Luke 6

CHAPTER VI.

The disciples pluck and eat the ears of corn on the Sabbath

day, and the Pharisees find fault, 1, 2.

Our Lord shows the true use of the Sabbath, 3-5.

He heals the man with the withered hand, 6-11.

He goes into a mountain to pray, and calls twelve disciples,

12-16.

Multitudes are instructed and healed, 17-19.

Pronounces four blessings, 20-23,

and four woes, 24-26.

Gives various instructions about loving our enemies, being

patient, gentle, kind, grateful, and merciful, 27-36.

Harsh judgments censured, and charity recommended, 37, 38.

The parable of the blind leading the blind, 39.

Of the mote in a brother's eye, 40-42.

Of the good and corrupt tree, 43, 44.

The good and evil treasure of the heart, 45.

The parable of the two houses, one builded on the rock, and the

other on the sand, 46-49.

NOTES ON CHAP. VI.

Verse 1. On the second Sabbath after the first] ενσαββατω

δευτεροπρωτω, In the first Sabbath after the second. What does

this mean? In answering this question, commentators are greatly

divided. Dr. Whitby speaks thus: "After the first day of the

passover, (which was a Sabbath, Ex 12:16,) ye shall count unto

you seven Sabbaths complete, Le 23:15, reckoning that day for the

first of the first week, which was therefore called δευτεροπρωτον,

the first Sabbath from the second day of unleavened bread; (the

16th of the month;) the second was called δευτεροδευτερον, the

second Sabbath from that day; and the third, δευτεροτριτον, the

third Sabbath from the second day; and so on, till they came to

the seventh Sabbath from that day, i.e. to the 49th day, which was

the day of pentecost. The mention of the seven Sabbaths, to be

numbered with relation to this second day, answers all that

Grotius objects against this exposition." WHITBY'S Notes.

By this Sabbath seems meant that which immediately followed the

two great feasts, the first and last day of the passover, and was

therefore the second after the proper passover day. The words in

the Greek seem to signify, the second first Sabbath; and, in the

opinion of some, the Jews had three first Sabbaths: viz. the first

Sabbath after the passover; that after the feast of pentecost; and

that after the feast of tabernacles. According to which opinion,

this second first Sabbath must have been the first Sabbath after

the pentecost. So we have the first Sunday after Epiphany; the

first after Easter; the first after Trinity; and the first in

Lent. Bp. PEARCE.

This was the next day after the passover, the day in which they

were forbidden to labour, Le 23:6, and for this reason was termed

Sabbath, Le 23:15; but here it is marked by the name,

second first Sabbath, because, being the day after the passover,

it was in this respect the second; and it was also the first,

because it was the first day of unleavened bread, Ex 12:15, 16.

MARTIN.

I think, with many commentators, that this transaction happened

on the first Sabbath of the month Nisan; that is, after the second

day of the feast of unleavened bread. We may well suppose that our

Lord and his disciples were on their way from Jerusalem to

Galilee, after having kept the passover. Bp. NEWCOME.

