Esther 1

Verse 47. All Israel-gave the portions of the singers] The

singers and the porters were supported by the people at large;

and each of these had their portions served out to them daily.

And they sanctified-unto the Levites] The things which were

provided for sacred uses were delivered by the people to the

Levites, and the Levites presented them to the priests.

The children of Aaron.] This may refer principally to the

tithes which the people brought to the Levites; the tithe or

tenth of which the Levites gave to the priests. The presenting

these tithes is termed sanctifying them; that is, dedicating

them to those sacred or ecclesiastical uses for which they were

designed: this is a very general meaning of the word sanctify in





Chronological Notes relative to this Book

-Year from the Creation, according to Archbishop Usher, 3540.

-Year before the birth of Christ, 460.

-Year before the vulgar era of Christ's nativity, 464.

-Year of the Julian Period, 4250.

-Year since the flood of Noah, 1904.

-Year of the Cali Yuga, or Indian era of the Deluge, 2638.

-Year from the vocation of Abram, 1458.

-Year from the destruction of Troy, 721.

-Year from the foundation of Solomon's temple. 547.

-Year since the division of Solomon's monarchy into the kingdoms

of Israel and Judah, 511.

-Year of the era of Iphitus, 421.

-Year since Coroebus won the prize at the Olympic games, 313.

-First year of the seventy-ninth Olympiad.

-Year of the Varronian era of the building of Rome, 290.

-Year from the building of Rome, according to Cato and the Fasti

Consulares, 289.

-Year from the building of Rome according to Polybius the

historian, 288.

-Year from the building of Rome, according to Fabius Pictor,


-Year of the era of Nabonassar, 284.

-Year since the commencement of the first Messenian war, 280.

-Year since the destruction of the kingdom of Israel by

Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria, 258.

-Year since the commencement of the second Messenian war, 222.

-Year from the destruction of Solomon's temple by

Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 125.

-Year since the publication of the famous edict of Cyrus, king

of Persia, empowering the Jews to rebuild their temple, 72.

-Year since the conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, 62.

-Year since the abolition of the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at

Athens, 43.

-Year since the expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome, which put

an end to the regal government of the Romans, 44.

-Year since the famous battle of Marathon, 26.

-Year after the commencement of the third Messenian war, 2.

-Year before the commencement of the first sacred war concerning

the temple at Delphi, 17.

-Year before the commencement of the celebrated Peloponnesian

war, 34.

-Year before the celebrated retreat of the ten thousand Greeks,

and the expulsion of the thirty tyrants from Athens by

Thrasybulus, 65.

-Year before the commencement of the era of the Seleucidae, 152.

-Year before the formation of the famous Achaean league, 183.

-Year before the commencement of the first Punic war, 200.

-Year before the fall of the Macedonian empire, 296.

-Year before the destruction of Carthage by Scipio, and of

Corinth by Mummius, 317.

-Year before the commencement of the Jugurthine war, which

continued five years, 354.

-Year before the commencement of the Social war, which continued

for five years, and was finished by Sylla, 374.

-Year before the commencement of the Mithridatic war, which

continued for twenty-six years, 376.

-Year before the commencement of the Servile war, under

Spartacus, 392.

-Year before the extinction of the reign of the Seleucidae in

Syria, on the conquest of that country by Pompey, 399.

-Year before the era of the Roman emperors, 433.

-Year of Archidamus, king of Lacedaemon, and of the family of

the Proclidae, or Eurypontidae, 6.

-Year of Plistoanax, king of Lacedaemon, and of the family of

the Eurysthenidae, or Agidae, 3.

-Year of Alexander, the tenth king of Macedon, 34.

-Year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, king of Persia, 1.

-Roman Consuls, Aulus Postumius, and Sp. Furius.


Ahasuerus makes royal feasts for his nobles and people, 1-9.

Vashti is sent for by the king, but refuses to come, 10-12.

Vashti is disgraced; and a law made for the subjection of

women, 13-22.

