Job 39


Several animals described: the wild goats and hinds, 1-4.

The wild ass, 5-8.

The unicorn, 9-12.

The peacock and ostrich, 13-18.

The war-horse, 19-25.

The hawk, 26.

And the eagle and her brood, 27-30.


Verse 1. Knowest thou the time] To know time, &c., only, was

easy, and has nothing extraordinary in it; but the meaning of

these questions is, to know the circumstances, which have

something peculiarly expressive of God's providence, and make the

questions proper in this place. Pliny observes, that the hind with

young is by instinct directed to a certain herb, named seselis,

which facilitates the birth. Thunder, also, which looks like the

more immediate hand of Providence, has the same effect. Ps 29:9:

"The VOICE of the Lord maketh the HINDS to CALVE." See Dr. YOUNG.

What is called the wild goat, yael, from alah, to

ascend, go or mount up, is generally understood to be the ibex or

mountain goat, called yael, from the wonderful manner in which

it mounts to the tops of the highest rocks. It is certain, says

Johnston, there is no crag of the mountains so high, prominent

or steep, but this animal will mount it in a number of leaps,

provided only it be rough, and have protuberances large enough to

receive its hoofs in leaping. This animal is indigenous to Arabia,

is of amazing strength and agility, and considerably larger than

the common goat. Its horns are very long, and often bend back over

the whole body of the animal; and it is said to throw itself from

the tops of rocks or towers, and light upon its horns, without

receiving any damage. It goes five months with young.

When the hinds do calve?] The hind is the female of the stag,

or cervus elaphus, and goes eight months with young. They live to

thirty-five or forty years. Incredible longevity has been

attributed to some stags. One was taken by Charles VI., in the

forest of Senlis, about whose neck was a collar with this

inscription, Caesar hoc mihi donavit, which led some to believe

that this animal had lived from the days of some one of the twelve

Caesars, emperors of Rome.

I have seen the following form of this inscription:-

Tempore quo Caesar Roma dominatus in alta

Aureolo jussit collum signare monili;

Ne depascentem quisquis me gramina laedat.

Caesaris heu! caussa periturae parcere vitae!

Which has been long public in the old English ballad strain,


"When Julius Caesar reigned king,

About my neck he put this ring;

That whosoever should me take

Would save my life for Caesar's sake."

Aristotle mentions the longevity of the stag, but thinks it


Verse 3. They bow themselves] In order to bring forth their

young ones.

They cast out their sorrows.] chebleyhem; the placenta,

afterbirth, or umbilical cord. So this word has been understood.

Verse 4. In good liking] After the fawns have sucked for some

time, the dam leads them to the pastures, where they feed on

different kinds of herbage; but not on corn, for they are not born

before harvest-time in Arabia and Palestine, and the stag does not

feed on corn, but on grass, moss, and the shoots of the fir,

beech, and other trees: therefore the word bar, here

translated corn, should be translated the open field or country.

See Parkhurst. Their nurslings bound away.-Mr. Good. In a short

time they become independent of the mother, leave her, and return

no more. The spirit of the questions in these verses appears to be

the following:-Understandest thou the cause of breeding of the

mountain goats, &c.? Art thou acquainted with the course and

progress of the parturition, and the manner in which the bones

grow, and acquire solidity in the womb? See Mr. Good's


Houbigant's version appears very correct: (Knowest thou) "how

their young ones grow up, increase in the fields, and once

departing, return to them no more?"

Verse 5. Who hath sent out the wild ass free?] pere, which

we translate wild ass, is the same as the ονοςαγριος of the

Greeks, and the onager of the Latins; which must not, says Buffon,

be confounded with the zebra, for this is an animal of a different

species from the ass. The wild ass is not striped like the

zebra, nor so elegantly shaped. There are many of those

animals in the deserts of Libya and Numidia: they are of a gray

colour; and run so swiftly that no horse but the Arab barbs can

overtake them. Wild asses are found in considerable numbers in

East and South Tartary, in Persia, Syria, the islands of the

Archipelago, and throughout Mauritania. They differ from tame

asses only in their independence and liberty, and in their being

stronger and more nimble: but in their shape they are the same.

See on Job 6:5.

The bands of the wild ass?] arod, the brayer, the

same animal, but called thus because of the frequent and peculiar

noise he makes. But Mr. Good supposes this to be a different

animal from the wild ass, (the jichta or equus hemionus,) which is

distinguished by having solid hoofs, a uniform colour, no cross on

the back, and the tail hairy only at the tip. The ears and tail

resemble those of the zebra; the hoofs and body, those of the ass;

and the limbs, those of the horse. It inhabits Arabia, China,

Siberia, and Tartary, in glassy saline plains or salt wastes, as

mentioned in the following verse.