The Vulgar Latin renders δευτεροπρωτον, secundoprimum, which

is literal and right. We translate it, the second Sabbath after

the first, which is directly wrong; for it should have been the

first Sabbath after the second day of the passover. On the 14th

of Nisan, the passover was killed; the next day (the 15th) was the

first day of the feast of unleavened bread; the day following (the

16th) the wave sheaf was offered, pursuant to the law, on the

morrow after the Sabbath: Le 18:11. The

Sabbath, here, is not the seventh day of the week, but the first

day of the feast of unleavened bread, let it fall on what day of

the week it would. That and the seventh day of that feast were

holy convocations, and therefore are here called Sabbaths. The

morrow, therefore, after the Sabbath, i.e. after the 16th day of

Nisan, was the day in which the wave sheaf was offered; and after

that seven Sabbaths were counted, and fifty days completed, and

the fiftieth day inclusively was the day of pentecost. Now these

Sabbaths, between the passover and pentecost, were called the

first, second, &c., Sabbaths after the second day of the feast of

unleavened bread. This Sabbath, then, on which the disciples

plucked the ears of corn, was the first Sabbath after that second

day. Dr. Lightfoot, has demonstrably proved this to be the meaning

of this σαββατονδευτεροπρωτον, (Hor. Hebraic. in locum,) and from

him F. Lamy and Dr. Whitby have so explained it. This Sabbath

could not fall before the passover, because, till the second day

of that feast, no Jew might eat either bread or parched corn, or

green ears, (Le 23:14.) Had the disciples then gathered these

ears of corn on any Sabbath before the passover, they would have

broken two laws instead of one: and for the breach of these two

laws they would infallibly have been accused; whereas now they

broke only one, (plucking the ears of standing corn with one's

hand, being expressly allowed in the law, De 23:25,) which was

that of the Sabbath. They took a liberty which the law gave them

upon any other day; and our Lord vindicated them in what they did

now, in the manner we see. Nor can this fact be laid after

pentecost; because then the harvest was fully in. Within that

interval, therefore, this Sabbath happened; and this is a plain

determination of the time, according to the Jewish ways of

reckoning, founded upon the text of Moses's law itself. Dr.

WOTTON'S Miscellaneous Discourses, &c., vol. i. p. 269.

The word δευτεροπρωτω, the second first, is omitted by BL, four

others, Syriac, later Arabic, all the Persic, Coptic, AEthiopic,

and three of the Itala. A note in the margin of the later Syriac

says, This is not in all copies. The above MSS. read the verse

thus: It came to pass, that he walked through the corn fields on a

Sabbath day. I suppose they omitted the above word, because they

found it difficult to fix the meaning, which has been too much the

case in other instances.

Verse 2. Which is not lawful] See on Mt 12:2-8.

Verse 3. What David did] See on Mr 2:26, 27.

Verse 4. After this verse, the Codex Bezae and two ancient MSS.

quoted by Wechel, have the following extraordinary addition: τη

αυτηθεασαμενοςτιναεργαζομενοντωσαββατωειπεναυτωανθρωπε

ειμενοιδαςτιποιειςμακαριοςειειδεμηοιδαςεπικαταρατος

καιπαραβατηςειτουνομον. On the same day, seeing one working on

the Sabbath, he said unto him, Man, if indeed thou knowest what

thou dost, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, thou art

cursed, and art a transgressor of the law. Whence this strange

addition proceeded, it is hard to tell. The meaning seems to be

this: If thou now workest on the Jewish Sabbath, from a conviction

that that Sabbath is abolished, and a new one instituted in its

place, then happy art thou, for thou hast got Divine instruction

in the nature of the Messiah's kingdom; but if thou doest this

through a contempt for the law of God, then thou art accursed,

forasmuch as thou art a transgressor of the law. The Itala version

of the Codex Bezae, for παραβατης, transgressor, has this

semi-barbaric word, trabaricator.

Verse 6. Whose right hand was withered.] See Clarke on Mt 12:10,

&c. The critic who says that ξηρανχειρα signifies a luxated arm, and

that the stretching it out restored the bone to its proper place,

without the intervention of a miracle, deserves no serious

refutation. See Clarke on Lu 6:10.

Verse 7. Watched him] παρετηρουν, They maliciously watched him.

This is the import of the word, Lu 14:1; 20:20, and in the

parallel place, Mr 3:2. See

Raphelius on the last-quoted text, who has proved, by several

quotations, that this is the proper meaning of the term.

An accusation against him.] Instead of κατηγοριαναυτον, his

accusation, several eminent MSS. and versions add κατα, against,

which I find our translators have adopted.

Verse 9. I will ask you one thing] I will put a question to you.

See on Mr 3:4, 5.

Verse 10. Whole as the other.] Many MSS., both here and in the

parallel place, Mr 3:5, omit the word υγιης,

whole. Griesbach leaves it out of the text. The hand was

restored as the other. But had it only been a luxated joint, even

allowing, with a German critic, that the bone regained its place

by the effort made to stretch out the arm, without the

intervention of a miracle, it would have required several weeks to

restore the muscles and ligaments to their wonted tone and

strength. Why all this learned labour to leave God out of the

question?

