Ecclesiastes 1

Verse 33. And the wringing] Who hugeli snytith drawith out

blood.-Old MS. Bible. This is well expressed in homely phrase.

The Septuagint have, "draw the milk, and you may have butter; if

you press the nostrils you may bring out blood; and if you draw

out your discourse to a great length, you may have strife and

contention." Avoid, therefore, all strong excitements and

irritations. Coverdale's translation of this verse is very simple:

"Whoso chyrneth mylck maketh butter; he that rubbeth his nose

maketh it blede; and he that causeth wrath bryngeth forth strife."




-Year from the Creation, according to Archbishop Usher, 3027.

-Year from the Flood of Noah, according to the common Hebrew

text, 1371.

-Year before the birth of Christ, 973.

-Year before the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 977.

-N. B. The time when this book was written is very uncertain:

the above chronology is agreeable to that contained in the

present authorized version.


The prophet shows that all human courses are vain, 1-4.

The creatures are continually changing, 5-8.

There is nothing new under the sun, 9-11.

Who the prophet was, his estate and his studies, 12-18.


Verse 1. The words of the Preacher] Literally, "The words of

Choheleth, son of David, king of Jerusalem." But the Targum

explains it thus: "The words of the prophecy, which Choheleth

prophesied; the same is Solomon, son of David the king, who was in

Jerusalem. For when Solomon, king of Israel, saw by the spirit of

prophecy that the kingdom of Rehoboam his son was about to be

divided with Jeroboam, the son of Nebat; and the house of the

sanctuary was about to be destroyed, and the people of Israel sent

into captivity; he said in his word-Vanity of vanities is all that

I have laboured, and David my father; they are altogether vanity."

The word Koheleth is a feminine noun, from the root

kahal, to collect, gather together, assemble; and means, she who

assembles or collects a congregation; translated by the

Septuagint, εκκλησιαστης, a public speaker, a speaker in an

assembly; and hence translated by us a preacher. In my old MS.

Bible it is explained thus: a talker to the peple; or togyder


Verse 2. Vanity of vanities] As the words are an exclamation, it

would be better to translate, O vanity of vanities! Emptiness of

emptinesses. True, substantial good is not to be found in any

thing liable to change and corruption.

The author referred to in the introduction begins his paraphrase


"O vain deluding world! whose largest gifts

Thine emptiness betray, like painted clouds,

Or watery bubbles: as the vapour flies,

Dispersed by lightest blast, so fleet thy joys,

And leave no trace behind. This serious truth

The royal preacher loud proclaims, convinced

By sad experience; with a sigh repeats

The mournful theme, that nothing here below

Can solid comfort yield: 'tis all a scene.

Of vanity, beyond the power of words

To express, or thought conceive. Let every man

Survey himself, then ask, what fruit remains

Of all his fond pursuits? What has he gain'd,

By toiling thus for more than nature's wants

Require? Why thus with endless projects rack'd

His heated brain, and to the labouring mind,

Repose denied? Why such expense of time,

That steals away so fast, and ne'er looks back?

Could man his wish obtain, how short the space

For his enjoyment! No less transient here

The time of his duration, than the things

Thus anxiously pursued. For, as the mind,

In search of bliss, fix'd on no solid point,

For ever fluctuates; so our little frames,

In which we glory, haste to their decline,

Nor permanence can find. The human race

Drop like autumnal leaves, by spring revived:

One generation from the stage of life

Withdraws, another comes, and thus makes room

For that which follows. Mightiest realms decay,

Sink by degrees; and lo! new form'd estates

Rise from their ruins. Even the earth itself,

Sole object of our hopes and fears,

Shall have its period, though to man unknown."

Verse 3. What profit hath a man] What is the sum of the real good

he has gained by all his toils in life? They, in themselves, have

neither made him contented nor happy.

Verse 4. One generation passeth away] Men succeed each other in

unceasing generations: but the earth is still the same; it

undergoes no change that leads to melioration, or greater

perfection. And it will continue the same leolam, during the

whole course of time; till the end of all things arrives.

Verse 5. and 6. These verses are confused by being falsely

divided. The first clause of the sixth should be joined to the

fifth verse.

"The sun also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to

his place where he ariseth; going to the south, and circulating to

the north."

Verse 6. "The wind is continually whirling about, and the wind

returneth upon its whirlings."

It is plain, from the clause which I have restored to the fifth

verse, that the author refers to the approximations of the sun to

the northern and southern tropics, viz., of Cancer and

Capricorn. See Clarke on Ec 1:5.

All the versions agree in applying the first clause of the sixth

verse to the sun, and not to the wind. Our version alone has

mistaken the meaning. My old MS. Bible is quite correct:

The sunne riisith up, and goth doun, and to his place turnith

agein; and there agein riising, goth about bi the south, and then

agein to the north.

The author points out two things here: 1. Day and night, marked

by the appearance of the sun above the horizon; proceeding

apparently from east to west; where he sinks under the horizon,

and appears to be lost during the night. 2. His annual course

through the twelve signs of the zodiac, when, from the

equinoctial, he proceeds southward to the tropic of Capricorn; and

thence turneth about towards the north, till he reaches the tropic

of Cancer; and so on.

