Numbers 18


The priests are to bear the iniquity of the sanctuary, 1.

The Levites to minister to the priests, and have charge of the

tabernacle, 2-4.

The priests alone to have the charge of the sanctuary, &c., no

stranger to come nigh on pain of death, 5-7

The portion allowed for their maintenance, 8.

They shall have every meat-offering; and they shall eat them in

the holy place, 9, 10.

The wave-offerings, 11.

The first-fruits of the oil, wine, and wheat, and whatever is

first ripe, and every devoted thing, 12-14;

also, all the first-born of men and beasts, 15-18;

and heave-offerings, 19.

The priests shall have no inheritance, 20.

The Levites shall have no inheritance, but shall have the tenth

of the produce in Israel, 21-24,

of which they are to give a tenth to the priests, taken from the

best parts, 25-30.


Verse 1. Thou and thy sons-shall bear the iniquity of the

sanctuary, &c.] That is, They must be answerable for its legal

pollutions, and must make the necessary atonements and expiations.

By this they must feel that though they had got a high and

important office confirmed to them by a miraculous interference,

yet it was a place of the highest responsibility; and that they

must not be high-minded, but fear.

Verse 2. Thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi-may be joined

unto thee] There is a fine paronomasia, or play upon words, in

the original. Levi comes from the root lavah, to join

to, couple, associate: hence Moses says, the Levites,

yillavu, shall be joined, or associated with the priests; they

shall conjointly perform the whole of the sacred office, but the

priests shall be principal, the Levites only their associates or

assistants. For an explanation of many parts of this chapter, see

the notes on several of the passages referred to in the margin.

Verse 15. The first-born of man-and the firstling of unclean

beasts] Thus vain man is ranked with the beasts that perish; and

with the worst kinds of them too, those deemed unclean.

Verse 16. Shalt thou redeem-for the money of five shekels]

Redemption of the first-born is one of the rites which is still

practised among the Jews. According to Leo of Modena, it is

performed in the following manner:-When the child is thirty days

old, the father sends for one of the descendants of Aaron: several

persons being assembled on the occasion, the father brings a cup

containing several pieces of gold and silver coin. The priest

then takes the child into his arms, and addressing himself to the

mother, says: Is this thy son?-MOTHER. Yes.-PRIEST. Hast thou

never had another child, male or female, a miscarriage or untimely

birth?-MOTHER. No.-PRIEST. This being the case, this child, as

first-born, belongs to me. Then, turning to the father, he says:

If it be thy desire to have this child, thou must redeem

it.-FATHER. I present thee with this gold and silver for this

purpose.-PRIEST. Thou dost wish, therefore, to redeem the

child?-FATHER. I do wish so to do.-The priest then, turning

himself to the assembly, says: Very well; this child, as

first-born, is mine, as it is written in Bemidbar, (Nu 18:16,)

Thou shalt redeem the first-born of a month old for five shekels,

but I shall content myself with this in exchange. He then takes

two gold crowns, or thereabouts, and returns the child to his


Verse 19. It is a covenant of salt] That is, an

incorruptible, everlasting covenant. As salt was added to

different kinds of viands, not only to give them a relish, but to

preserve them from putrefaction and decay, it became the emblem of

incorruptibility and permanence. Hence, a covenant of salt

signified an everlasting covenant. We have already seen that,

among the Asiatics, eating together was deemed a bond of perpetual

friendship; and as salt was a common article in all their repasts,

it may be in reference to this circumstance that a perpetual

covenant is termed a covenant of salt; because the parties ate

together of the sacrifice offered on the occasion, and the whole

transaction was considered as a league of endless friendship.

See Clarke on Le 2:13.

Verse 20. I am thy part and thine inheritance] The principal

part of what was offered to God was the portion of the priests,

therefore they had no inheritance of land in Israel; independently

of that they had a very ample provision for their support. The

rabbins say twenty-four gifts were given to the priests, and they

are all expressed in the law. Eight of those gifts the priests

ate nowhere but in the sanctuary: these eight are the following:-

1. The flesh of the SIN-OFFERING, whether of beasts or fowls,

Le 6:25,26.