Verse 11. They were filled with madness] Pride, obstinacy, and

interest, combined together, are capable of any thing. When men

have once framed their conscience according to their passions,

madness passes for zeal, the blackest conspiracies for pious

designs, and the most horrid attempts for heroic actions. QUESNEL.

Verse 12. In prayer to God.] Or, in the prayer of God: or, in

the oratory of God, εντηπροσευχητουθεου. So this passage is

translated by many critics; for which Dr. Whitby gives the

following reasons: As the mountain of God, Ex 3:1; 4:27; the

bread of God, Le 21:17; the

lamp of God, 1Sa 3:3; the

vessels of God, 1Ch 22:19; the

altar of God, Ps 43:4; the

sacrifices of God, Ps 51:17; the

gifts of God, Lu 21:4; the

ministers of God, 2Co 6:4; the

tabernacle of God, 2Ch 1:3; the

temple of God, Mt 21:12; the

synagogues of God, Ps 74:8; are all things

consecrated or appropriated to God's service; so προσευχητου

θεου must, in all reason, be a house of prayer to God; whence it

is called τοποςπροσευχης, a place of prayer, 1 Mac. iii. 46; and

so the word is certainly used Ac 16:13; and by

Philo, in his oration against Flaccus, where he complains that

αιπροσευχαι, their houses for prayer were pulled down, and

there was no place left in which they might worship God, or pray

for Caesar; and by Josephus, who says the multitude was gathered

ειςτηςπροσευχην, into the house of prayer: and so Juvenal,

Sat. iii. v. 296, speaks to the mendicant Jew:-

Ede ubi consistas; in qua te quaero proseucha?

In what house of prayer may I find thee begging?

See on Ac 16:13. But on this it may be observed, that as the

mountains of God, the wind of God, the hail of God, the trees

of God, &c., mean very high mountains, a very strong wind,

great and terrible hail, very tall trees, &c., so προσευχητου

θεου, here, may be very properly translated the prayer of God;

i.e. very fervent and earnest prayer; and though διανυκτερευων may

signify, to lodge in a place for a night, yet there are various

places in the best Greek writers in which it is used, not to

signify a place, but to pass the night in a particular state. So

Appian, Bell. Pun. εντοιςοπλοιςδιενυκτερευςεμεθαπαντων-He

passed the night under arms with them all. Idem, Bell. Civ. lib.

v. διενυκτερευον-They passed the night without food, without any

regard to the body, and in the want of all things. See more

examples in Kypke, who concludes by translating the passage thus:

He passed the night without sleep in prayers to God. Some of the

Jews imagine that God himself prays; and this is one of his

petitions: Let it be my good pleasure, that my mercy overcome my

wrath. See more in Lightfoot.

Verse 13. He chose twelve] εκλεξαμενοςαπαυτων, He chose

twelve OUT of them. Our Lord at this time had several disciples,

persons who were converted to God under his ministry; and, out of

these converts, he chose twelve, whom he appointed to the work of

the ministry; and called them apostles, i.e. persons sent or

commissioned by himself, to preach that Gospel to others by which

they had themselves been saved. These were favoured with

extraordinary success: 1. Because they were brought to the

knowledge of God themselves. 2. Because they received their

commission from the great Head of the Church. And 3. Because, as

he had sent them, he continued to accompany their preaching with

the power of his Spirit. These three things always unite in the

character of a genuine apostle. See on Mt 10:1-4.

Verse 15. Called Zelotes] Some Jews gave this name to

themselves, according to Josephus, (War, b. iv. c. iii. s. 9, and

vii. c. viii. s. 1,) "because they pretended to be more than

ordinarily zealous for religion, and yet practised the very worst

of actions." "But this (says the judicious Bp. Pearce) Josephus

says of the zealots, at the time when Vespasian was marching

towards Jerusalem. They probably were men of a different character

above forty years before; which was the time when Jesus chose his

twelve apostles, one of whom had the surname of the Zealot." It is

very probable that this name was first given to certain persons

who were more zealous for the cause of pure and undefiled religion

than the rest of their neighbours; but like many other sects and

parties who have begun well, they transferred their zeal for the

essentials of religion to nonessential things, and from these to

inquisitorial cruelty and murder. See on Mt 10:4.

