Ecclesiastes 7


The value of a good name, 1.

Advantages of sorrow and correction, 2-5.

The emptiness of a fool's joy, 6.

Of oppression, 7.

The end better than the beginning, 8.

Against hastiness of spirit, 9.

Comparison of former and present times, 10.

Excellence of wisdom, 11, 12.

Of the dispensations of Providence, 13-15.

Against extremes, 16-18.

The strength of wisdom, 19.

Man is ever liable to sin and mistake, 20.

We should guard our words, 21, 22.

Difficulty of obtaining wisdom, 23-25,

A bad woman dangerous, 26.

There are few who are really upright, 27-29.


Verse 1. A good name] Unsatisfactory as all sublunary things

are, yet still there are some which are of great consequence, and

among them a good name. The place is well paraphrased in the

following verses:

"A spotless name,

By virtuous deeds acquired, is sweeter far

Than fragrant balms, whose odours round diffused

Regale the invited guests. Well may such men

Rejoice at death's approach, and bless the hours

That end their toilsome pilgrimage; assured

That till the race of life is finish'd none

Can be completely blest."

Verse 2. It is better to go to the house of mourning] Birthdays

were generally kept with great festivity, and to these the wise

man most probably refers; but according to his maxim, the miseries

of life were so many and so oppressive that the day of a man's

death was to be preferred to the day of his birth. But, in

dependently of the allusion, it is much more profitable to visit

the house of mourning for the dead than the house of festivity. In

the former we find occasion for serious and deeply edifying

thoughts and reflections; from the latter we seldom return with

one profitable thought or one solid impression.

Verse 3. Sorrow is better than laughter] The reason is

immediately given; for by the sorrow of the countenance-the grief

of heart that shows itself in the countenance-

The heart is made better.] In such cases, most men try

themselves at the tribunal of their own consciences, and resolve

on amendment of life.

Verse 4. The heart of the wise is in the house of mourning] A

wise man loves those occasions from which he can derive spiritual

advantage; and therefore prefers visiting the sick, and

sympathizing with those who have suffered privations by death.

But the fool-the gay, thoughtless, and giddy-prefers places and

times of diversion and amusement. Here he is prevented from

seriously considering either himself or his latter end. The grand

fault and misfortune of youth.

Verse 6. For as the crackling of thorns] They make a great

noise, a great blaze; and are extinguished in a few moments. Such

indeed, comparatively, are the joys of life; they are noisy,

flashy, and transitory.

Verse 7. Oppression maketh a wise man mad] This has been

translated with good show of reason, "Surely oppression shall give

lustre to a wise man: but a gift corrupteth the heart."

The chief difference here is in the word yeholel, which,

from the root halal, signifies to glister, irradiate, as

well as to move briskly, to be mad, furious, in a rage; and

certainly the former meaning suits this place best. We cannot

think that the wise man-he that is truly religious, (for this is

its meaning in the language of Solomon,) can be made mad by any

kind of oppression; but as he trusts in God, so in patience he

possesses his soul.

Verse 8. Better is the end] We can then judge of the whole, and

especially if the matter relate to the conduct of Divine

Providence. At the beginning we are often apt to make very rash

conjectures, and often suppose that such and such things are

against us; and that every thing is going wrong. Dr. Byrom gives

good advice on such a subject:-

"With patient mind thy course of duty run:

God nothing does, nor suffers to be done,

But thou wouldst do thyself, couldst thou but see

The end of all events, as well as HE."

I may add, in the words of our paraphrast:-

"Wait the result, nor ask with frantic rage

Why God permits such things. His ways, though now

Involved in clouds and darkness, will appear

All right, when from thine eyes the mist is cleared.

Till then, to learn submission to his will

More wisdom shows, than vainly thus to attempt

Exploring what thou canst not comprehend,

And God for wisest ends thinks fit to hide."


Verse 9. Anger resteth in the bosom of fools.] A wise man, off

his guard, may feel it for a moment: but in him it cannot rest: it

is a fire which he immediately casts out of his breast. But the

fool-the man who is under the dominion of his own tempers,

harbours and fosters it, till it takes the form of malice, and

then excites him to seek full revenge on those whom he deems

enemies. Hence that class of dangerous and empty fools called


Verse 10. The former days were better than these?] This is a

common saying; and it is as foolish as it is common. There is no

weight nor truth in it; but men use it to excuse their crimes, and

the folly of their conduct. "In former times, say they, men might

be more religious, use more self-denial, be more exemplary." This

is all false. In former days men were wicked as they are now, and

religion was unfashionable: God also is the same now as he was

then; as just, as merciful, as ready to help: and there is no

depravity in the age that will excuse your crimes, your follies,

and your carelessness.

Among the oriental proverbs I find the following:

"Many say, This is a corrupt age. This mode of speaking is not

just; it is not the age that is corrupt, but the men of the age."