2. The flesh of the TRESPASS-OFFERING, Le 7:1,6.

3. The PEACE-OFFERINGS of the congregation, Le 23:19,20.

4. The remainder of the OMER or SHEAF, Le 23:10, &c.

5. The remnants of the MEAT-OFFERINGS of the Israelites,

Le 6:16.

6. The two LOAVES, Le 23:17.

7. The SHEW-BREAD, Le 24:9.

8. The LOG of OIL offered by the leper, Le 14:10, &c.

Five of those gifts they ate only in Jerusalem:-

1. The breast and shoulder of the PEACE-OFFERINGS,

Le 7:31, 34.

2. The HEAVE-OFFERING of the sacrifice of confession, Le 7:12-14.

3. The HEAVE-OFFERING of the Nazarite's ram, Le 6:17-20.

4. The FIRSTLING of the clean beast, Nu 18:15; De 15:19, 20.

5. The FIRST-FRUITS, Nu 18:13.

FIVE gifts were not due unto them by the law, but in the land of

Israel only:-

1. The heave-offering or FIRST-FRUITS, Nu 18:12.

2. The heave-offering of the TITHE, Nu 18:28.

3. The CAKE, Nu 15:20.

These three were holy.

4. The first-fruits of the FLEECE, De 18:4.

5. The FIELD of POSSESSION, Nu 35:2 &c.

These two were common.

FIVE gifts were due unto them both within and without the land:-

1. The gifts of the BEASTS SLAIN, De 18:3.

2. The redemption of the FIRST-BORN SON, Nu 18:15.

3. The LAMB for the firstling of an ass, Ex 4:20;

Nu 18:15, 16.

4. The restitution of that taken by violence from a stranger,

Nu 5:8.

5. All DEVOTED things, Nu 18:14.

ONE gift was due unto them from the sanctuary:-

1. The skins of the burnt-offering, and all the skins of the

other most holy things, Le 7:8.

In all 24. See Ainsworth.

The gifts which the females of the priests' families had a part

in were these:-

1. The heave-offering, or first-fruits.

2. The heave-offering of the tithe.

3. The cake.

4. The gifts of the beast, De 18:3.

5. The first of the fleece.

-See Mishna, Tract. Biccurim, and Ainsworth on the Pentateuch.

Besides all this the priests had the tribute money mentioned

Nu 31:28, 29.

Verse 21. Behold, I have given the children of Levi all the

tenth] First, the Levites had the tenth of all the productions of

the land.

2. They had forty-eight cities, each forming a square of 4,000


3. They had 2,000 cubits of ground round each city.

Total of the land they possessed, 53,000 acres.

4. They had the first-fruits and certain parts of all the

animals killed in the land.

Canaan contained about 11,264,000 acres; therefore the portion

possessed by the Levites was rather less than as one to two

hundred and twelve; for 11,264,000 divided by 53,000, quotes only

212 28/53.-See Lowman, Dodd, &c. But though this was a very

small proportion for a whole tribe that had consented to

annihilate its political existence, that it might wait upon the

service of God, and labour for the people's souls; yet let it be

considered that what they possessed was the best of the land: and

while it was a slender remuneration for their services, yet their

portion was such as rendered them independent, and kept them

comfortable; so that they could wait on the Lord's work without

distraction. This is a proper pattern for the maintenance of the

ministers of God: let them have a sufficiency for themselves and

families, that there may be no distracting cares; and let them not

be encumbered with riches or worldly possessions, that they may

not be prevented from taking care of souls.

Verse 28. Thus ye also shall offer a heave-offering] As the

Levites had the tithe of the whole land, they themselves were

obliged to give the tithe of this tithe to the priests, so that

this considerably lessened their revenue. And this tithe or tenth

they were obliged to select from the best part of the substance

they had received, Nu 18:29, &c. A portion of all must be given

to God, as an evidence of his goodness, and their dependence on

him. See Clarke on Nu 20:28

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