Verse 6. Whose house] Habitation, or place of resort.

The barren land] melechah, the salt land, or salt

places, as in the margin. See above.

Verse 7. He scorneth the multitude] He is so swift that he

cannot be run or hunted down. See the description in Job 39:5.

Verse 8. The range of the mountains] The mountains and desert

places are his peculiar places of pasture; and he lives on any

thing that is green, or any kind of vegetable production.

Verse 9. Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee?] The "fine

elegant animal like a horse, with one long rich curled horn

growing out of his forehead," commonly called the unicorn, must be

given up as fabulous. The heralds must claim him as their own;

place him in their armorial bearings as they please, to indicate

the unreal actions, fictitious virtues, and unfought martial

exploits of mispraised men. It is not to the honour of the royal

arms of Great Britain that this fabulous animal should be one of

their supporters.

The animal in question, called reim, is undoubtedly the

rhinoceros, who has the latter name from the horn that grows on

his nose. The rhinoceros is known by the name of reim in Arabia to

the present day. He is allowed to be a savage animal, showing

nothing of the intellect of the elephant. His horn enables him to

combat the latter with great success; for, by putting his nose

under the elephant's belly, he can rip him up. His skin is like

armour, and so very hard as to resist sabres, javelins, lances,

and even musket-balls; the only penetrable parts being the belly,

the eyes, and about the ears.

Or abide by thy crib?] These and several of the following

expressions are intended to point out his savage, untameable


Verse 10. Canst thou bind the unicorn-in the furrow?] He will

not plough, nor draw in the yoke with another? nor canst thou use

him singly, to harrow the ground.

Verse 12. That he will bring home thy seed] Thou canst make no

domestic nor agricultural use of him.

Verse 13. The goodly wings unto the peacocks?] I believe

peacocks are not intended here; and the Hebrew word

renanim should be translated ostriches; and the term

chasidah, which we translate ostrich, should be, as it is

elsewhere translated, stork; and perhaps the word notsah,

rendered here feathers, should be translated hawk, or pelican.

The Vulgate has, Penna struthionis similis est pennis herodii et

accipitris; "the feather of the ostrich is like to that of the

stork and the hawk." The Chaldee has, "The wing of the wild cock,

who crows and claps his wings, is like to the wing of the stork

and the hawk." The Septuagint, not knowing what to make of these

different terms, have left them all untranslated, so as to make a

sentence without sense. Mr. Good has come nearest both to the

original and to the meaning, by translating thus:-

"The wing of the ostrich tribe is for flapping;

But of the stork and falcon for flight."

Though the wings of the ostrich, says he, cannot raise it from

the ground, yet by the motion here alluded to, by a perpetual

vibration, or flapping-by perpetually catching or drinking in the

wind, (as the term neelasah implies, which we render

goodly,) they give it a rapidity of running beyond that

possessed by any other animal in the world. Adanson informs us,

that when he was at the factory in Padore, he was in possession of

two tame ostriches; and to try their strength, says he, "I made a

full-grown negro mount the smallest, and two others the largest.

This burden did not seem at all disproportioned to their strength.

At first they went a pretty high trot; and, when they were heated

a little, they expanded their wings, as if it were to catch the

wind, and they moved with such fleetness as to seem to be off the

ground. And I am satisfied that those ostriches would have

distanced the fleetest race-horses that were ever bred in


As to notsah, here translated falcon, Mr. Good

observes, that the term [Arabian] naz is used generally by the

Arabian writers to signify both falcon and hawk; and there can be

little doubt that such is the real meaning of the Hebrew word; and

that it imports various species of the falcon family, as

jer-falcon, gos-hawk, and sparrow-hawk.

"The argument drawn from natural history advances from

quadrupeds to birds; and of birds, those only are selected for

description which are most common to the country in which the

scene lies, and at the same time are most singular in their

properties. Thus the ostrich is admirably contrasted with the

stork and the eagle, as affording us an instance of a winged

animal totally incapable of flight, but endued with an unrivalled

rapidity of running, compared with birds whose flight is

proverbially fleet, powerful, and persevering. Let man, in the

pride of his wisdom, explain or arraign this difference of


"Again, the ostrich is peculiarly opposed to the stork and to

some species of the eagle in another sense, and a sense adverted

to in the verses immediately ensuing; for the ostrich is well

known to take little or no care of its eggs, or of its young,

while the stork ever has been, and ever deserves to be, held in

proverbial repute for its parental tenderness. The Hebrew word

chasidah, imports kindness or affection; and our own term

stork, if derived from the Greek στοργη, storge, as some

pretend, has the same original meaning."-GOOD'S JOB.