Verse 11. Wisdom is good with an inheritance] In this chapter

Solomon introduces many observations which appear to be made by

objectors against his doctrine; and as he was satisfied of their

futility, he proposes them in their own full strength, and then

combats and destroys them. It is quite necessary to attend to

this; else we shall take the objector's words for those of

Solomon; and think, as some have done, that the wise man

contradicts and refutes himself. Observations, reflections, and

objections of friends and adversaries are frequently introduced in

the works of ancient authors, without mentioning them as such.

This is frequent, more particularly in ethic writers; and we have

many specimens in Horace; and without this distinction, it would

be impossible to make sense of some of his writings. Here, an

objector, who had listened to the wise man declaiming in favour

of wisdom, suddenly interrupts him, and says in effect, "I grant

the truth of what you have said. Wisdom is very good in its place;

but what is it without property? A man who has a good inheritance

may be profited by wisdom, because it will show him how to manage

it to the best advantage."

Verse 12. Wisdom is a defence] To whom Solomon answers: All true

wisdom is most undoubtedly a great advantage to men in all

circumstances; and money is also of great use: but it cannot be

compared to wisdom. Knowledge of Divine and human things is a

great blessing. Money is the means of supporting our animal life:

but wisdom-the religion of the true God-gives life to them that

have it. Money cannot procure the favour of God, nor give life to

the soul.

Verse 13. Consider the work of God] Such is the nature of his

providence, that it puts money into the hands of few: but wisdom

is within the reach of all. The first is not necessary to

happiness; therefore, it is not offered to men; the latter is; and

therefore God, in his goodness, offers it to the whole human race.

The former can rarely be acquired, for God puts it out of the

reach of most men, and you cannot make that straight which he has

made crooked; the latter may be easily attained by every person

who carefully and seriously seeks it from God.

Verse 14. In the day of prosperity be joyful] When ye receive

these temporal gifts from God, enjoy them, and be thankful to the

Giver: but remember, this sunshine will not always last. God has

balanced prosperity and adversity against each other; and were it

not so, how many would put the former in the place of God himself!

Verse 15. There is a just man that perisheth] This is another

objection as if he had said, "l also have had considerable

experience; and I have not discovered any marked approbation of

the conduct of the righteous, or disapprobation of that of the

wicked. On the contrary, I have seen a righteous man perish, while

employed in the work of righteousness; and a wicked man

prosperous, and even exalted, while living wickedly. The former is

indeed a victim to his righteousness, while the life and

prosperity of the latter were preserved: hence I conclude, it is

not prudent, whatever good there may be in religion, and whatever

excellence in wisdom, that men should be overmuch righteous, or

over-wise: for why should they by austerity and hard study destroy

themselves?" So far the objector.

Verse 16. Why shouldest thou destroy thyself?] tishshomem,

make thyself desolate, so that thou shalt be obliged to stand

alone; neither make thyself over-wise, tithchaccam, do not

pretend to abundance of wisdom. Why shouldest thou be so singular?

In other words, and in modern language, "There is no need of all

this watching, fasting, praying, self-denial, &c., you carry

things to extremes. Why should you wish to be reputed singular and

precise?" To this the man of God answers:

Verse 17. Be not overmuch wicked, neither be thou foolish: why

shouldest thou die before thy time?] al tirsha

harbeh. Do not multiply wickedness, do not add direct opposition

to godliness to the rest of your crimes. Why should you provoke

God to destroy you before your time? Perdition will come soon

enough. If you will not turn from your sins, and avoid it finally,

yet keep out of it as long as you can.

It cannot be supposed, except by those who are totally

unacquainted with the nature of true religion, that a man may have

too much holiness, too much of the life of God in his soul! And

yet a learned doctor, in three sermons on this text, has

endeavoured to show, out-doing Solomon's infidel, "the sin, folly,

and danger of being righteous overmuch." O rare darkness!

Verse 18. It is good that thou shouldest take hold or this] Do

not let such an observation slip: take hold of this; do not forget

that. Get what you can in an honest way; but do not forget to get

true religion; for he that fears God will be saved from all evil.

Verse 19. Wisdom strengtheneth the wise] One wise, thoroughly

learned, and scientific man, may be of more use in fortifying and

defending a city, than ten princes. Witness the case of Syracuse,

when attacked by the Romans both by sea and land. Archimedes, by

his engines, burnt and dashed their fleet to pieces, and destroyed

all that came near the walls. And had not the city been betrayed,

and he killed, all their force and skill could not have taken it.

