2 Corinthians 6

CHAPTER VI.

We should not receive the grace of God in vain, having such

promises of support from him, 1, 2.

We should act so as to bring no disgrace on the Gospel, 3.

How the apostles behaved themselves, preached, suffered, and

rejoiced, 4-10.

St. Paul's affectionate concern for the Corinthians, 11-13.

He counsels them not to be yoked with unbelievers, and advances

several arguments why they should avoid them, 14-16.

Exhorts them to avoid evil companions and evil practices, on

the promise that God will be their Father and that they shall

be his sons and his daughters, 17, 18,

NOTES ON CHAP. VI.

Verse 1. We then, as workers together with him] συνεργουντες

δεκαιπαρακαλουμεν. The two last words, with him, are not in the

text, and some supply the place thus: we then, as workers together

WITH YOU, and the Armenian version seems to have read it so; but

no MS. has this reading, and no other version. For my own part I

see nothing wanting in the text if we only suppose the term

apostles; we, (i.e. apostles,) being fellow workers, also entreat

you not to receive the grace of God in vain.

By the grace of God, τηνχαριντουθεου, this grace or

benefit of God, the apostle certainly means the grand sacrificial

offering of Christ for the sin of the world, which he had just

before mentioned in speaking of the ministry of reconciliation.

We learn, therefore, that it was possible to receive the grace of

God and not ultimately benefit by it; or, in other words, to begin

in the Spirit and end in the flesh. Should any one say that it is

the ministry of reconciliation, that is, the benefit of apostolic

preaching, that they might receive in vain; I answer, that the

apostolic preaching, and the whole ministry of reconciliation,

could be no benefit to any man farther than it might have been a

means of conveying to him the salvation of God. And it is most

evident that the apostle has in view that grace or benefit that

reconciles us to God, and makes us Divinely righteous. And this,

and all other benefits of the death of Christ, may be received in

vain.

Verse 2. For he saith] That is, God hath said it, by the

prophet Isaiah, Isa 49:8; which place the apostle quotes

verbatim et literatim from the Septuagint. And from this we may

at once see what is the accepted time, and what the day of

salvation. The advent of the Messiah was the eth

ratson, the time of God's pleasure or benevolence, of which all

the faithful were in expectation; and the day of salvation,

yom yeshuah, was the time in which this salvation should

be manifested and applied. The apostle therefore informs them

that this is the time predicted by the prophet; and the ministry

of reconciliation being exercised in full force is a proof that

the prophecy is fulfilled; and therefore the apostle confidently

asserts, Behold, NOW is this accepted time, NOW the Messiah

reigns, NOW is the Gospel dispensation, and therefore NOW is the

day of salvation; that is, the very time in which the power of

God is present to heal, and in which every sinner believing on the

Lord Jesus may be saved.

I rather think that this second verse should be read

immediately after the last verse of the preceding chapter; as

where it now stands it greatly disturbs the connection between the

first and the third verses. I will set down the whole in the

order in which I think they should stand. 2Co 5:20:

Now then we are ambassadors for Christ; as though God did beseech

you by us, we pray you in Christ's stead, to be reconciled to God.

For he hath made him a sin-offering for us, who knew no sin, that

we might be made the righteousness of God in him: for he saith,

"I have heard thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation

have I succoured thee." Behold, now is the accepted time; behold,

now is the day of salvation. Immediately after this, the sixth

chapter will very properly commence, and we shall see that the

connection will be then undisturbed:-

We then, as fellow workers, beseech you also, that ye receive

not this grace of God in vain, giving no offence in any thing,

that this ministry be not blamed. This change of the place of the

second verse, which every one allows must, if it stand here, be

read in a parenthesis, preserves the whole connection of the

apostle's discourse, and certainly sets his argument before us in

a stronger light. Let us review the whole: 1. God was in Christ,

reconciling the world to himself, 2Co 5:18. 2. He appointed the

apostles to proclaim to mankind the doctrine of reconciliation,

2Co 5:19. 3. The apostles, in consequence, proclaim this

doctrine; and show that Christ was a sacrifice for sin, and that

through him we may be perfectly saved, 2Co 5:20, 21. 4. They

show also that all this was agreeable to the declaration of God by

the prophet Isaiah, Isa 49:8, where he predicts the days of the

Messiah, and the grace then to be communicated, 2Co 6:2. 5. The

apostle then, speaking in the person of all his fellow labourers,

who had this ministry of reconciliation intrusted to them, exhorts

them not to receive such a benefit of God in vain, 2Co 6:1.