Verse 14. Which leaveth her eggs in the earth] This want of

parental affection in the ostrich is almost universally

acknowledged. Mr. Jackson, in his Account of Morocco, observes:

"The ostrich, having laid her eggs, goes away, forgetting or

forsaking them: and if some other ostrich discover them, she

hatches them as if they were her own, forgetting probably whether

they are or are not; so deficient is the recollection of this

bird." This illustrates Job 39:15: "And forgetteth that the foot

may crush them, or that the wild beast may break them." The poet

seems well acquainted with every part of the subject on which he

writes; and facts incontestable confirm all he says. For farther

illustration, see the account from Dr. Shaw at the end of the

chapter. See Clarke on Job 39:30.

Verse 16. She is hardened against her young] See before, and the

extracts from Dr. Shaw at the end of the chapter.

See Clarke on Job 39:30.

She neglects her little ones, which are often found half starved,

straggling, and moaning about, like so many deserted orphans, for

their mother.

Verse 17. God hath deprived her of wisdom] Of this foolishness

we have an account from the ancients; and here follow two

instances: "1. It covers its head in the reeds, and thinks itself

all out of sight because itself cannot see. So Claudian:-

____________ 'Stat lumine clauso

Ridendum revoluta caput: creditque latere

Quad non ipsa videt.'

"2. They who hunt them draw the skin of an ostrich's neck on one

hand, which proves a sufficient lure to take them with the other.

They have so little brain that Heliogabalus had six hundred heads

for his supper. Here we may observe, that our judicious as well as

sublime author just touches the great points of distinction in

each creature, and then hastens to another. A description is exact

when you cannot add but what is common to another thing; nor

withdraw, but something peculiarly belonging to the thing

described. A likeness is lost in too much description, as a

meaning is often in too much illustration."-Dr. YOUNG.

Verse 18. She lifteth up herself] When she raiseth up herself to

run away. Proofs of the fleetness of this bird have already been

given. It neither flies nor runs distinctly, but has a motion

composed of both; and, using its wings as sails, makes great

speed. So Claudian:-

Vasta velut Libyae venantum vocibus ales

Cum premitur, calidas cursu transmittit arenas,

Inque modum veli sinuatis flamine pennis

Pulverulenta volat.

"Xenophon says, Cyrus had horses that could overtake the goat and

the wild ass; but none that could reach this creature. A thousand

golden ducats, or a hundred camels, was the stated price of a

horse that could equal their speed."-Dr. YOUNG.

Verse 19. Hast thou given the horse strength?] Before I proceed

to any observations, I shall give Mr. Good's version of this,

perhaps inimitable, description:-

Ver. 19. Hast thou bestowed on the horse mettle?

Hast thou clothed his neck with the thunder flash?

Ver. 20. Hast thou given him to launch forth as an arrow?

Terrible is the pomp of his nostrils.

Ver. 21. He paweth in the valley, and exulteth.

Boldly he advanceth against the clashing host:

Ver. 22. He mocketh at fear, and trembleth not:

Nor turneth he back from the sword.

Ver. 23. Against him rattleth the quiver,

The glittering spear, and the shield:

Ver. 24. With rage and fury he devoureth the ground;

And is impatient when the trumpet soundeth.

Ver. 25. He exclaimeth among the trumpets, Aha!

And scenteth the battle afar off,

The thunder of the chieftains, and the shouting.

In the year 1713, a letter was sent to the GUARDIAN, which makes

No. 86 of that work, containing a critique on this description,

compared with similar descriptions of Homer and Virgil. I shall

give the substance of it here:-

The great Creator, who accommodated himself to those to whom he

vouchsafed to speak, hath put into the mouths of his prophets such

sublime sentiments and exalted language as must abash the pride

and wisdom of man. In the book of Job, the most ancient poem in

the world, we have such paintings and descriptions as I have

spoken of in great variety. I shall at present make some remarks

on the celebrated description of the horse, in that holy book; and

compare it with those drawn by Homer and Virgil.

Homer hath the following similitude of a horse twice over in the

Iliad, which Virgil hath copied from him; at least he hath

deviated less from Homer than Mr. Dryden hath from him:-







HOM. Il. lib. vi., ver. 506; and lib. xv., ver. 263.

Freed from his keepers, thus with broken reins

The wanton courser prances o'er the plains,

Or in the pride of youth o'erleaps the mound,

And snuffs the female in forbidden ground;

Or seeks his watering in the well-known flood,

To quench his thirst, and cool his fiery blood;

He swims luxuriant in the liquid plain,

And o'er his shoulders flows his waving mane;

He neighs, he snorts, he bears his head on high;

Before his ample chest the frothy waters fly.