The whole history of this book in its connected order, with the

occurrences in the Persian empire at that time, will be found in

the introduction: to which the reader is referred.

Concerning the author of this book there are several opinions:

some attribute the work to Ezra; some to one Joachim, a high

priest; others, to the men of the Great Synagogue; and others to

Mordecai. This latter is the most likely opinion: nor is that to

be disregarded which gives to Mordecai for co-partner Ezra

himself; though it is likely that the conclusion, from Es 9:23 to

the end of the book, was inserted by another hand, and at a later

time. Though some Christians have hesitated to receive the book of

Esther into the sacred canon; yet it has always been received by

the Jews, not only as perfectly authentic, but also as one of the

most excellent of their sacred books. They call it megillah,

THE VOLUME, by way of eminence; and hold it in the highest

estimation. That it records the history of a real fact, the

observation of the feast of Purim, to the present day, is a

sufficient evidence. Indeed, this is one of the strongest

evidences that any fact can have, viz., that, to commemorate it, a

certain rite, procession, feast, or the like, should have been

instituted at the time, which, without intermission, has been

continued annually through every generation of that people, and in

whatsoever place they or parties of them may have sojourned, to

the present day. This is the fact concerning the feast of Purim

here mentioned; which the Jews, in all places of their dispersion,

have uninterruptedly celebrated, and do still continue to

celebrate, from the time of their deliverance from the massacre

intended by Haman to the present time. Copies of this book, widely

differing from each other, exist in Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac,

Greek, and Latin. All these differ much from the Hebrew text,

particularly the Greek and the Chaldee: the former has many

additional paragraphs; and the latter, as it exists in the London

Polyglot, contains five times more than the Hebrew text. To notice

all the various readings, additions, and paraphrases, in the above

copies, would require a volume of no inconsiderable magnitude. The

reader who is curious may consult the above Polyglot. This book

does not appear to be extant in Arabic, or in any other of the

Oriental languages, besides the Hebrew and Syriac.

The question may naturally arise, What was the original of this

book? or, In what language was it written? Though learned men in

general decide in favour of a Hebrew original, yet there are many

reasons which might be urged in favour of the Persian. Several of

the proper names are evidently of a Persian origin; and no doubt

all the others are so; but they are so transformed by passing

through the Hebrew, that they are no longer discernible. The

Hebrew has even retained some of the Persian words, having done

little else than alter the character, e.g., Esther, Mehuman,

Mishak, Melzar, Vashti, Shushan, Pur, Darius, Paradise, &c.,

several of which will be noted in their proper places. The Targum

in the London Polyglot is widely different from that in the

Complutum, Antwerp, and Paris editions. The principal additions

in the Greek are carefully marked in the London Polyglot, but are

too long and too numerous to be inserted here. It is a singular

circumstance that the name of God does not once occur in the whole

of this book as it stands in Hebrew.


Verse 1. Now it came to pass] The Ahasuerus of the Romans, the

Artaxerxes of the Greeks and Ardsheer of the Persians, are

the same. Some think that this Ahasuerus was Darius, the son of

Hystaspes; but Prideaux and others maintain that he was

Artaxerxes Longimanus.

Reigned from India even unto Ethiopia] This is nearly the same

account that is given by Xenophon. How great and glorious the

kingdom of Cyrus was beyond all the kingdoms of Asia, was evident

from this: ωρισθημενπρωσεωτηερυθραθαλαττηπροςαρκτονδε


μεσημβριανδεαιθιοπια. "It was bounded on the east by the Red

Sea; on the north by the Euxine Sea; on the west by Cyprus and

Egypt; and on the south by Ethiopia."-CYROP. lib. viii., p. 241,

edit. Steph. 1581.

Verse 2. Sat on the throne of his kingdom] Having subdued all

his enemies, and brought universal peace to his empire. See the

commencement of the introduction.