6. He exhorts those who had embraced the Gospel not to put a

stumbling block in the way of others, by acting irreligiously,

lest this ministry of reconciliation should be reproached on their

account, 2Co 6:3. 7. He shows what conscientious and scrupulous

care he and his fellow apostles took to preach and walk so that

this ministry might have its full effect, 2Co 6:4, &c.

This view of the subject, if I mistake not, shows a beautiful

consistency throughout the whole.

Verse 3. Giving no offence] The word προσκοπη, read

προσκομμα, Ro 14:13,

signifies a stumbling block in general, or any thing over which a

man stumbles or falls; and here means any transgression or scandal

that might take place among the ministers, or the Christians

themselves, whereby either Jews or Gentiles might take occasion of

offence, and vilify the Gospel of Christ.

Verse 4. But in all things approving ourselves] The apostle

now proceeds to show how conscientiously himself and his fellow

labourers acted, in order to render the ministry of reconciliation

effectual to the salvation of men. They not only gave no offence

in any thing, but they laboured to manifest themselves to be the

genuine ministers of God, in much patience-bearing calmly up under

the most painful and oppressive afflictions.

In afflictions] ενφλιψεσιν. This may signify the series of

persecutions and distresses in general; the state of cruel

suffering in which the Church of God and the apostles then existed.

In necessities] εναναγκαις. Straits and difficulties;

including all that want and affliction which arose from the

impoverished state of the Church.

In distresses] ενστενοχωριαις. Such straits and difficulties

as were absolutely unavoidable and insurmountable. The word

implies, being reduced to a narrow place, driven to a corner,

hemmed in on every side, as the Israelites were at the Red Sea;

the sea before them, Pharaoh and his host behind them, and

Egyptian fortresses on either hand. God alone could bring them

out of such difficulties, when their enemies themselves saw that

the wilderness had shut them in. So was it often with the

apostles; all human help failed, and their deliverance came from

God alone.

Verse 5. In stripes, in imprisonments] Of these the history

of the Acts of the Apostles gives ample testimony; and there were

doubtless many instances of persecution in various forms which are

not on record.

In tumults] ακαταστασιαις. Insurrections raised against them

because of the Gospel. It is more natural to understand the word

thus, than of agitations, or tossings to and fro in consequence of

their unsettled state of life; or because of persecution, which

obliged them to flee from place to place.

In labours] Both with our own hands to provide for ourselves

the necessaries of life, that we might not be chargeable to

others; and in labours to spread the Gospel of God through all

countries where his providence opened our way.

In watchings] Passing many nights without sleep or rest.

In fastings] Partly constrained through want of food; and

partly voluntary, as a means of obtaining an increase of grace

both for ourselves and for the Churches.

Verse 6. By pureness] εναγνοτητι. In simplicity of

intention, and purity of affection; together with that chastity

and holiness of life which the Gospel enjoins.

By knowledge] Of the Divine mysteries.

By long-suffering] Under all provocations.

By kindness] To our most virulent persecutors, and to all men.

By the Holy Ghost] There are doubts among learned men whether

the apostle here means that SPIRIT who is called the third person

of the holy TRINITY; or some grace, disposition, or quality of

the soul, which was thus denominated, as implying a spirit wholly

purified, and fitted to be a habitation of God.

Schoettgen quotes a passage from Rabbi Bechai, in which it

appears to him to have this latter meaning: "Rabbi Pinchas, the

son of Jair, said: Reflection leads to sedulity; sedulity to

innocence; innocence to abstinence; abstinence to cleanness;

cleanness to sanctity; sanctity to the fear of sin; fear of sin

to humility; humility to piety; and piety to the Holy Spirit. Of

these ten virtues five are external, or belong to the body; and

five internal, or belonging to the soul; but all men prefer the

tenth, which is ruach haktodesh, the Holy Spirit."

Even allowing Rabbi Pinchas to be a person on whose judgment we

could rely, and whose authority was decisive, there does not

appear to me any reason why we should depart from the usual

meaning of the term from any thing that is said here. It appears

to me plain enough that the rabbi means the constant indwelling of

the Holy Spirit; and St. Paul, in this place, may have the same

thing in view, and with it the various gifts of the Holy Spirit by

which he was enabled to work miracles.

By love unfeigned] εναγαπηανυποκριτω. Love without

hypocrisy; such as disposed us at all times to lay down our life

for the brethren, and to spend and be spent for the glory of God

and the good of mankind.