Virgil's description is much fuller than the foregoing, which, as

I said, is only a simile; whereas Virgil professes to treat of the

nature of the horse:-

______ Tum, si qua sonum procul arma dedere,

Stare loco nescit: micat auribus, et tremit artus

Collectumque premens volvit sub naribus ignem:

Densa juba, et dextro jactata recumbit in armo.

At duplex agitur per lumbos spina, cavatque

Tellurem, et solido graviter sonat ungula cornu.

VIRG. Georg. lib. iii., ver. 83.

Which is thus admirably translated:-

The fiery courser, when he hears from far

The sprightly trumpets, and the shouts of war,

Pricks up his ears; and, trembling with delight,

Shifts pace, and paws, and hopes the promised fight.

On his right shoulder his thick mane reclined,

Ruffles at speed, and dances in the wind.

His horny hoofs are jetty black and round;

His chin is double: starting with a bound,

He turns the turf, and shakes the solid ground.

Fire from his eyes, clouds from his nostrils flow;

He bears his rider headlong on the foe.

Now follows that in the Book of Job, which, under all the

disadvantages of having been written in a language little

understood, of being expressed in phrases peculiar to a part of

the world whose manner of thinking and speaking seems to us very

uncouth; and, above all, of appearing in a prose translation; is

nevertheless so transcendently above the heathen descriptions,

that hereby we may perceive how faint and languid the images are

which are formed by human authors, when compared with those which

are figured, as it were, just as they appear in the eye of the

Creator. God, speaking to Job, asks him:-

[To do our translators as much justice as possible, and to help

the critic, I shall throw it in the hemistich form, in which it

appears in the Hebrew, and in which all Hebrew poetry is written.]

Ver. 19. Hast thou given to the HORSE strength?

Hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?

Ver. 20. Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper?

The glory of his nostrils is terrible!

Ver. 21. He paweth in the valley, and rejoiceth in strength:

He goeth on to meet the armed men.

Ver. 22. He mocketh at fear, and is not affrighted:

Neither turneth he back from the sword.

Ver. 23. Against him rattleth the quiver,

The glittering spear and the shield.

Ver. 24. He swalloweth the ground with rage and fierceness:

Nor doth he believe that it is the sound of the


Ver. 25. He saith among the trumpets, Heach!

And from afar he scenteth the battle,

The thunder of the captains, and the shouting.

Here are all the great and sprightly images that thought can form

of this generous beast, expressed in such force and vigour of

style as would have given the great wits of antiquity new laws for

the sublime, had they been acquainted with these writings.

I cannot but particularly observe that whereas the classical

poets chiefly endeavour to paint the outward figure, lineaments,

and motions, the sacred poet makes all the beauties to flow from

an inward principle in the creature he describes; and thereby

gives great spirit and vivacity to his description. The following

phrases and circumstances are singularly remarkable:-

Ver. 19. Hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?

Homer and Virgil mention nothing about the neck of the horse but

his mane. The sacred author, by the bold figure of thunder, not

only expresses the shaking of that remarkable beauty in the horse,

and the flakes of hair, which naturally suggest the idea of

lightning; but likewise the violent agitation and force of the

neck, which in the oriental tongues had been flatly expressed by a

metaphor less bold than this.

Ver. 20. Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper?

There is a twofold beauty in this expression, which not only

marks the courage of this beast, by asking if he can be scared;

but likewise raises a noble image of his swiftness, by insinuating

that, if he could be frightened, he would bound away with the

nimbleness of a grasshopper.

The glory of his nostrils is terrible.] This is more strong

and concise than that of Virgil, which yet is the noblest line

that was ever written without inspiration:-

Collectumque premens volvit sub naribus ignem.

And in his nostrils rolls collected fire.

GEOR. iii., ver. 85.

Ver. 21. He rejoiceth in his strength.

Ver. 22. He mocketh at fear.

Ver. 24. Neither believeth he that it is the sound of the


Ver. 25. He saith among the trumpets, Ha! ha!

These are signs of courage, as I said before, flowing from an

inward principle. There is a peculiar beauty in his not believing

it is the sound of the trumpet: that is, he cannot believe it for

joy; but when he is sure of it, and is among the trumpets, he

saith, Ha! ha! He neighs, he rejoices.

His docility is elegantly painted in his being unmoved at the

rattling quiver, the glittering spear, and the shield, Job 39:23,

and is well imitated by Oppian,-who undoubtedly read Job, as

Virgil did,-in his Poem on Hunting:-







OPPIAN CYNEGET, lib. i., ver. 206.

Now firm the managed war-horse keeps his ground,

Nor breaks his order though the trumpet sound!

With fearless eye the glittering host surveys,

And glares directly at the helmet's blaze.

The master's word, the laws of war, he knows;

And when to stop, and when to charge the foes.