Shushan the palace] The ancient city of Susa, now called

[Persian] Shuster by the Persians. This, with Ecbatana and

Babylon, was a residence of the Persian kings. The word

habbirah, which we render the palace, should be rendered the

city, ενσουσοιςτηπολει, as in the Septuagint.

Verse 4. The riches of his glorious kingdom] Luxury was the

characteristic of the Eastern monarchs, and particularly of the

Persians. In their feasts, which were superb and of long

continuance, they made a general exhibition of their wealth,

grandeur, &c., and received the highest encomiums from their poets

and flatterers. Their ostentation on such occasions passed into a

proverb: hence Horace:-

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus:

Displicent nexae philyra coronae;

Mitte sectari, rosa quo locorum

Sera moretur.

I tell thee, boy, that I detest

The grandeur of a Persian feast;

Nor for me the linden's rind

Shall the flowery chaplet bind.

Then search not where the curious rose

Beyond his season loitering grows.


Verse 5. A feast unto all the people] The first was a feast for

the nobles in general; this, for the people of the city at large.

In the court of the garden] As the company was very numerous

that was to be received, no apartments in the palace could be

capable of containing them; therefore the court of the garden was


Verse 6. White, green, and blue hangings] It was customary, on

such occasions, not only to hang the place about with elegant

curtains of the above colours, as Dr. Shaw and others have

remarked, but also to have a canopy of rich stuffs suspended on

cords from side to side of the place in which they feasted. And

such courts were ordinarily paved with different coloured marbles,

or with tiles painted, as above specified. And this was the origin

of the Musive or Mosaic work, well known among the Asiatics, and

borrowed from them by the Greeks and the Romans.

The beds of gold and silver mentioned here were the couches

covered with gold and silver cloth, on which the guests reclined.

Verse 7. Vessels being diverse] They had different services of


Verse 8. None did compel: for so the king had appointed] Every

person drank what he pleased; he was not obliged to take more than

he had reason to think would do him good.

Among the Greeks, each guest was obliged to keep the round, or

leave the company: hence the proverb ηπιθιηαπιθι; Drink or

begone. To this Horace refers, but gives more license:-

Pasco libatis dapibus; prout cuique libido est.

Siccat inaequales calices conviva, solutus

Legibus insanis: seu quis capit acria fortis

Pocula; seu modicis humescit aetius.

HORAT. Sat. lib. ii., s. vi., ver. 67.

There, every guest may drink and fill

As much or little as he will;

Exempted from the Bedlam rules

Of roaring prodigals and fools.

Whether, in merry mood or whim,

He fills his goblet to the brim;

Or, better pleased to let it pass,

Is cheerful with a moderate glass.


At the Roman feasts there was a person chosen by the cast of

dice, who was the Arbiter bibendi, and prescribed rules to the

company, which all were obliged to observe. References to this

custom may be seen in the same poet. ODAR. lib. i., Od. iv., ver.


Non regna vini sortiere talis.

And in lib. ii., Od. vii., ver. 25:-

____Quem Venus arbitrum

Dicet bibendi?

Mr. Herbert, in his excellent poem, The Church Porch, has five

verses on this vile custom and its rule:-

Drink not the third glass, which thou canst not tame

When once it is within thee, but before

Mayst rule it as thou list; and pour the shame,

Which it would pour on thee, upon the floor.

It is most just to throw that on the ground,

Which would throw me there if I keep the round.

He that is drunken may his mother kill,

Big with his sister; he hath lost the reins;

Is outlawed by himself. All kinds of ill

Did with his liquor slide into his veins.

The drunkard forfeits man; and doth divest

All worldly right, save what he hath by beast.

Nothing too severe can be said on this destructive practice.

Verse 9. Also Vashti the queen] [Persian] Vashti is a mere

Persian word; and signifies a beautiful or excellent woman.