Verse 20. There is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good,

and sinneth not.] lo yechta, that may not sin. There

is not a man upon earth, however just he may be, and habituated to

do good, but is peccable-liable to commit sin; and therefore

should continually watch and pray, and depend upon the Lord. But

the text does not say, the just man does commit sin, but simply

that he may sin; and so our translators have rendered it in

1Sa 2:25, twice in 1Ki 8:31, 46, and 2Ch 6:36; and the reader

is requested to consult the note on 1Ki 8:46, where the proper

construction of this word may be found, and the doctrine in

question is fully considered.

Verse 21. Also take no heed unto all words that are spoken] This

is good advice, and much for every man's peace through life.

Thy servant curse thee] mekallelecha, make light of

thee, speak evil of thee.

Verse 22. Thou thyself-hast cursed others.] kalalta, thou

hast spoken evil; hast vilified others. O, who is free from evil

speaking, from uncharitable speaking; from detailing their

neighbour's faults, from whispering, talebearing, and backbiting?

Do not wonder if God, in his justice, permit thee to be

calumniated, seeing thou hast so frequently calumniated others.

See my discourse on Ps 15:1-5.

Verse 23. All this have I proved by wisdom] These rules I have

laid down for my own conduct, and sought after more wisdom; but

have fallen far short of what I wished to be.

Verse 24. That which is far off] Though the wisdom that is

essential to our salvation may be soon learned, through the

teaching of the Spirit of wisdom, yet in wisdom itself there are

extents and depths which none can reach or fathom.

Verse 25. I applied mine heart] I cast about, sabbothi,

I made a circuit; I circumscribed the ground I was to traverse;

and all within my circle I was determined to know, and to

investigate, and to seek out wisdom, and the reason of things.

Has man reason and understanding? If so, then this is his work.

God as much calls him to use these powers in this way, as to

believe on the Lord Jesus that he may be saved; and he that does

not, according to the means in his power, is a slothful servant,

from whom God may justly take away the misemployed or not used

talent, and punish him for his neglect. Every doctrine of God is a

subject both for reason and faith to work on.

To know the wickedness of folly, even of foolishness and


"And my own heart, with scrutiny severe,

By far the harder task survey'd; intent

To trace that wisdom which from heaven descends,

Fountain of living waters, and to explore

The source of human folly, whose foul streams

Intoxicate and kill."-C.

Verse 26. And I find more bitter than death the woman] After all

his investigation of the wickedness of folly, and the foolishness

of madness, he found nothing equally dangerous and ruinous with

the blandishments of cunning women. When once the affections are

entangled, escape without ruin is almost impossible.

Whoso pleaseth God] The man who walks with God, and he alone,

shall escape this sore evil: and even he that fears God, if he get

with an artful woman, may be soon robbed of his strength, and

become like other men. A bad or artful woman is represented as a

company of hunters, with nets, gins, &c., to catch their prey.

Verse 27. Counting one by one] I have gone over every

particular. I have compared one thing with another; man with

woman, his wisdom with her wiles; his strength with her

blandishments; his influence with her ascendancy; his powers of

reason with her arts and cunning; and in a thousand men, I have

found one thoroughly upright man; but among one thousand women I

have not found one such. This is a lamentable account of the state

of morals in Judea, in the days of the wise King Solomon. Thank

God! it would not be difficult to get a tithe of both in the same

number in the present day.

The Targum gives this a curious turn:-"There is another thing

which my soul has sought, but could not find: a man perfect and

innocent, and without corruption, from the days of Adam until

Abraham the just was born; who was found faithful and upright

among the thousand kings who came together to construct the tower

of Babel: but a woman like to Sarah among the wives of all those

kings I have not found."

Verse 29. Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man

upright] Whatever evil may be now found among men and women, it is

not of God; for God made them all upright. This is a singular

verse, and has been most variously translated:

asah haelohim eth

haadam yashar vehemhah bikkeshu chishbonoth rabbim.

"Elohim has made mankind upright, and they have sought many


"He hath meddled with endless questions."-VULGATE.

"Many reasonings."-SEPTUAGINT, SYRIAC, and ARABIC.

"They seek dyverse sotylties."COVERDALE.

And he himself mengide with questions without eend.-Old MS.


The Targum considers the text as speaking of Adam and Eve.

"This have I found out, that the Lord made the first man upright

before him, and innocent: but the serpent and Eve seduced him to

eat of the fruit of the tree, which gave the power to those who

ate of it to discern between good and evil; and was the cause that

death came upon him, and all the inhabitants of the earth; and

they sought that they might find out many stratagems to bring this

evil upon all the inhabitants of the world."

I doubt much whether the word chishbonoth should be taken

in a bad sense. It may signify the whole of human devices,

imaginations, inventions, artifice, with all their products; arts,

sciences, schemes, plans, and all that they have found out for the

destruction or melioration of life. God has given man wondrous

faculties; and of them he has made strange uses, and sovereign

abuses: and they have been, in consequence, at one time his help,

and at another his bane. This is the fair way of understanding

this question.

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