Psalms 68

PSALM LXVIII

The psalmist calls upon God to arise, bless his people, and

scatter his enemies, 1-3;

exhorts them to praise him for has greatness, tenderness,

compassion, and judgments, 4-6;

describes the grandeur of his march when he went forth in the

redemption of his people, 7, 8;

how he dispensed his blessings, 9, 10;

what he will still continue to do in their behalf, 11-13;

the effects produced by the manifestation of God's majesty,

14-18;

he is praised for has goodness, 19, 20;

for his judgments, 21-23;

he tells in what manner the Divine worship was conducted, 24-27;

how God is to be honoured, 28-31;

all are invited to sing his praises, and extol his greatness,

32-35.

NOTES ON PSALM LXVIII

In the title of this Psalm there is nothing particular to be

remarked. It is probable that this Psalm, or a part of it at

least, might have been composed by Moses, to be recited when the

Israelites journeyed. See Nu 10:35; and that David, on the same

model, constructed this Psalm. It might have been sung also in the

ceremony of transporting the ark from Kirjath-jearim, to

Jerusalem; or from the house of Obed-edom to the tabernacle

erected at Sion.

I know not how to undertake a comment on this Psalm: it is the

most difficult in the whole Psalter; and I cannot help adopting

the opinion of Simon De Muis: In hoc Psalmo tot ferme scopuli, tot

labyrinthi, quot versus, quot verba. Non immerito crux ingeniorum,

et interpretum opprobrium dici potest. "In this Psalm there are as

many precipices and labyrinths as there are verses or words. It

may not be improperly termed, the torture of critics, and the

reproach of commentators." To attempt any thing new on it would be

dangerous; and to say what has been so often said would be

unsatisfactory. I am truly afraid to fall over one of those

precipices, or be endlessly entangled and lost in one of these

labyrinths. There are customs here referred to which I do not

fully understand; there are words whose meaning I cannot, to my

own satisfaction, ascertain; and allusions which are to me

inexplicable. Yet of the composition itself I have the highest

opinion: it is sublime beyond all comparison; it is constructed

with an art truly admirable; it possesses all the dignity of the

sacred language; none but David could have composed it; and, at

this lapse of time, it would require no small influence of the

Spirit that was upon him, to give its true interpretation. I shall

subjoin a few notes, chiefly philological; and beg leave to refer

the reader to those who have written profusely and laboriously on

this sublime Psalm, particularly Venema, Calmet, Dr. Chandler, and

the writers in the Critici Sacri.

Verse 1. Let God arise] This was sung when the Levites took up

the ark upon their shoulders; see Nu 10:35, 36, and the notes

there.

Verse 4. Extol him that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAH]

"Extol him who sitteth on the throne of glory, in the ninth

heaven; YAH is his name; and rejoice before him."-Targum.

baaraboth, which we render in the high heavens, is here

of doubtful signification. As it comes from the root arab, to

mingle, (hence ereb the evening or twilight, because it appears to

be formed of an equal mixture of light and darkness; the

Septuagint translate it δυσμων, the west, or setting of the

sun; so does the Vulgate and others;) probably it may mean the

gloomy desert, through which God, in the chariot of his glory,

led the Israelites. If this interpretation do not please, then let

it be referred to the darkness in which God is said to dwell,

through which the rays of his power and love, in the various

dispensations of his power and mercy, shine forth for the comfort

and instruction of mankind.

By his name Jah] Yah, probably a contraction of the word

Yehovah; at least so the ancient Versions understood it. It

is used but in a few places in the sacred writings. It might be

translated The Self existent.

Verse 6. The solitary in families] yechidim, the single

persons. Is not the meaning, God is the Author of marriage; and

children, the legal fruit of it, are an inheritance from him?

Verse 7. O God, when thou wentest forth] This and the following

verse most manifestly refer to the passage of the Israelites

through the wilderness.

Verse 9. Didst send a plentiful rain] geshem nedaboth,

a shower of liberality. I believe this to refer to the manna by

which God refreshed and preserved alive the weary and hungry

Israelites.

Verse 10. Thy congregation hath dwelt therein]

chaiyathecha, thy living creature; ταζωα, Septuagint; animalia,

Vulgate; so all the Versions. Does not this refer to the quails

that were brought to the camp of the Israelites, and dwelt, as it

were, round about it? And was not this, with the manna and the

refreshing rock, that goodness which God had provided for the

poor-the needy Israelites?