Verse 17. And stood in the plain] In Mt 5:1, which is supposed

to be the parallel place, our Lord is represented as delivering

this sermon on the mountain; and this has induced some to think

that the sermon mentioned here by Luke, though the same in

substance with that in Matthew, was delivered in a different

place, and at another time; but, as Dr. Priestly justly observes,

Matthew's saying that Jesus was sat down after he had gone up to

the mountain, and Luke's saying that he stood on the plain when he

healed the sick, before the discourse, are no inconsistencies. The

whole picture is striking. Jesus ascends a mountain, employs the

night in prayer; and, having thus solemnly invoked the Divine

blessing, authoritatively separates the twelve apostles from the

mass of his disciples. He then descends, and heals in the plain

all the diseased among a great multitude, collected from various

parts by the fame of his miraculous power. Having thus created

attention, he likewise satisfies the desire of the people to hear

his doctrine; and retiring first to the mountain whence he came,

that his attentive hearers might follow him and might better

arrange themselves before him-Sacro digna silentio mirantur omnes

dicere. HORACE. All admire his excellent sayings with sacred

silence. See Bishop Newcome's notes on his Harmony of the Gospels,

p. 19.

Verse 20. Blessed be ye poor] See the sermon on the mount

paraphrased and explained, Matt. 5, 11, 7. Mt 5:1,ffMt 11:1ff,

Mt 7:1ff.

Verse 22. They shall separate you] Meaning, They will

excommunicate you, αφορισωσινυμας, or separate you from their

communion. Luke having spoken of their separating or

excommunicating them, continues the same idea, in saying that they

would cast out their name likewise, as a thing evil in itself. By

your name is meant their name as his disciples. As such, they

were sometimes called Nazarenes, and sometimes Christians; and

both these names were matter of reproach in the mouths of their

enemies. So James (Jas 2:7) says to the converts,

Do they not blaspheme that worthy name by which ye are called?

So when St. Paul (in Ac 24:5) is called a

ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes, the character of a

pestilent fellow, and, that of a mover of sedition, is joined to

it; and, in Ac 28:22, the Jews say to Paul,

As concerning this sect, we know that every where it is spoken

against; and this is implied in 1Pe 4:14, when he says,

If ye be reproached for the NAME of Christ, i.e. as Christians;

agreeably to what follows there in 1Pe 4:16,

If any man suffer as a Christian, &c. In after times we find

Pliny, Epist. x. 97, consulting the Emperor Trajan, whether or

no he should PUNISH the NAME ITSELF, (of Christian,) though no

evil should be found in it. NOMEN IPSUM, etiam si flagitiis

careat, PUNIATUR. See PEARCE.

Verse 23. Did-unto the prophets.] See 1Ki 18:4; 19:20;

2Ch 24:21; 36:16; Ne 9:26.

Verse 24. - 26. But wo unto you that are rich!] The Pharisees,

who were laden with the spoils of the people which they received

in gifts, &c. These three verses are not found in the sermon, as

recorded by Matthew. They seem to be spoken chiefly to the scribes

and Pharisees, who, in order to be pleasing to all, spoke to every

one what he liked best; and by finesse, flattery, and lies, found

out the method of gaining and keeping the good opinion of the

multitude.

Verse 29. Thy cloak-thy coat] In Mt 5:40, I have said that

COAT, χιτωνα, signifies under garment, or strait coat; and

CLOAK, ιματιον, means upper garment, or great coat. This

interpretation is confirmed by the following observations of

Bishop Pearce. The χιτων was a tunica, or vestcoat, over which

the Jews and other nations threw an outer coat, or gown, called a

cloak, Mt 5:40, (which is meant by

ιματιον,) when they went abroad, or were not at work. Hence

the common people at Rome, who did not usually wear, or had no

right to wear, the toga, are called by Horace tunicatus popellus,

Epist. i. 7, 65. This account of the difference between the χιτων

and the ιματιον appears plainly from what Maximus Tyrius says, The

inner garment which is over the body they call χιτωνισκον, and the

outer one the ιματιον. And so Plutarch, (in NUPT. p. 139, ed.