Made a feast for the women] The king, having subdued all his

enemies, left no competitor for the kingdom; and being thus

quietly and firmly seated on the throne, made this a time of

general festivity. As the women of the East never mingle with

the men in public, Vashti made a feast for the Persian ladies by

themselves; and while the men were in the court of the garden, the

women were in the royal house.

Verse 10. He commanded Mehuman] All these are doubtless Persian

names; but so disguised by passing through a Hebrew medium, that

some of them can scarcely be known. [Persian] Mehuman signifies a

stranger or guest. We shall find other names and words in this

book, the Persian etymology of which may be easily traced.

Verse 11. To bring Vashti the queen] The Targum adds naked.

For she was fair to look on.] Hence she had her name [Persian]

Vashti, which signifies beautiful. See Es 1:9.

Verse 12. Vashti refused to come] And much should she be

commended for it. What woman, possessing even a common share of

prudence and modesty, could consent to expose herself to the

view of such a group of drunken Bacchanalians? Her courage was

equal to her modesty: she would resist the royal mandate, rather

than violate the rules of chaste decorum.

Her contempt of worldly grandeur, when brought in competition

with what every modest woman holds dear and sacred, is worthy of

observation. She well knew that this act of disobedience would

cost her her crown, if not her life also: but she was regardless

of both, as she conceived her virtue and honour were at stake.

Her humility was greatly evidenced in this refusal. She was

beautiful; and might have shown herself to great advantage, and

have had a fine opportunity of gratifying her vanity, if she had

any: but she refused to come.

Hail, noble woman! be thou a pattern to all thy sex on every

similar occasion! Surely, every thing considered, we have few

women like Vashti; for some of the highest of the land will dress

and deck themselves with the utmost splendour, even to the

selvedge of their fortunes, to exhibit themselves at balls,

plays, galas, operas, and public assemblies of all kinds, (nearly

half naked,) that they may be seen and admired of men, and even,

to the endless reproach and broad suspicion of their honour and

chastity, figure away in masquerades! Vashti must be considered at

the top of her sex:-

Rara avis in terris, nigroque simillima cygno.

A black swan is not half so rare a bird.

Verse 13. To the wise men] Probably the lawyers.

Verse 14. And the next unto him-the seven princes] Probably, the

privy counsellors of the king. Which saw the king's face-were at

all times admitted to the royal presence.

Verse 16. Vashti-hath not done wrong to the king only] This

reasoning or arguing was inconsequent and false. Vashti had not

generally disobeyed the king, therefore she could be no

precedent for the general conduct of the Persian women. She

disobeyed only in one particular; and this, to serve a purpose,

Memucan draws into a general consequence; and the rest came to the

conclusion which he drew, being either too drunk to be able to

discern right from wrong, or too intent on reducing the women to a

state of vassalage, to neglect the present favourable opportunity.

Verse 18. The ladies of Persia] saroth, the princesses;

but the meaning is very well expressed by our term ladies.

Verse 19. That it be not altered] Let it be inserted among the

permanent laws, and made a part of the constitution of the

empire. Perhaps the Persians affected such a degree of wisdom in

the construction of their laws, that they never could be amended,

and should never be repeated. And this we may understand to be the

ground of the saying, The laws of the Medes and Persians, that

change not.

Verse 22. That every man should bear rule in his own house] Both

God's law and common sense taught this from the foundation of the

world. And is it possible that this did not obtain in the Persian

empire, previously to this edict? The twentieth verse has another

clause, That all wives shall give to their husbands honour, both

to great and small. This also was universally understood. This law

did nothing. I suppose the parade of enactment was only made to

deprive honest Vashti of her crown. The Targum adds, "That each

woman should speak the language of her husband." If she were even

a foreigner, she should be obliged to learn and speak the language

of the king. Perhaps there might be some common sense in this, as

it would oblige the foreigner to devote much time to study and

improvement; and, consequently, to make her a better woman, and a

better wife. But there is no proof that this was a part of the

decree. But there are so many additions to this book in the

principal versions, that we know not what might have made a part

of it originally.

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