: the rites of wo

Are all, alas! the living can bestow

O'er the congenial dust, enjoin'd to shear

The graceful curl, and drop the tender tear."


And again:-




Ib., lib. xxiv., ver. 44.

"Then unguents sweet, and tepid streams, we shed;

Tears flow'd from every eye; and o'er the dead

Each clipp'd the curling honours of his head."


The whole is strongly expressed in the case of Achilles, when he

heard of the death of his friend Patroclus:-





Iliad, lib. xviii., ver. 22.

"A sudden horror shot through all the chief,

And wrapp'd his senses in the cloud of grief.

Cast on the ground, with furious hands he spread

The scorching ashes o'er his graceful head:

His purple garments, and his golden hairs.

Those he deforms with dust, and these with tears."


It is not unusual, even in Europe, and in the most civilized

parts of it, to see grief expressed by tearing the hair, beating

the breasts, and rending the garments; all these are natural

signs, or expression of deep and excessive grief, and are common

to all the nations of the world.

Verse 13. His heart trembled for the ark of God] He was a most

mild and affectionate father, and yet the safety of the ark lay

nearer to his heart than the safety of his two sons. Who can help

feeling for this aged, venerable man?

Verse 17. And the messenger answered] Never was a more

afflictive message, containing such a variety of woes, each rising

above the preceding, delivered in so few words.

1. Israel is fled before the Philistines.

This was a sore evil: that Israel should turn their backs upon

their enemies, was bad; and that they should turn their backs on

such enemies as the Philistines, was yet worse; for now they might

expect the chains of their slavery to be strengthened and riveted

more closely.

2. There hath also been a great slaughter among the people.

A rout might have taken place without any great previous

slaughter; but in this case the field was warmly contested, thirty

thousand were laid dead on the spot. This was a deeper cause of

distress than the preceding; as if he had said, "The flower of our

armies is destroyed; scarcely a veteran now to take the field."

3. Thy two sons also, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead.

This was still more afflictive to him as a father, to lose both

his sons, the only hope of the family; and to have them taken away

by a violent death when there was so little prospect of their

having died in the peace of God, was more grievous than all.

4. The ark of God is taken.

This was the most dreadful of the whole; now Israel is

dishonoured in the sight of the heathen, and the name of the Lord

will be blasphemed by them. Besides, the capture of the ark shows

that God is departed from Israel; and now there is no farther hope

of restoration for the people, but every prospect of the

destruction of the nation, and the final ruin of all religion! How

high does each wo rise on the back of the preceding! And with what

apparent art is this very laconic message constructed! And yet,

probably, no art at all was used, and the messenger delivered the

tidings just as the facts rose up in his own mind.

How vapid, diffused, and alliterated, is the report of the

messenger in the Persae of AEschylus, who comes to the queen with

the tremendous account of the destruction of the whole naval power

of the Persians, at the battle of Salamis? I shall give his first

speech, and leave the reader to compare the two accounts.







Of which I subjoin the following translation by Mr. Potter:-

Wo to the towns through Asia's peopled realms!

Wo to the land of Persia, once the port

Of boundless wealth! how is thy glorious state

Vanish'd at once, and all thy spreading honours

Fallen, lost! Ah me! unhappy is his task

That bears unhappy tidings; but constraint

Compels me to relate this tale of wo:

Persians! the whole barbaric host is fallen.

This is the sum of his account, which he afterwards details in

about a dozen of speeches.

Heroes and conquerors, ancient and modern, have been celebrated

for comprising a vast deal of information in a few words. I will

give three examples, and have no doubt that the Benjamite in the

text will be found to have greatly the advantage.

1. Julius Caesar having totally defeated Pharnaces, king of

Pontus, wrote a letter to the Roman senate, which contained only

these three words:-


I came, I saw, I conquered.

This war was begun and ended in one day.

2. Admiral HAWKE having totally defeated the French fleet, in

1759, off the coast of Brittany, wrote as follows to King George


"SIRE, I have taken, burnt, and destroyed all the French fleet,

as per margin.-HAWKE."

3. NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE, then general-in-chief of the French

armies in Italy, wrote to Josephine, his wife, the evening before

he attacked Field Marshal Alvinzi, the imperial general:-

"Demain j'attaquerai l'enemie; je le battrai; et j'en finirai."

"To-morrow I shall attack the enemy; I shall defeat them, and

terminate the business." He did so: the imperialists were totally

defeated, Mantua surrendered, and the campaign for that year

(1796) was concluded.

In the above examples, excellent as they are in their kind, we

find little more than one idea, whereas the report of the

Benjamite includes several; for, in the most forcible manner, he

points out the general and particular disasters of the day, the

rout of the army, the great slaughter, the death of the priests,

who were in effect the whole generals of the army, and the capture

of the ark; all that, on such an occasion, could affect and

distress the heart of an Israelite. And all this he does in four

simple assertions.

Verse 18. When he made mention of the ark of God] Eli bore all

the relation till the messenger came to this solemn word; he had

trembled before for the ark, and now, hearing that it was

captured, he was transfixed with grief, fell down from his seat,

and dislocated his neck! Behold the judgments of God! But shall we

say that this man, however remiss in the education of his

children, and criminal in his indulgence towards his profligate

sons, which arose more from the easiness of his disposition than

from a desire to encourage vice, is gone to perdition? God forbid!

No man ever died with such benevolent and religious feelings, and

yet perished.

He had judged Israel forty years] Instead of forty years, the

Septuagint has here εικοσιετη, twenty years. All the other

versions, as well as the Hebrew text, have forty years.

Verse 19. And his daughter-in-law] This is another very

affecting story; the defeat of Israel, the capture of the ark, the

death of her father-in-law, and the slaughter of her husband, were

more than a woman in her circumstances, near the time of her

delivery could bear. She bowed, travailed, was delivered of a son,

gave the child a name indicative of the ruined state of Israel,

and expired!

Verse 20. But she answered not] She paid no attention to what

the women had said concerning her having borne a son; that

information she regarded not.

Verse 21. She named the child I-chabod] The versions are various

on the original words I-chabod; the Septuagint,

ουαιβαρχαβωθ ouaibrachaboth; the Syriac, [Syriac] yochobor;

the Arabic, [Arabic] yochabad. But none of these give us much

light on the subject. It is pretty evident they did not know well

what signification to give the name; and we are left to collect

its meaning from what she says afterwards, The glory is departed

from Israel; the words literally mean, Where is the glory? And

indeed where was it, when the armies of Israel were defeated by

the Philistines, the priests slain, the supreme magistrate dead,

and the ark of the Lord taken?

THIS is a very eventful, interesting, and affecting chapter, and

prepares the reader for those signal manifestations of God's power

and providence by which the ark was restored, the priesthood

re-established, an immaculate judge given to Israel, the

Philistine yoke broken, and the people of the Most High caused

once more to triumph. God humbled them that he might exalt them;

he suffered his glory for a time to become eclipsed, that he might

afterwards cause it to break out with the greater effulgence.

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