Fran. 1620,) speaking of a man who felt the heat of the sun too

much for him, says that he put off, τονχιτωνατωιματιω, his

vestcoat also with his cloak.

Verse 30. Ask them not again.] Or, Do not beg them off. This

probably refers to the way in which the tax-gatherers and Roman

soldiers used to spoil the people. "When such harpies as these

come upon your goods, suffer the injury quietly, leaving

yourselves in the hand of God, rather than attempt even to beg off

what belongs to you, lest on their part they be provoked to seize

or spoil more, and lest you be irritated to sue them at law, which

is totally opposite to the spirit and letter of the Gospel; or to

speak bad words, or indulge wrong tempers, which would wound the

spirit of love and mercy." Of such as these, and of all merciless

creditors, who even sell the tools and bed of a poor man, it may

be very truly said:-

Tristius haud illis monstrum, nec saevior ulla

Pestis et ira deum Stygiis sese extulit undis:-

Diripiunt dapes, contactaque omnia faedant

Immundo:-

VIRG. AEn. iii. ver. 214

"Monsters more fierce offended heaven ne'er sent

From hell's abyss, for human punishment:-

They snatch the meat, defiling all they find."

DRYDEN.

However, it is probable that what is here spoken relates to

requiring a thing speedily that had been lent, while the reason

for borrowing it still continues. In Ecclus. 20:15, it is a part

of the character of a very bad man, that to-day he lendeth, and

tomorrow will he ask it again. From Lu 6:27 to Lu 6:30 our

blessed Lord gives us directions how to treat our enemies. 1. Wish

them well. 2. Do them good. 3. Speak as well of them as possible.

4. Be an instrument of procuring them good from others; use your

influence in their behalf. 5. Suffer patiently from them contempt

and ill treatment. 6. Give up your goods rather than lose your

meekness and charity towards them. The retaliation of those who

hearken not to their own passion, but to Christ, consists in doing

more good than they receive evil. Ever since our blessed Saviour

suffered the Jews to take away his life, it is by his patience

that we must regulate our own. Quesnel.

Verse 32. For sinners also love those that love them.] I believe

the word αμαρτωλοι is used by St. Luke in the same sense in which

τελωναι, tax-gatherers, is used by St. Matthew, Mt 5:46, 47,

and signifies heathens; not only men who have no religion, but men

who acknowledge none. The religion of Christ not only corrects the

errors and reforms the disorders of the fallen nature of man, but

raises it even above itself: it brings it near to God; and, by

universal love, leads it to frame its conduct according to that of

the Sovereign Being. "A man should tremble who finds nothing in

his life besides the external part of religion, but what may be

found in the life of a Turk or a heathen." The Gospel of the grace

of God purifies and renews the heart, causing it to resemble that

Christ through whom the grace came. See Clarke on Lu 7:37.

Verse 34. Of whom ye hope to receive] Or, whom ye expect to

return it. "To make our neighbour purchase, in any way, the

assistance which we give him, is to profit by his misery; and, by

laying him under obligations which we expect him in some way or

other to discharge, we increase his wretchedness under the

pretence of relieving it."

Verse 35. Love ye your enemies] This is the most sublime precept

ever delivered to man: a false religion durst not give a precept

of this nature, because, without supernatural influence, it must

be for ever impracticable. In these words of our blessed Lord we

see the tenderness, sincerity, extent, disinterestedness, pattern,

and issue of the love of God dwelling in man: a religion which has

for its foundation the union of God and man in the same person,

and the death of this august being for his enemies; which consists

on earth in a reconciliation of the Creator with his creatures,

and which is to subsist in heaven only in the union of the members

with the head: could such a religion as this ever tolerate hatred

in the soul of man, even to his most inveterate foe?