Verse 7. By the word of truth] The doctrine of truth received

immediately from God, and faithfully and affectionately preached

to men.

By the power of God] Confirming this doctrine, not only by the

miracles which we were enabled to work, but also by the

application of that truth to the souls of the people by the energy

of God.

By the armour of righteousness] Such as that described by the

apostle, Eph 6:13-17,

which he calls there the whole armour of God, consisting of the

following pieces: the girdle of truth, the breastplate of

righteousness, the shoes of the Gospel of peace, the shield

of faith, the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the

Spirit.

On the right hand and on the left] Particularly, the shield

and the sword; the former on the left arm, the latter in the right

hand. We have the doctrine of truth, and the power of God, as an

armour to protect us on all sides, every where, and on all

occasions.

It seems far-fetched to understand the right hand as signifying

prosperity, and the left as signifying adversity; as if the

apostle had said: We have this armour to defend us both in

prosperity and adversity. By the doctrine of the Gospel, and by

the power of God, the apostles were furnished with offensive and

defensive weapons; they could ever defend themselves, and

discomfit their foes.

Verse 8. By honour and dishonour] By going through both;

sometimes respected, sometimes despised.

By evil report and good report] Sometimes praised, at other

times calumniated.

As deceivers] Said to carry about a false doctrine for our

secular emolument.

And yet true] Demonstrated by the nature of the doctrine, as

well as by our life and conversation, that we are true men; having

nothing in view but God's glory and the salvation of the world.

Verse 9. As unknown] Persons who are to be suspected as

harbouring dark designs; persons of neither birth, parentage, nor

respectable connections in life;

And yet well known] Proved by our whole conduct to have no

such designs, and demonstrated to be holy, upright, and useful, by

the whole train of our peregrinations, through which we can be

readily traced from place to place; having preached openly, and

done nothing in a corner.

As dying] Through continual dangers, fatigues, and

persecutions;

And, behold, we live] We are preserved by the mighty power of

God in the greatest dangers and deaths.

As chastened] As though we were disobedient children;

And not killed] Though we continue in the very same line of

conduct that is supposed to bring on us those chastisements, and

which, if it were criminal, would justly expose us to death for

incorrigible obstinacy; but our preservation is a proof that we

please God.

Verse 10. As sorrowful] Considerate men supposing, from our

persecuted state and laborious occupation, (often destitute of the

necessaries of life; seldom enjoying its conveniences; and

scarcely ever, its comforts,) that we must be the most miserable

of all men.

Yet alway rejoicing] Having the consolation of God's Spirit at

all times, and a glorious prospect of a blessed immortality.

As poor] Destitute of all worldly good and secular interest,

Yet making many rich] By dispensing to them the treasures of

salvation; making them rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom.

The Gospel, when faithfully preached, and fully received,

betters the condition of the poor. It makes them sober; so they

save what before they profusely and riotously spent. It makes

them diligent; and thus they employ time to useful purposes which

they before squandered away. They therefore both save and gain by

religion; and these must lead to an increase of property.

Therefore they are made rich; at least in comparison with that

sinful, profligate state in which they were before they received

the truth of the Gospel.

As having nothing] Being the most abject of the poor,

And yet possessing all things.] That are really necessary to

the preservation of our lives. For the wants under which we

labour for a time are supplied again by a bountiful Providence.

The man who possesses a contented spirit possesses all things; for

he is satisfied with every dispensation of the providence of God;

and "a contented mind is a continual feast."

Verse 11. O ye Corinthians, our mouth is open unto you] I

speak to you with the utmost freedom and fluency, because of my

affection for you.

Our heart is enlarged.] It is expanded to take you and all

your interests in; and to keep you in the most affectionate

remembrance.

The preceding verses contain a very fine specimen of a very

powerful and commanding eloquence.

Verse 12. Ye are not straitened in us] That is, Ye have not a

narrow place in our affections: the metaphor here is taken from

the case of a person pent up in a small or narrow place, where

there is scarcely room to breathe.

Ye are straitened in your own bowels.] I have not the same

place in your affections which you have in mine. The bowels are

used in Scripture to denote the most tender affections.

See Clarke on Mt 9:36.

Verse 13. Now for a recompense in the same] That you may, in

some sort, repay me for my affection towards you, I speak to you

as unto my children, whom I have a right to command, be ye also

enlarged-love me as I love you.