He swalloweth the ground, Job 39:24, is an expression for

prodigious swiftness in use among the Arabians, Job's

countrymen, to the present day. The Latins have something like


Latumque fuga consumere campum.


In flight the extended champaign to consume.

Carpere prata fuga.

VIRG. GEORG. III., Ver. 142.

In flight to crop the meads.

__________Campumque volatu

Cum rapuere, pedum vestigia quaeras.

When, in their fight, the champaign they have snatch'd,

No track is left behind.

It is indeed the boldest and noblest of images for swiftness; nor

have I met with any thing that comes so near it as Mr. Pope's, in

Windsor Forest:-

Th' impatient courser pants in every vein,

And pawing, seems to beat the distant plain;

Hills, vales, and floods, appear already cross'd;

And ere he starts, a thousand steps are lost.

He smelleth the battle afar off, and what follows about the

shouting, is a circumstance expressed with great spirit by


So when the ring with joyful shouts resounds,

With rage and pride th' imprison'd courser bounds;

He frets, he foams, he rends his idle rein,

Springs o'er the fence, and headlong seeks the plain.

This judicious and excellent critique has left me little to say

on this sublime description of the horse: I shall add some cursory

notes only. In Job 39:19 we have the singular image,

clothed his neck with thunder. How thunder and the horse's neck

can be well assimilated to each other, I confess I cannot see. The

author of the preceding critique seems to think that the principal

part of the allusion belongs to the shaking of this remarkable

beauty (the mane) in a horse; and the flakes of hair, which

naturally suggest the idea of lightning. I am satisfied that the

floating mane is here meant. The original is ramah, which

Bochart and other learned men translate as above. How much the

mane of a horse shaking and waving in the wind adds to his

beauty and stateliness, every one is sensible; and the Greek and

Latin poets, in their description of the horse, take notice of it.

Thus Homer:-



ILIAD vi., ver. 509.

"His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies."

And Virgil:-

Luduntque per colla, per armos.

AEN. xi., ver. 497.

The verb raam signifies to toss, to agitate; and may

very properly be applied to the mane, for reasons obvious to all.

Virgil has seized this characteristic in his fine line, Georg.

iii. ver. 86:-

Densa juba, et dextro jactata recumbit in armo.

"His toss'd thick mane on his right shoulder falls."

Naturally, the horse is one of the most timid of animals; and

this may be at once accounted for from his small quantity of

brain. Perhaps there is no animal of his size that has so

little. He acquires courage only from discipline; for naturally

he starts with terror and affright at any sudden noise. It

requires much discipline to bring him to hear the noise of drums

and trumpets, and especially to bear a pair of kettle drums placed

on each side his neck, and beaten there, with the most alarming

variety of sounds. Query, Does the sacred text allude to any thing

of this kind? I have been led to form this thought from the

following circumstance. In some ancient MSS. of the Shah Nameh, a

most eminent heroic poem, by the poet Ferdoosy, the Homer of

India, in my own collection, adorned with paintings, representing

regal interviews, animals, battles, &c., there appear in some

places representations of elephants, horses, and camels, with a

pair of drums, something like our kettle drums, hanging on each

side of the animal's neck, and beaten, by a person on the saddle,

with two plectrums or drumsticks; the neck itself being literally

clothed with the drums and the housings on which they are fixed.

Who is it then that has framed the disposition of such a timid

animal, that by proper discipline it can bear those thundering

sounds, which at first would have scared it to the uttermost of

distraction? The capacity to receive discipline and instruction

is as great a display of the wisdom of God as the formation of

the bodies of the largest, smallest, or most complex animals is of

his power. I leave this observation without laying any stress upon

it. On such difficult subjects conjecture has a lawful range.

Verse 21. He paweth in the valley] yachperu, "they dig

in the valley," i.e., in his violent galloping, in every pitch of

his body, he scoops up sods out of the earth. Virgil has seized

this idea also, in his cavat tellurem; "he scoops out the ground."

See before.

Verse 25. He saith among the trumpets, Ha, ha] The original is

peculiarly emphatical: Heach! a strong, partly nasal, partly

guttural sound, exactly resembling the first note which the horse

emits in neighing. The strong, guttural sounds in this hemistich

are exceedingly expressive: Heach! umerachok

yariach milchamah; "Heach, for from afar he scenteth the battle."

The reader will perceive that Mr. Good has given a very

different meaning to Job 39:20 from that in the present text,

Canst thou make him afraid as a grasshopper? by translating the

Hebrew thus:-

"Hast thou given him to launch forth as an arrow?"