Verse 11. Great was the company of those that published it.]

hammebasseroth tsaba rab; "Of the female preachers

there was a great host." Such is the literal translation of this

passage; the reader may make of it what he pleases. Some think it

refers to the women who, with music, songs, and dances, celebrated

the victories of the Israelites over their enemies. But the

publication of good news, or of any joyful event, belonged to the

women. It was they who announced it to the people at large; and

to this universal custom, which prevails to the present day, the

psalmist alludes. See this established in Clarke's note on "Isa 40:9".

Verse 12. Kings of armies did flee] Jabin and the kings of the

Canaanites, who united their forces to overwhelm the Israelites.

And she] Deborah the prophetess, a woman accustomed to tarry at

home, and take care of the family; she divided the spoils, and

vanquished their kings.

Verse 13. Though ye have lien among the pots] The prophet is

supposed here to address the tribes of Reuben and Gad, who

remained in their inheritances, occupied with agricultural,

maritime, and domestic affairs, when the other tribes were obliged

to go against Jabin, and the other Canaanitish kings. Ye have been

thus occupied, while your brethren sustained a desperate campaign;

but while you are inglorious, they obtained the most splendid

victory, and dwell under those rich tents which they have taken

from the enemy; coverings of the most beautiful colours, adorned

with gold and silver. The words birakrak charuts,

native gold, so exceedingly and splendidly yellow as to approach

to greenness-from yarak, to be green; and the doubling of

the last syllable denotes an excess in the

denomination-excessively green-blistering green. The Targum

gives us a curious paraphrase of this and the following verse: "If

ye, O ye kings, slept among your halls, the congregation of

Israel, which is like a dove covered with the clouds of glory,

divided the prey of the Egyptians, purified silver, and coffers

full of the finest gold. And when it stretched out its hands in

prayer over the sea, the Almighty cast down kingdoms; and for its

sake cooled hell like snow, and snatched it from the shadow of

death." Perhaps the Romanists got some idea of purgatory here. For

the sake of the righteous, the flames of hell are extinguished!

Verse 15. The hill of God is as the hill of Bashan] This and the

following verse should be read thus: "Is Mount Bashan the craggy

mount, Mount Bashan, the mount of God? Why envy ye, ye craggy

mounts? This is the mount of God in which he has desired to

dwell." The Targum countenances this translation: Mount Moriah,

the place where our fathers of old worshipped God, is chosen to

build on it the house of the sanctuary, and Mount Sinai for the

giving of the law. Mount Bashan, Mount Tabor, and Carmel are

rejected; they are made as Mount Bashan."

Verse 16. Why leap ye, ye high hills?] "God said, Why leap ye,

ye high hills? It is not pleasing to me to give my law upon high

and towering hills. Behold, Mount Sinai is low; and the WORD of

the Lord has desired to place on it the Divine majesty. Moreover,

the Lord dwells for ever in the heaven of heavens."-Targum.

The psalmist is speaking particularly of the mountains of Judea,

and those of Gilead; the former were occupied by the Canaanites,

and the others by Og, king of Bashan, and Sihon, king of the

Amorites, whom Moses defeated.

Verse 17. The chariots of God are twenty thousand]

ribbothayim alpey shinan, "two myriads of

thousands doubled." Does not this mean simply forty thousand? A

myriad is 10,000; two myriads, 20,000; these doubled, 40,000. Or

thus: 10,000 + 10,000 + 20,000 = 40,000. The Targum says, "The

chariots of God are two myriads; two thousand angels draw them;

the majesty of God rests upon them in holiness on Mount Sinai."

But what does this mean? We must die to know.

Verse 18. Thou hast ascended on high] When the ark had reached

the top of Sion, and was deposited in the place assigned for it,

the singers joined in the following chorus. This seems to be an

allusion to a military triumph. The conqueror was placed on a very

elevated chariot.

Led captivity captive] The conquered kings and generals were

usually tied behind the chariot of the conqueror-bound to it,

bound together, and walked after it, to grace the triumph of the

victor.

Thou hast received gifts for men] "And gave gifts unto men;"

Eph 4:8. At such times the conqueror threw money among the

crowd. Thou hast received gifts among men, baadam, IN MAN,

in human nature; and God manifest in the flesh dwells among

mortals! Thanks be to God for his unspeakable GIFT! By

establishing his abode among the rebellious, the prophet may refer

to the conquest of the land of Canaan, and the country beyond

Jordan.