Lend, hoping for nothing again] μηδεναπελπιζοντες. The rabbins

say, he who lends without usury, God shall consider him as having

observed every precept. Bishop Pearce thinks that, instead of

μηδεν we should read μηδενα with the Syriac, later Arabic,

and later Persic; and as απελπιζειν signifies to despair, or

cause to despair, the meaning is, not cutting off the hope (of

longer life) of any man, neminis spem amputantes, by denying him

those things which he requests now to preserve him from perishing.

Verse 36. Be ye therefore merciful] Or, compassionate;

οικτιρμινες, from οικτος, commiseration, which etymologists

derive from εικω to give place, yield, because we readily concede

those things which are necessary to them whom we commiserate. As

God is ever disposed to give all necessary help and support to

those who are miserable, so his followers, being influenced by the

same spirit, are easy to be entreated, and are at all times ready

to contribute to the uttermost of their power to relieve or remove

the miseries of the distressed. A merciful or compassionate man

easily forgets injuries; pardons them without being solicited;

and does not permit repeated returns of ingratitude to deter him

from doing good, even to the unthankful and the unholy.

See Clarke on Mt 5:7.

Verse 37. Judge not] See Clarke on Mt 7:1. "How great is the

goodness of God, in being so willing to put our judgment into our own

hands as to engage himself not to enter into judgment with us, provided

we do not usurp the right which belongs solely to him in reference

to others!"

Condemn not] "Mercy will ever incline us not to condemn those

unmercifully whose faults are certain and visible; to lessen,

conceal, and excuse them as much as we can without prejudice to

truth and justice; and to be far from aggravating, divulging, or

even desiring them to be punished."

Forgive] The mercy and compassion which God recommends extend to

the forgiving of all the injuries we have received, or can

receive. To imitate in this the mercy of God is not a mere

counsel; since it is proposed as a necessary mean, in order to

receive mercy. What man has to forgive in man is almost nothing:

man's debt to God is infinite. And who acts in this matter as if

he wished to receive mercy at the hand of God! The spirit of

revenge is equally destitute of faith and reason.

Verse 38. Give, and it shall be given] "Christian charity will

make no difficulty in giving that which eternal truth promises to

restore. Let us give, neither out of mere human generosity, nor

out of vanity, nor from interest, but for the sake of God, if we

would have him place it to account. There is no such thing as true

unmixed generosity but in God only; because there is none but him

who receives no advantage from his gifts, and because he engages

himself to pay these debts of his creatures with an excessive

interest. So great is the goodness of God, that, when he might

have absolutely commanded us to give to our neighbour, he

vouchsafes to invite us to this duty by the prospect of a reward,

and to impute that to us as a desert which he has a right to exact

of us by the title of his sovereignty over our persons and

estates."

Men live in such a state of social union as renders mutual help

necessary; and, as self-interest, pride, and other corrupt

passions mingle themselves ordinarily in their commerce, they

cannot fail of offending one another. In civil society men must,

in order to taste a little tranquillity, resolve to bear something

from their neighbours; they must suffer, pardon, and give up many

things; without doing which they must live in such a state of

continual agitation as will render life itself insupportable.

Without this giving and forgiving spirit there will be nothing in

civil society, and even in Christian congregations, but divisions,

evil surmisings, injurious discourses, outrages, anger, vengeance,

and, in a word, a total dissolution of the mystical body of

Christ. Thus our interest in both worlds calls loudly upon us to

GIVE and to FORGIVE.

Bosom.] κολπον, or lap. Almost all ancient nations wore long,

wide, and loose garments; and when about to carry any thing which

their hands could not contain, they used a fold of their robe in

nearly the same way as women here use their aprons. The phrase is

continually occurring in the best and purest Greek writers. The

following example from Herodotus, b. vi., may suffice to show the

propriety of the interpretation given above, and to expose the

ridiculous nature of covetousness. "When Croesus had promised to

Alcmaeon as much gold as he could carry about his body at once,

in order to improve the king's liberality to the best advantage,

he put on a very wide tunic, (κιθωναμεγαν,) leaving a great space

in the BOSOM, κολπονβαθυν, and drew on the largest buskins he

could find. Being conducted to the treasury, he sat down on a

great heap of gold, and first filled the buskins about his legs

with as much gold as they could contain, and, having filled his

whole BOSOM, κολπον, loaded his hair with ingots, and put several

pieces in his mouth, he walked out of the treasury, &c." What a

ridiculous figure must this poor sinner have cut, thus heavy laden

with gold, and the love of money! See many other examples in Kypke

and Raphelius. See also Ps 129:7; Pr 6:27; 17:23.