The word arbeh, which we translate locust or grasshopper,

and which he derives from rabah, the aleph being

merely formative, he says, "may as well mean an arrow as it does

in Job 16:13,

rabbaiv, 'His arrows fly around me.'" The verb raash in the

word hatharishennu, "Canst thou make him afraid?' he

contends, "signifies to tremble, quiver, rush, launch, dart forth;

and, taken in this sense, it seems to unite the two ideas of

rapidity and coruscation." This is the principal alteration

which this learned man has made in the text.

I shall conclude on this subject by giving Coverdale's

translation: Hast thou geven the horse his strength, or lerned him

how to bow down his neck with feare; that he letteth himself be

dryven forth like a greshopper, where as the stout neyenge that he

maketh is fearfull? He breaketh the grounde with the hoffes of his

fete chearfully in his strength, and runneth to mete the harnest

men. He layeth aside all feare, his stomach is not abated, neither

starteth he aback for eny swerde. Though the qyvers rattle upon

him, though the speare and shilde glistre: yet russheth he in

fearsley, and beateth upon the grounde. He feareth not the noise

of the trompettes, but as soone as he heareth the shawmes blowe,

Tush (sayeth he) for he smelleth the batell afarre of, the noyse,

the captaynes, and the shoutinge. This is wonderfully nervous, and

at the same time accurate.

Verse 26. Doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom] The hawk is called

nets, from its swiftness in darting down upon its prey; hence its

Latin name, nisus, which is almost the same as the Hebrew. It

may very probably mean the falcon, observes Dr. Shaw. The flight

of a strong falcon is wonderfully swift. A falcon belonging to the

Duke of Cleves flew out of Westphalia into Prussia in one day; and

in the county of Norfolk, a hawk has made a flight at a woodcock

of near thirty miles in an hour. Thuanus says, "A hawk flew from

London to Paris in one night." It was owing to its swiftness that

the Egyptians in their hieroglyphics made it the emblem of the


Stretch her wings toward the south?] Most of the falcon tribe

pass their spring and summer in cold climates; and wing their way

toward warmer regions on the approach of winter. This is what is

here meant by stretching her wings toward the south. Is it through

thy teaching that this or any other bird of passage knows the

precise time for taking flight, and the direction in which she is

to go in order to come to a warmer climate? There is much of the

wisdom and providence of God to be seen in the migration of

birds of passage. This has been remarked before. There is a

beautiful passage in Jeremiah, Jer 8:7, on the same subject: "The

stork in the heavens knoweth her appointed times; and the turtle,

and the crane, and the swallow, observe the time of their coming:

but my people know not the judgment of the Lord."

Verse 27. Doth the eagle mount up] The eagle is said to be of so

acute a sight, that when she is so high in the air that men cannot

see her, she can discern a small fish in the water! See on

Job 39:29.

Verse 28. Upon the crag of the rock] shen sela, the

tooth of the rock, i.e., some projecting part, whither

adventurous man himself dares not follow her.

And the strong place.] umetsudah. Mr. Good

translates this word ravine, and joins it to Job 39:29, thus:

"And thence espieth the ravine: her eyes trace the prey afar off."

Verse 29. Her eyes behold afar off.] The eagle was proverbial

for her strong and clear sight. So Horace, lib. i., sat. iii., ver.


Cum tua pervideas oculis mala lippus inunctis,

Cur in amicorum vitas tam cernis acutum,

Quam aut aquila, aut serpens Epidaurius?

"For wherefore while you carelessly pass by

Your own worst vices with unheeding eye,

Why so sharp-sighted in another's fame,

Strong as an eagle's ken, or dragon's beam?"


So AElian, lib. i., cap. 42. And Homer, Iliad xvii., calls the

eagle οξυτατονυπουρανιωνπετεηνων, "The most quick-sighted of all

fowls under heaven."

Verse 30. Her young ones also suck up blood] The eagle does not

feed her young with carrion, but with prey newly slain, so that

they may suck up blood.

Where the slain are, there is she.] These words are quoted by

our Lord. "Wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be

gathered together," Mt 24:28. It is likely, however, that this

was a proverbial mode of expression; and our Lord adapts it to the

circumstances of the Jewish people, who were about to fall a prey

to the Romans. See the notes there.

IN the preceding notes I have referred to Dr. Shaw's account of

the ostrich as the most accurate and authentic yet published. With

the following description I am sure every intelligent reader will

be pleased.

"In commenting therefore upon these texts it may be observed,

that when the ostrich is full grown, the neck, particularly of the

male, which before was almost naked, is now very beautifully

covered with red feathers. The plumage likewise upon the

shoulders, the back, and some parts of the wings, from being

hitherto of a dark grayish colour, becomes now as black as jet,

whilst the rest of the feathers retain an exquisite whiteness.

