Daniel 4


Nebuchadnezzar, after having subdued all the neighbouring

countries, and greatly enriched and adorned his own, became so

intoxicated with his prosperity, as to draw down upon himself

a very remarkable judgment, of which this chapter gives a

particular account, in the very words of the edict or

proclamation which the Babylonyish monarch issued on his

restoration to the throne. This state document begins with

Nebuchadnezzar's acknowledging the hand of God in his late

malady, 1-3.

It then gives an account of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, which

portended the loss of his kingdom and reason for seven years,

on account of his pride and arrogance, 4-18.

So it was explained by Daniel, 19-27,

and so it was verified by the event, 28-33.

It then recites how, at the end of the period fixed by the God

of heaven for the duration of his malady, the Chaldean monarch

became sensible of his dependence on the Supreme Being, and

lifted up has eyes to heaven in devout acknowledgment of the

sovereign majesty of the King of kings, the Ruler of the

earth, whose dominion alone is universal, unchangeable, and

everlasting, 34-37.


Verse 1. Nebuchadnezzar the king, unto all people] This is a

regular decree, and is one of the most ancient on record; and no

doubt was copied from the state papers of Babylon. Daniel has

preserved it in the original language.

Verse 2. I thought it good to show] A part of the decree was a

recital of the wonders wrought by the hand of the true God in his

kingdom and on his person.

Verse 3. How great are his signs!] There are no preternatural

signs like his! His wonders-miraculous interferences, are

mighty-they surpass all human power. He is the Sovereign of all

kings, and his dominion is everlasting; and every generation is

a proof of his all-governing influence. These are very fine

sentiments, and show how deeply his mind was impressed with the

majesty of God.

Verse 4. I-was at rest] I had returned to my palace in Babylon

after having subdued Syria, Phoenicia, Judea, Egypt, and Arabia.

It was probably these great conquests that puffed him up with

pride, and brought that chastisement upon him which he afterwards

describes. See the dream of the emblematical tree explained.

Verse 5. I saw a dream] See this dream circumstantially

explained in the following verses.

Verse 10. I saw-a tree] This vision Nebuchadnezzar says made him

afraid. What a mercy it is that God has hidden futurity from us!

Were he to show every man the lot that is before him, the misery

of the human race would be complete.

Great men and princes are often represented, in the language of

the prophets, under the similitude of trees; see

Eze 17:5, 6; 31:3, &c.; Jer 22:15; Ps 1:3; 37:35.

Verse 13. A watcher and a holy one] These are both angels; but,

according to the Chaldean oracles, of different orders. They

appear, according to their opinions, to be a kind of judges of

human actions who had the power of determining the lot of men;

see Da 4:17.

Verse 14. Hew down the tree] As the tree was to be cut down, the

beasts are commanded to flee away from under his branches. His

courtiers, officers, &c., all abandoned him as soon as his

insanity appeared; but he soon fled from the society of men.

Verse 15. Leave the stump] Let him not be destroyed, nor his

kingdom alienated.

Verse 16. Let his heart be changed] Let him conceive himself to

be a beast, and act as such, herding among the beasts of the


Let seven times pass over him.] Let him continue in this state

for seven years. I knew a man who was thus changed in his heart-in

his imagination. He believed himself to be a bear, and would

imitate the ursal growl, &c.; and the case did not appear to be

hypochondriacal. Whether he ever came to sound mind, I know not.

Verse 17. This matter is by the decree of the watchers] See on

Da 4:13.

The Most High ruleth] He never leaves the government of the

world to man, to second causes, or to fortuitous occurrences. What

are thus called are his agents; they are no moving causes.

And setteth up-the basest of men.]

"Tyrants and kings from Jove proceed

Those are permitted, these decreed."

The throne ennobles no man: to be properly filled, the man must

be noble. Some of the greatest and some of the meanest of men

have sat on the throne. Kings differ in education, seldom in

intellect, from the common mass of men; the power and authority

are from God. The king himself may be given either in mercy or in

wrath. When James II. ruled this kingdom, it might well be said,

God hath set up over it the basest of men. His successor was one

of the best. The former nearly ruined it both in a civil and

religious point of view; the latter was the means of restoring it

in both these respects.

Verse 19. Daniel-was astonied for one hour] He saw the design of

the dream, and he felt the great delicacy of interpreting it. He

was not puzzled by the difficulties of it. He felt for the king,

and for the nation; and with what force and delicacy does he

express the general portent; "The dream to them that hate thee,

and the interpretation thereof to thine enemies!"

Verse 20. The tree that thou sawest] The dream is so fully

interpreted in the following verses that it needs no comment.

Verse 26. Thy kingdom shall he sure unto thee] No new king was

set up; Evil-merodach his son was regent during his father's


Verse 27. Break off thy sins by righteousness] Do justice. Thou

hast been an oppressive man; show mercy to the poor, many of whom

have been made such by thyself: witness the whole nation of the

Jews. He was to cease from his sins-repent and bring forth fruits

meet for repentance, in order that he might find mercy at the hand

of God.

Verse 30. Is not this great Babylon] Here his heart was inflated

with pride; he attributed every thing to himself, and acknowledged

God in nothing. The walls, hanging gardens, temple of Bel, and the

royal palace, all built by Nebuchadnezzar, made it the greatest

city in the world.

Verse 31. While the word was in the king's mouth] How awful to a

victorious and proud king: "Thy kingdom is departed from thee!"

All thy goods and gods are gone in a moment!

Verse 32. They shall make thee, &c.] Thou shalt be made to eat

grass as oxen. The madness that fell upon him induced him to

forsake society, and to run to the woods and deserts, where he

lived like a wild beast, his hairs growing long and thick, so as

to be a substitute for clothing; and his nails strong and hooked,

that he might the better climb trees and grub up the ground, in

order to get roots and earth-nuts. It was the mercy of God that

thus clothed and accoutred him. His case seems much like that of

the maniac in the Gospel, whose dwelling was among the tombs and

in the mountains, and who shunned the society of men.

Verse 36. My reason returned] Every thing was fulfilled that was

exhibited by the dream and its interpretation. It is very likely

that this unfortunate king had so concealed himself that the place

of his retreat was not found out; and the providence of God had so

watched over every thing, that, on his return to his palace, he

found his counsellors and his lords, who received him gladly, and

cleaved to and served him as they had formerly done.

Verse 37. Now I-praise and extol] It is very probable that

Nebuchadnezzar was a true convert; that he relapsed no more into

idolatry, and died in the faith of the God of Israel. It is

supposed that he lived seventeen years after his restoration. But

the authorized Version, which is followed in the margin, states

the date of this decree to be B.C. 563, the year preceding

Nebuchadnezzar's death.

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