Verse 14. Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers]

This is a military term: keep in your own ranks; do not leave the

Christian community to join in that of the heathens. The verb

ετεροζυγειν signifies to leave one's own rank, place, or order,

and go into another; and here it must signify not only that they

should not associate with the Gentiles in their idolatrous feasts,

but that they should not apostatize from Christianity; and the

questions which follow show that there was a sort of fellowship

that some of the Christians had formed with the heathens which was

both wicked and absurd, and if not speedily checked would

infallibly lead to final apostasy.

Some apply this exhortation to pious persons marrying with

those who are not decidedly religious, and converted to God. That

the exhortation may be thus applied I grant; but it is certainly

not the meaning of the apostle in this place. Nevertheless,

common sense and true piety show the absurdity of two such persons

pretending to walk together in a way in which they are not agreed.

A very wise and very holy man has given his judgment on this

point: "A man who is truly pious, marrying with an unconverted

woman, will either draw back to perdition, or have a cross during

life." The same may be said of a pious woman marrying an

unconverted man. Such persons cannot say this petition of the

Lord's prayer, Lead us not into temptation. They plunge into it

of their own accord.

For what fellowship, &c.] As righteousness cannot have

communion with unrighteousness, and light cannot dwell with

darkness; so Christ can have no concord with Belial, nor can he

that believeth have any with an infidel. All these points were

self-evident; how then could they keep up the profession of

Christianity, or pretend to be under its influence, while they

associated with the unrighteous, had communion with darkness,

concord with Belial, and partook with infidels?

Verse 16. What agreement hath the temple of God with idols]

Nothing could appear more abominable to a Jew than an idol in the

temple of God: here, then, could be no agreement; the worship of

the two is wholly incompatible. An idolater never worships the

true God; a Christian never worships an idol. If ye join in

idolatrous rites, it is impossible that ye should be Christians.

Ye are the temple of the living God] God intends to make the

heart of every believer his own house.

I will dwell in them, and walk in them] The words are very

emphatic: ενοικησωεναυτοις. I will inhabit in them. I will not

be as a wayfaring man, who turns aside to tarry as for a night,

but I will take up my constant residence with them; I will dwell

in and among them.

I will be their God] They shall have no other God, they shall

have none besides me; and if they take me for their God, I will be

to them all that an infinite, eternal, and self-sufficient Being

can be to his intelligent offspring.

They shall be my people.] If they take me for their GOD, their

supreme and eternal GOOD, I will take them for my people; and

instruct, enlighten, defend, provide for, support, and bless them,

as if I had none else to care for in the creation.

Verse 17. Wherefore come out from among them] Is it not plain

from this and the following verse that God would be their God only

on the ground of their taking him for such, and that this depended

on their being separated from the works and workers of iniquity?

for God could not inhabit in them if they had concord with Belial,

a portion with infidels; &c. Those who will have the promises of

God fulfilled to them must come under the conditions of these

promises: if they are not separate-if they touch the unclean

thing, God will not receive them; and therefore will not be their

God, nor shall they be his people.

Verse 18. Will be a Father unto you] I will act towards you

as the most affectionate father can act towards his most tender

and best beloved child.

And ye shall be my sons and daughters] Ye shall all be of the

household of God, the family of heaven; ye shall be holy, happy,

and continually safe.

Saith the Lord Almighty.] κυριοςπαντοκρατωρ The Lord, the

Governor of all things.

Earthly fathers, however loving and affectionate, may fail to

provide for their children, because every thing is not at their

disposal; they may frequently lack both the power and the means,

though to will may be present with them; but the Lord who made and

who governs all things can never lack will, power, nor means.

The promise is sure to the children; and the children are those

who take the Almighty for their God. For the promise belongs to

no soul that is not separate from sinful ways, works, and men;

those who touch the unclean thing, i.e. who do what God forbids,

and hold communion with unrighteousness, can never stand in the

endearing relation of children to God Almighty: and this is most

forcibly stated by God himself, in these verses, and in the

beginning of the following chapter, the first verse of which

should conclude this.

To the Jews the promises were originally made; they would not

have God for their God, but would work iniquity. What was the

consequence? God cast them off; and those who were joined to

iniquity were separated from him. "Then said God, Call his name

Lo-ammi; for ye are not my people, and I will not be your God."

Ho 1:9.

The Jews were therefore cast off, and the Gentiles taken in their

place; but even these, under the new covenant, are taken in

expressly under the same conditions as the apostle here most fully

states. Those who apply these words in any other way pervert

their meaning, and sin against their souls.

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