They are, as described Job 39:13,

the very feathers and plumage of the stork, i.e., they consist

of such black and white feathers as the stork, called from thence

chasidah, is known to have. But the belly, the thighs, and

the breast, do not partake of this covering, being usually naked,

and when touched are of the same warmth as the flesh of


"Under the joint of the great pinion, and sometimes under the

less, there is a strong pointed excrescence like a cock's spur,

with which it is said to prick and stimulate itself, and thereby

acquire fresh strength and vigour whenever it is pursued. But

nature seems rather to have intended that, in order to prevent the

suffocating effects of too great a plethora, a loss of blood

should be consequent thereupon, especially as the ostrich appears

to be of a hot constitution, with lungs always confined, and

consequently liable to be preter-naturally inflamed upon these


"When these birds are surprised by coming suddenly upon them

whilst they are feeding in some valley, or behind some rocky or

sandy eminence in the deserts, they will not stay to be curiously

viewed and examined. Neither are the Arabs ever dexterous enough

to overtake them, even when they are mounted upon their jinse, or

horses, as they are called, of family. They, when they raise

themselves up for flight, (Job 39:18,)

laugh at the horse and his rider. They afford him an opportunity

only of admiring at a distance the extraordinary agility and the

stateliness of their motions, the richness of their plumage, and

the great propriety there was of ascribing to them (Job 30:13)

an expanded quivering wing. Nothing, certainly, can be more

beautiful and entertaining than such a sight! The wings, by their

repeated though unwearied vibrations, equally serving them for

sails and oars; whilst their feet, no less assisting in conveying

them out of sight, are in no degree sensible of fatigue.

"By the repeated accounts which I often had from my conductors,

as well as from Arabs of different places, I have been informed

that the ostrich lays from thirty to fifty eggs. AElian mentions

more than eighty, but I never heard of so large a number. The

first egg is deposited in the centre; the rest are placed as

conveniently as possible round about it. In this manner it is said

to lay-deposit or thrust (Job 39:14)

-her eggs in THE EARTH, and to warm them in the sand, and

forgetteth, as they are not placed, like those of some other

birds, upon trees or in the clefts of rocks, &c., that the foot of

the traveller may crush them, or that the wild beasts may break


"Yet notwithstanding the ample provision which is hereby made

for a numerous offspring, scarce one quarter of these eggs are

ever supposed to be hatched; and of those that are, no small share

of the young ones may perish with hunger, from being left too

early by their dams to shift for themselves. For in these the most

barren and desolate recesses of the Sahara, where the ostrich

chooses to make her nest, it would not be enough to lay eggs and

hatch them, unless some proper food was near at hand, and already

prepared for their nourishment. And accordingly we are not to

consider this large collection of eggs as if they were all

intended for a brood; they are, the greatest part of them,

reserved for food, which the dam breaks and disposes of according

to the number and the cravings of her young ones.

"But yet, for all this, a very little share of that στοργη, or

natural affection, which so strongly exerts itself in most other

creatures, is observable in the ostrich. For, upon the least

distant noise or trivial occasion, she forsakes her eggs, or her

young ones, to which perhaps she never returns, or if she do, it

may be too late either to restore life to the one, or to preserve

the lives of the other. Agreeably to this account, the Arabs meet

sometimes with whole nests of these eggs undisturbed; some of

which are sweet and good, others are addle and corrupted, others

again have their young ones of different growths, according to the

time it may be presumed they have been forsaken by the dam. They

oftener meet a few of the little ones, no bigger than well-grown

pullets, half starved, straggling, and moaning about, like so many

distressed orphans, for their mother. And in this manner the

ostrich may be said (Job 39:16)

to be hardened against her young ones, as though they were not

hers; her labour in hatching and attending them so far being vain

without fear, or the least concern of what becomes of them

afterwards. This want of affection is also recorded, La 4:3:

The daughter of my people, says the prophet, is cruel, like the

ostriches in the wilderness.

"Neither is this the only reproach that may be due to the

ostrich; she is likewise inconsiderate and foolish in her

private capacity; particularly in the choice of food, which is

frequently highly detrimental and pernicious to her; for she

swallows every thing greedily and indiscriminately, whether it be

pieces of rags, leather, wood, stone, or iron. When I was at Oram,

I saw one off these birds swallow, without any seeming uneasiness

or inconvenience, several leaden bullets, as they were thrown upon

the floor, scorching hot from the mould, the inner coats of the

aesophapus and stomach being probably better stocked with glands

and juices than in other animals with shorter necks. They are

particularly fond of their own excrement, which they greedily eat

up as soon as it is voided. No less fond are they of the dung of

hens and other poultry. It seems as if their optic as well as

olfactory nerves were less adequate and conducive to their

safety and preservation than in other creatures. The Divine

providence in this, no less than in other respects, (Job 39:17,)