Yea, for the rebellious also] Even to the rebellious. Those who

were his enemies, who traduced his character and operations, and

those who fought against him now submit to him, and share his

munificence; for it is the property of a hero to be generous.

That the Lord God might dwell among them.] yah Elohim,

the self-existing God; see on Ps 68:4. The conqueror now coming

to fix his abode among the conquered people to organize them under

his laws, to govern and dispense justice among them. The whole of

this is very properly applied by St. Paul, Eph 4:5, to the

resurrection and glory of Christ; where the reader is requested

to consult the note.

Verse 19. Blessed be the Lord, who daily loadeth us] With

benefits is not in the text. Perhaps it would be better to

translate the clause thus: "Blessed be Adonai, our Prop day by

day, who supports us." Or, "Blessed be the Lord, who supports us

day by day." Or as the Vulgate, Septuagint, and Arabic: "Blessed

be the Lord daily, our God who makes our journey prosperous; even

the God of our salvation." The Syriac, "Blessed be the Lord daily,

who hath chosen our inheritance." The word amas, which we

translate to load, signifies to lift, bear up, support, or to bear

a burden for another. Hence it would not be going far from the

ideal meaning to translate: "Blessed be the Lord day by day, who

bears our burdens for us." But loadeth us with benefits is neither

a translation nor meaning.

Verse 20. The issues frown death.] The going out or exodus

from death-from the land of Egypt and house of bondage. Or the

expression may mean, Life and death are in the hand of God. "He

can create, and he destroy."

Verse 21. The hairy scalp] kodkod sear. Does this

mean any thing like the Indian scalping? Or does it refer to a

crest on a helmet or headcap? I suppose the latter.

Verse 22. From the depths of the sea] All this seems to speak of

the defeat of the Egyptians, and the miraculous passage of the

Red Sea.

Verse 23. That thy foot may be dipped in the blood] God will

make such a slaughter among his enemies, the Amorites, that thou

shalt walk over their dead bodies; and beasts of prey shall feed

upon them.

Verse 24. They have seen thy goings] These kings of the Amorites

have seen thy terrible majesty in their discomfiture, and the

slaughter of their subjects.

Verse 25. The singers went before] This verse appears to be a

description of the procession.

Verse 26. Bless ye God] This is what they sung.

Verse 27. There is little Benjamin] This is a description of

another part of the procession.

Verse 28. Thy God hath commanded] This and the following verses

is what they sung.

Verse 30. Rebuke the company of spearmen] chaiyath

kaneh, the wild beast of the reed-the crocodile or hippopotamus,

the emblem of Pharaoh and the Egyptians; thus all the Versions.

Our translators have mistaken the meaning; but they have put the

true sense in the margin.

Verse 31. Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God.]

This verse had its literal fulfilment under Solomon, when Egypt

formed an alliance with that king by his marriage with Pharaoh's

daughter; and when the queen of Sheba came to Jerusalem to hear

the wisdom of Solomon. But as this may be a prophetic declaration

of the spread of Christianity, it was literally fulfilled after

the resurrection of our Lord. There were Egyptians at Jerusalem on

the day of Pentecost, who, St. Hilary tells us, on their return to

their own country proclaimed what they had seen, and became in

that country the ambassadors of Christ. The Ethiopian eunuch was

one of the first among the Gentiles who received the Gospel. Thus

princes or chief men came out of Egypt, and Ethiopia stretched

out her hands to God. The words themselves refer to the sending

ambassadors, and making alliances. The Hebrew is very emphatic:

cush tarits yadiav lelohim; Cush will cause

her hands to run out to God. She will, with great alacrity and

delight, surrender her power and influence unto God. The Chaldee

paraphrases well: "The sons of Cush will run, that they may spread

out their hands in prayer before God."

Verse 32. Sing unto God] All the inhabitants of the earth are

invited to sing unto God, to acknowledge him as their God, and

give him the praise due to his name.

Verse 33. Rideth upon the heavens] He who manages the heavens,

directing their course and influence, he formed every orb,

ascertained its motion, proportioned its solid contents to the

orbit in which it was to revolve, and the other bodies which

belong to the same system. As an able and skilful rider manages

his horse, so does God the sun, moon, planets, and all the hosts

of heaven.