The same measure that ye mete withal, it shall be measured to

you again.] The same words we find in the Jerusalem Targum on

Ge 38:26. Our Lord therefore lays down a maxim which themselves

allowed.

Verse 39. Can the blind lead the blind?] This appears to have

been a general proverb, and to signify that a man cannot teach

what he does not understand. This is strictly true in spiritual

matters. A man who is not illuminated from above is utterly

incapable of judging concerning spiritual things, and wholly unfit

to be a guide to others. Is it possible that a person who is

enveloped with the thickest darkness should dare either to judge

of the state of others, or attempt to lead them in that path of

which he is totally ignorant! If he do, must not his judgment be

rashness, and his teaching folly?-and does he not endanger his own

soul, and run the risk of falling into the ditch of perdition

himself, together with the unhappy objects of his religious

instruction?

Verse 40. Every one that is perfect] Or, thoroughly instructed,

κατηρτισμενος:-from καταρτιζω, to adjust, adapt, knit together,

restore, or put in joint. The noun is used by the Greek medical

writers to signify the reducing a luxated or disjointed limb. It

sometimes signifies to repair or mend, and in this sense it is

applied to broken nets, Mt 4:21; Mr 1:19; but in this place,

and in Heb 13:21; 2Ti 3:17, it means

complete instruction and information. Every one who is

thoroughly instructed in Divine things, who has his heart united

to God, whose disordered tempers and passions are purified and

restored to harmony and order; every one who has in him the mind

that was in Christ, though he cannot be above, yet will be as, his

teacher-holy, harmless, undefiled, and separate from sinners.

"The disciple who perfectly understands the rules and sees the

example of his master, will think it his business to tread exactly

in his steps, to do and suffer upon like occasions, as his master

did: and so he will be like his master." WHITBY.

Verse 41. And why beholdest thou the mote] See this explained on

Mt 7:3-5.

Verse 43. Corrupt fruit] καρπονσαπρον, literally, rotten fruit:

but here it means, such fruit as is unfit for use. See on

Mt 7:17-20.

Verse 45. A good man] See Clarke on Mt 12:35.

Verse 46. Lord, Lord] God judges of the heart, not by words, but

by works. A good servant never disputes, speaks little, and always

follows his work. Such a servant a real Christian is: such is a

faithful minister, always intent either on the work of his own

salvation, or that of his neighbour; speaking more to God than to

men; and to these as in the presence of God. The tongue is fitly

compared by one to a pump, which empties the heart, but neither

fills nor cleanses it. The love of God is a hidden spring, which

supplies the heart continually, and never permits it to be dry or

unfruitful. Quesnel.

Verse 47. I will show you] υποδειξω, I will show you plainly.

I will enable you fully to comprehend my meaning on this subject

by the following parable. See this word explained Mt 3:7.

Verse 48. He is like a man, &c.] See on Mt 7:24-27.

Verse 49. The ruin of that house was great.] On this passage,

father Quesnel, who was a most rigid predestinarian, makes the

following judicious remark. "It is neither by the speculations of

astrologers, nor by the Calvinian assurance of predestination,

that we can discover what will be our portion for ever: but it is

by the examination of our heart, and the consideration of our

life, that we may in some measure prognosticate our eternal state.

Without a holy heart and a holy life, all is ruinous in the hour

of temptation, and in the day of wrath." To this may be added, He

that believeth on the Son of God, hath the WITNESS in HIMSELF:

1Jo 5:10.

The subjects of this chapter have been so amply explained and

enforced in the parallel places in Matthew, to which the reader

has been already referred, that there appears to be no necessity

to make any additional observations.

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