having deprived them of wisdom, neither hath it imparted to them


"Those parts of the Sahara which these birds chiefly frequent

are destitute of all manner of food and herbage, except it be some

few tufts of coarse grass, or else a few other solitary plants of

the laureola, apocynum, and some other kinds; each of which is

equally destitute of nourishment; and, in the psalmist's phrase,

(Ps 129:6,)

even withereth afore it groweth up. Yet these herbs,

notwithstanding their dryness, and want of moisture in their

temperature, will sometimes have both their leaves and their

stalks studded all over with a great variety of land snails, which

may afford them some little refreshment. It is very probable,

likewise, that they may sometimes seize upon lizards, serpents,

together with insects and reptiles of various kinds. Yet still,

considering the great voracity and size of this camel-bird, it is

wonderful, not only how the little ones, after they are weaned

from the provisions I have mentioned, should be brought up and

nourished, but even how those of fuller growth and much better

qualified to look out for themselves, are able to subsist.

"Their organs of digestion, and particularly the gizzards,

which, by their strong friction, will wear away iron itself, show

them indeed to be granivorous; but yet they have scarce ever an

opportunity to exercise them in this way, unless when they chance

to stray, which is very seldom, towards those parts of the country

which are sown and cultivated, For these, as they are much

frequented by the Arabs at the several seasons of grazing,

ploughing, and gathering in the harvest; so they are little

visited by as indeed they would be an improper abode for this shy,

timorous bird; φιλερημος, a lover of the deserts. This last

circumstance in the behaviour of the ostrich is frequently alluded

to in the Holy Scriptures; particularly Isa 13:21; 34:13; 43:20;

Jer 50:39; where the word,

yaanah, instead of being rendered the ostrich, as it is rightly

put in the margin, is called the owl; a word used likewise instead

of yaanah or the ostrich, Le 11:16, and De 14:15.

"Whilst I was abroad, I had several opportunities of amusing

myself with the actions and behaviour of the ostrich. It was very

diverting to observe with what dexterity and equipoise of body it

would play and frisk about on all occasions. In the heat of the

day, particularly it would strut along the sunny side of the house

with great majesty. It would be perpetually fanning and priding

itself with its quivering expanded wings; and seem at every turn

to admire and be in love with its shadow. Even at other times

whether walking about or resting itself upon the ground, the wings

would continue these fanning vibrating motions, as if they were

designed to mitigate and assuage that extraordinary heat wherewith

their bodies seem to be naturally affected.

"Notwithstanding these birds appear tame and tractable to such

persons of the family as were more known and familiar to them, yet

they were often very rude and fierce to strangers, especially the

poorer sort, whom they would not only endeavour to push down by

running furiously upon them; but would not cease to peck at them

violently with their bills, and to strike them with their feet;

whereby they were frequently very mischievous. For the inward

claw, or hoof rather as we may call it, of this avis bisulca,

being exceedingly strong pointed and angular, I once saw an

unfortunate person who had his belly ripped open by one of these

strokes. Whilst they are engaged in these combats and assaults,

they sometimes make a fierce, angry, and hissing noise with their

throats inflated, and their mouths open; at other times, when less

resistance is made they have a chuckling or cackling voice, as in

the poultry kind; and thereby seem to rejoice and laugh as it were

at the timorousness of their adversary. But during the lonesome

part of the night, as if their organs of voice had then attained a

quite different tone, they often made a very doleful and hideous

noise; which would be sometimes like the roaring of a lion; at

other times it would bear a near resemblance to the hoarser voices

of other quadrupeds, particularly of the bull and the ox. I have

often heard them groan, as if they were in the greatest agonies;

an action beautifully alluded to by the Prophet Micah, Mic 1:8,

where it is said, I will make a mourning like the yaanah or

ostrich. Yaanah, therefore, and renanim, the names by

which the ostrich is known in the Holy Scriptures, may very

properly be deduced from anah, and ranan, words

which the lexicographi explain by exclamare or clamare fortiter;

for the noise made by the ostrich being loud and sonorous,

exclamare or clamare fortiter may, with propriety enough, be

attributed to it, especially as those words do not seem to denote

any certain or determined mode of voice or sound peculiar to any

one particular species of animals, but such as may be applicable

to them all, to birds as well as to quadrupeds and other


Shaw's Travels, p. 541, edit. 4to. 1757.

The subjects in this chapter have been so various and important,

that I have been obliged to extend the notes and observations to

an unusual length; and yet much is left unnoticed which I wished

to have inserted. I have made the best selection I could, and must

request those readers who wish for more information to consult

zoological writers.

Copyright information for Clarke