He doth send out his voice] At his word of command they run,

shed, or reflect their light; and without the smallest deviations

obey his will.

Mighty voice.] He thunders in the heavens, and men tremble

before him.

Verse 34. His strength is in the clouds.] This refers to the

bursting, rattling, and pounding of thunder and lightning; for all

nations have observed that this is an irresistible agent; and even

the most enlightened have looked on it as an especial

manifestation of the power and sovereignty of God.

Verse 35. O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places] The

sanctuary and heaven. Out of the former he had often shone forth

with consuming splendour; see the case of Korah and his company:

out of the latter he had often appeared in terrible majesty in

storms, thunder, lightning, &c.

He that giveth strength and power unto his people.] Therefore

that people must be invincible who have this strong and

irresistible God for their support.

Blessed be God.] He alone is worthy to be worshipped. Without

him nothing is wise, nothing holy, nothing strong; and from him,

as the inexhaustible Fountain, all good must be derived. His mercy

over his creatures is equal to his majesty in the universe, and as

he has all good in his possession, so is he willing to deal it

out, to supply the utmost necessities of his creatures. Blessed be

God! The Arabic adds, Alleluiah!

The best analysis I find of this Psalm is that by Bishop

Nicholson. I shall give it at large; begging the reader to refer

particularly to those passages on which the preceding notes are

written, as in some of them the analysis gives a different view of

the subject. The old Psalter gives the whole Psalm a spiritual and

mystical interpretation. And this is commonly the case in the

commentaries of the fathers.

ANALYSIS OF THE SIXTY-EIGHTH PSALM

There are many conjectures as to the occasion of the composing

of this Psalm; but the most probable is, that it was composed by

David when he brought up the ark of God, which was the type of

the Church and symbol of God's presence, to Jerusalem. After the

ark was sent home by the Philistines, it rested first in the

obscure lodge of Aminadab; it then for a time stayed with

Obed-edom, nearly sixty years in both places. It was David's care

to provide a fit room for it in the head of the tribes, even in

his own city; and to express his joy, and honour the solemnity,

David led the way, dancing with all his might in a linen ephod;

and all the house of Israel followed with shouts and instruments

of music in a triumphant manner. Now, that the choir might not

want to know how to express their joyful affections, the sweet

singer of Israel made this anthem, beginning the verse himself, as

was commanded at the removal of the ark, Nu 10:35. The Psalm has

six parts:-

I. The entrance, or exordium, Ps 68:1-4.

II. The invitation to praise God, Ps 68:4.

III. The confirmation of it by many arguments, Ps 68:4-24.

IV. A lively description of triumph, or pomp of the ark's

deportation, Ps 68:24-28.

V. A petition, which has three parts, Ps 68:28-31.

VI. An exhortation to all nations to praise God, Ps 68:31-35.

I. "Let God arise" is either a prayer or acclamation; a prayer

that he would, or an acclamation that he does, show his power and

presence. Of which the consequence would be double:-

1. Towards his enemies, destruction; for he prays, "Let his

enemies be scattered; let those that hate him fly before him."

He illustrates it by a twofold comparison:-

(1) "As smoke (when it is at the highest) is driven away, so

drive them away."

(2) "As wax melteth before the fire, so let the wicked perish in

the presence of God."

2. Towards good men, his servants; which is quite contrary to

the other: "Let the righteous be glad; let them rejoice before

God; yea, let them exceedingly rejoice." Thus it happened; for

when the ark was taken by the Philistines, the glory was departed

from Israel, and there was nothing but sadness and sorrow: but

with the return of the ark the glory returned and all was joy and

gladness.

II. And so, by an apostrophe, he turns his speech to all good

men, and exhorts them to praise God.

1. "Sing unto God." Let it be done with your voice publicly.

2. Psallite: "Sing praises to his name," with Instruments of

music."

3. "Extol him." Show his way, as in a triumph. Thus, when our

Saviour rode into Jerusalem they cut down branches, and strewed

their garments in the way.

III. And so David enters upon his confirmation, producing his

reasons why they should praise God.

1. Drawn from his majesty: "He rideth upon the heavens;" that

is, he rules in the heavens.

2. From the essence: "By his name Jah," the contraction of

Jehovah, I am. He gives essence to all things; therefore, "rejoice

before him."

3. From his general providence and goodness towards his Church.

(1) "He is the father of the fatherless." Loves, cares, and

provides an inheritance for them.