Verse 7. All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not

full] The reason is, nothing goes into it either by the; rivers or

by rain, that does not come from it: and to the place whence the

rivers come, whether from the sea originally by evaporation, or

immediately by rain, thither they return again; for the water

exhaled from the sea by evaporation is collected in the clouds,

and in rain, &c., falls upon the tops of the mountains; and,

filtered through their fissures, produce streams, several of which

uniting, make rivers, which flow into the sea. The water is again

evaporated by the sun; the vapours collected are precipitated;

and, being filtered through the earth, become streams, &c., as


Verse 8. All things are full of labour] It is; impossible to

calculate how much anxiety, pain, labour, and fatigue are

necessary in order to carry on the common operations of life. But

an endless desire of gain, and an endless curiosity to witness a

variety of results, cause men to, labour on. The eye sees much,

but wishes to see more. The ear hears of many things; but is

curious to have the actual knowledge of them. So desire and

curiosity carry men, under the Divine providence, through all

the labours and pains of life.

Verse 9. The thing that hath been] Every thing in the whole

economy of nature has its revolutions; summer and winter, heat and

cold, rain and drought, seedtime and autumn, with the whole system

of corruption and generation, alternately succeed each other, so

that whatever has been shall be again. There is really,

physically, and philosophically, nothing absolutely new under the

sun, in the course of sublunary things. The same is the case in

all the revolutions of the heavens.

Verse 10. Is there any thing, &c.] The original is beautiful.

"Is there any thing which will say, See this! it is new?" Men may

say this of their discoveries, &c.; but universal nature says, It

is not new. It has been, and it will be.

Verse 11. There is no remembrance] I believe the general meaning

to be this: Multitudes of ancient transactions have been lost,

because they were not recorded; and of many that have been

recorded, the records are lost. And this will be the case with

many others which are yet to occur. How many persons, not much

acquainted with books, have supposed that certain things were

their own discoveries, which have been written or printed even

long before they were born! Dutens, in his Origin of the

Discoveries attributed to the Moderns, has made a very clear case.

Verse 12. I the Preacher was king] This is a strange verse, and

does not admit of an easy solution. It is literally, "I,

Choheleth, have been king over Israel, in Jerusalem." This book,

as we have already seen, has been conjectured by some to have been

written about the time that Ptolemy Philadelphus formed his great

library at Alexandria, about two hundred and eighty-five years

before our Lard; and from the multitude of Jews that dwelt there,

and resorted to that city for the sake of commerce, it was said

there was an Israel in Alexandria. See the introduction.

See Clarke on Ec 1:1.

It has also been conjectured from this, that if the book were

written by Solomon, it was intended to be a posthumous

publication. "I that was king, still continue to preach and

instruct you." Those who suppose the book to have been written

after Solomon's fall, think that he speaks thus through

humility. "I was once worthy of the name of king: but I fell

into all evil; and, though recovered, I am no longer worthy of the

name." I am afraid this is not solid.

Verse 13. And I gave my heart to seek and search] While Solomon

was faithful to his God, he diligently cultivated his mind. His

giving himself to the study of natural history, philosophy,

poetry, &c., are sufficient proofs of it. He had not intuitive

knowledge from God; but he had a capacity to obtain every kind of

knowledge useful to man.

This sore travail] This is the way in which knowledge is to be

acquired; and in order to investigate the operations of nature,

the most laborious discussions and perplexing experiments must be

instituted, and conducted to their proper results. It is God's

determination that knowledge shall be acquired in no other way.

Verse 14. Behold, all is vanity] After all these discussions and

experiments, when even the results have been the most successful,

I have found only rational satisfaction; but not that supreme good

by which alone the soul can be made happy.

O curas hominum! O quantum est in rebus inane!

"How anxious are our cares, and yet how vain

The bent of our desires!"

PERS. Sat. i., v. 1.

Verse 15. That which is crooked cannot be made straight] There

are many apparent irregularities and anomalies in nature for which

we cannot account; and there are many defects that cannot be

supplied. This is the impression from a general view of nature;

but the more we study and investigate its operations, the more we

shall be convinced that all is a consecutive and well-ordered

whole; and that in the chain of nature not one link is broken,

deficient, or lost.

Verse 16. I communed with mine own heart] Literally, "I spoke,

I, with my heart, saying." When successful in my researches, but

not happy in my soul, though easy in my circumstances, I entered

into my own heart, and there inquired the cause of my discontent.

He found that, though-1. He had gotten wisdom beyond all men; 2.

Wealth and honours more than any other; 3. Practical wisdom more

than all his predecessors; 4. Had tried pleasure and animal

gratification, even to their extremes; yet after all this he had

nothing but vexation of spirit. None of these four things, nor

the whole of them conjoined, could afford him such a happiness

as satisfies the soul. Why was all this? Because the soul was made

for God, and in the possession of him alone can it find happiness.

Verse 17. To know madness and folly] holloth

vesichluth. παραβολαςκαιεπιστημην, "Parables and

science."-Septuagint. So the Syriac; nearly so the Arabic.

"What were error and foolishness."-Coverdale. Perhaps gayety and

sobriety may be the better meaning for these two difficult words.

I can scarcely think they are taken in that bad sense in which our

translation exhibits them. "I tried pleasure in all its forms; and

sobriety and self-abnegation to their utmost extent." Choheleth

paraphrases, "Even fools and madmen taught me rules."

Verse 18. For in much wisdom is much grief] The more we know of

ourselves the less satisfied shall we be with our own hearts;

and the more we know of mankind the less willing shall we be to

trust them, and the less shall we admire them.

He that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow.] And why so?

Because, independently of God, the principal objects of knowledge

are natural and moral evils.

The Targum gives a curious paraphrase here: "The man who

multiplies wisdom, when he sins and is not converted to

repentance, multiplies the indignation of God against himself; and

the man who adds science, and yet dies in his childhood, adds

grief of heart to his relatives." A man in science; a foolish

child in conduct. How pained must they be who had the expense of

his education! But there are many men-children of this sort in

every age and country.

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