(2) "A judge of the widows." He cares for his people when

deserted, and for whom no man cares, and when exposed to injury.

Such is God in his holy habitation; whose presence is represented

by this ark.

(3) "God setteth the solitary in families." He makes the barren

woman to keep house, and to be the joyful mother of children. As

also the barren woman-the Gentile Church that had no husband, to

bring forth children to God.

(4) He brings forth those which are bound with chains; as

Joseph, Jeremiah, Daniel, Peter, Paul.

4. On the contrary: "But the rebellious dwell in a dry land;"

perish with want and hunger.

IV. From his special providence toward his people Israel, which

he introduces by an elegant apostrophe: "O God, when thou wentest

forth before thy people;" thus amplified:-

1. God's going before them, and marching along with them in

Egypt, in the wilderness. These signs manifested his presence:

"The earth shook, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God:

even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of

Israel."

2. God's provision for them after he gave them the possession of

the good land. He fed, sustained them there, counted them his

inheritance, and gave them rain and fruitful seasons: "Thou, O

God, didst send a plentiful rain, whereby thou didst confirm thine

inheritance, when it was weary. The congregation hath dwelt

therein: thou, O God, hast prepared of thy goodness for the poor."

3. The victories he gave them over their enemies, Ps 68:12,

which he prefaces by imitation of the song of the victory, sung

usually by the women and damsels of those times, Ps 68:11: "The

Lord gave the word," that is, either the word of war, or else the

song; and then "Great was the company of those that published

it." As Miriam, Deborah, &c. And in these songs they sang, "Kings

of armies did flee apace; and she that tarried at home divided the

spoil." So great was the prey.

4. The deliverance he sends from troubles, and the joy he gives

after them. "Though ye have lien among the pots," that is, cast

aside as some useless or broken pot, the offscouring of all

things; "yet shall ye be as the wings of a dove covered with

silver, and her feathers with yellow gold; " i.e., shining and

glorious. The allusion seems to be taken from some standard, whose

portraiture and device was a dove so overlaid. The Babylonian

ensign was a dove. But see the note on this passage.

And this he farther declares by another similitude: "When the

Almighty scattered kings in it:" or for her, i.e., his Church, it

was white-glittering, glorious, to be seen afar off; "it was white

as snow in Salmon," with which it is generally covered.

5. From God's especial presence among them, which, that he might

make it more evident, David enters upon the commendation of the

hill of Sion to which the ark was at this time brought, comparing

it with other hills, especially with Bashan. That is a hill of

God; a high, plentiful, and fertile hill. As if he had said, So

much I grant. But, "why leap ye, ye high hills?" Why are ye so

proud? Why do ye boast your vines, your fruits, your pastures,

your cattle? Sion has the pre-eminence of you all in two

respects:-

1. For God's continual habitation and common presence is there:

"This is the hill which God desireth to dwell in; yea, the Lord

will dwell in it for ever."

2. For his defence of it. "The chariots of God are twenty

thousand, even thousands of angels:" and these are for the defence

of Sion, his Church; "for God is among them as in Sinai, in the

holy place;" in glory and majesty, to Sinai, and in Sion.

And yet he goes on to persuade us to praise God, 1. For his

strange and wonderful works. 2. For the performance of his

promises. Among his great works there was none so glorious as the

ascension of our Saviour, of which the ark's ascension to

Jerusalem at this time was a type.

First. 1. Before the ark David and the people used this

acclamation: "Thou hast ascended on high." Thou, O God, whose

presence is shadowed out by the ark, hast ascended from an obscure

house to a kingly palace, Sion.

2. "Thou hast led captivity captive;" those that led us captives

being captives themselves, and now led in triumph.

3. "Thou hast received gifts for men;" spoils and gifts from the

conquered kings; or who may become homagers unto him, and redeem

their peace.

4. "Yea, for the rebellious also: "Formerly so, but now

tributaries.

5. "That the Lord God might dwell among them;" might have a

certain place to dwell in; and the ark not be carried, as before,

from place to place.

This is the literal sense; but the mystical refers to our

Saviour's ascension. St. Paul says, Eph 4:8:

1. "Thou hast ascended on high:" when the cloud carried him from

earth to heaven.

2. "Thou hast led captivity," those who captured us, "captive;"

death, the devil, sin, the power of hell, the curse of the law.

3. "He received, and gave gifts to men:" The apostles,

evangelists, prophets, doctors, and teachers, were these

gifts-graces, gifts of the Spirit.

4. "Yea, for the rebellious also:" Paul, a persecutor; Austin, a

Manichhaean.

5. "That the Lord God might dwell among them:" for to that end

St. Paul says these gifts were given, "to the work of the

ministry, to the edification of the Church, to the building up of

the body of Christ." Eph 4:12, &c.

The two effects of his ascension then were, one towards his

enemies, the other for his friends: "When thou ascendest up on

high:-"

1. "Thou leddest captivity captive:" this was the consequence to

his enemies.

2. "Thou receivedst, and gavest gifts:" This for his friends.

For which he sings, "Blessed be God;" for he comes over both

again:-

1. The gifts to his friends: "Blessed be the Lord, who daily

loadeth us with benefits, even the God of our salvation." "He that

is our God is the God of salvation; and unto God the Lord belong

the issues from death." He knows many ways to deliver in death

itself, when there is no hope.

2. The conquest of his enemies; for such he counts obstinate

impenitent sinners; those he will destroy: "God shall wound the

head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on

still in his trespasses."

Secondly, His last argument is, God's performance of his promise

to save them. When you were in the wilderness; when you fought

with Og, king of Bashan, when at the Red Sea, I delivered you. The

Lord saith still to his people:-

1. "I will bring again from Bashan;" from equally great dangers.

2. "I will bring my people again from the depths of the sea:"

when there is no hope.

3. And for thy enemies, they shall be destroyed by a great

effusion of blood: "That thy foot may be dipped in the blood of

thine enemies, and the tongue of thy dogs in the same;" thou shalt

waste, and make a great slaughter.

4. And now he descends to set before our eyes the pomp and show

which was used in the ascent and bringing back of the ark, and the

proceeding of it.

1. The people were present to witness it: "They have seen thy

goings, O God; even the goings of my God, my King, in the

sanctuary."

2. The manner of the pomp: "The singers went before, the players

on instruments followed after; among them were the damsels playing

with timbrels."

3. In the pomp they were not silent; and that they be not, he

exhorts them: "Bless ye God in the congregations, even the Lord,

from the fountain of Israel,"-Jacob's posterity.

4. And he gives in the catalogue of the tribes that were

present, but these especially,-

1. "There is little Benjamin," Jacob's youngest son, or now the

least, wasted with war, "with their ruler," the chief prince of

their tribe.

2. "The princes of Judah, and their council."

3. "The princes of Zebulun, and the princes of Naphtali;" the

farthest tribes, therefore the nearest.

V. And in the midst of the pomp he makes a prayer which has

three vows, before which he prefixes the acknowledgment that all

the power and strength of Israel was from God: "Thy God hath

commanded thy strength." He then prays,-

1. For the confirmation, establishment, and continuance of this

strength: "Strengthen, O God, that which thou hast wrought for us;

" and let this be evinced "by the kings and tributaries that shall

bring gifts. Because of thy temple at Jerusalem shall kings bring

presents unto thee."

2. For the conquest and subduing of the enemy, until they become

tributaries, and do homage: "Rebuke the company of spearmen, the

multitude of the bulls, with the calves of the people;" kings,

princes, and their potent subjects; "till every one submit himself

with pieces of silver: scatter thou the people that delight in

war." See the note.

3. For the increase of Christ's kingdom, of which David was but

a type, by the access of the Gentiles. "Princes shall come out of

Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God." These,

by a synecdoche, being put for all nations.

VI. This excellent Psalm draws now towards a conclusion; and it

is a resumption of that which he principally intended; that is,

that God be blessed, honoured, praised. He first exhorts, then

shows the reasons for it.

1. He exhorts all nations to perform this duty: at first, the

Jews, but now all universally: "Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of the

earth; O sing praises unto the Lord."

2. His reasons to induce them to do it.

The majesty of God testified,-

1. By his works: "To him that rideth upon the heaven of heavens,

which were of old."

2. His power, in his thunder, in his word: "He doth send out his

voice, and that a mighty voice."

3. His wise protection of and providence over his people:

"Ascribe ye strength unto God: his excellency is over Israel, and

his strength is in the clouds."

4. His communication of himself to his Church in particular: 1.

"O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places." 2. "The God of

Israel is he that giveth strength and power unto his people." 3.

"Blessed be God." With this epiphonema he concludes.

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