Zechariah 11


The commencement of this chapter relates to the destruction of

Jerusalem and the Jewish polity, probably by the Babylonians;

at least in the first instance, as the fourth verse speaks of

the people thus threatened as the prophet's charge, 1-6.

The prophet then gives an account of the manner in which he

discharged his office, and the little value that was put on his

labours. And this he does by symbolical actions, a common mode

of instruction with the ancient prophets, 7-14.

After the prophet, on account of the unsuccessfulness of his

labours, had broken the two crooks which were the true badges

of his pastoral office, (to denote the annulling of God's

covenant with them, and their consequent divisions and

dispersions,) he is directed to take instruments calculated to

hurt and destroy, perhaps an iron crook, scrip, and stones, to

express by these symbols the judgments which God was about to

inflict on them by wicked rulers and guides, who should first

destroy the flock, and in the end be destroyed themselves,


Let us now view this prophecy in another light, as we are

authorized to do by Scripture, Mt 27:7.

In this view the prophet, in the person of the Messiah, sets

forth the ungrateful returns made to him by the Jews, when he

undertook the office of shepherd in guiding and governing them;

how they rejected him, and valued him and his labours at the

mean and contemptible price of thirty pieces of silver, the

paltry sum for which Judas betrayed him. Upon which he

threatens to destroy their city and temple; and to give them

up to the hands of such guides and governors as should have no

regard to their welfare.


Verse 1. Open thy doors, O Lebanon] I will give Mr. Joseph

Mede's note upon this verse:-

"That which moveth me more than the rest, is in chap. xi., which

contains a prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem, and a

description of the wickedness of the inhabitants, for which God

would give them to the sword, and have no more pity upon them. It

is expounded of the destruction by Titus; but methinks such a

prophecy was nothing seasonable for Zachary's time, (when the city

yet for a great part lay in her ruins, and the temple had not yet

recovered hers,) nor agreeable to the scope. Zachary's commission,

who, together with his colleague Haggai, was sent to encourage the

people, lately returned from captivity, to build their temple, and

to instaurate their commonwealth. Was this a fit time to foretell

the destruction of both, while they were yet but a-building? And

by Zachary too, who was to encourage them? Would not this better

befit the desolation by Nebuchadnezzar?" I really think so. See

Mr. J. Mede's lxi. Epistle.

Lebanon signifies the temple, because built of materials

principally brought from that place.

Verse 2. Howl, fir tree] This seems to point out the fall and

destruction of all the mighty men.

Verse 3. Young lions] Princes and rulers. By shepherds, kings or

priests may be intended.

Verse 4. Feed the flock of the slaughter] This people resemble a

flock of sheep fattened for the shambles; feed, instruct, this

people who are about to be slaughtered.

Verse 5. Whose possessors] Governors and false prophets, slay

them, by leading them to those things that will bring them to


And they that sell them] Give them up to idolatry; and bless

God, strange to tell, that they get secular advantage by the

establishment of this false religion.

Verse 6. For I will no more pity] I have determined to deliver

them into the hands of the Chaldeans.

Verse 7. And I wilt feed the flock of slaughter] I showed them

what God had revealed to me relative to the evils coming upon the

land; and I did this the more especially for the sake of the poor

of the flock.

Two staves] Two shepherd's crooks. One I called Beauty-that

probably by which they marked the sheep; dipping the end into

vermillion, or some red liquid. And this was done when they were

to mark every tenth sheep, as it came out of the field, when the

tithe was to be set apart for the Lord.

The other I called Bands] Probably that with the hook or crook

at the head of it, by which the shepherd was wont to catch the

sheep by the horns or legs when he wished to bring any to hand.

And I fed the flock.] These two rods show the beauty and union

of the people, while under God as their Shepherd. It was the

delight of God to see them in a state of peace and harmony.

Verse 8. Three shepherds also I cut off in one month] Taking

this literally, some think the three shepherds mean the three

Maccabees, Judas, Jonathan, and Simon; others, the three wicked

high priests, Jason, Alcimus, and Menelaus; others, the three

last princes of the Asmonean race, Alexander, Hyrcanus, and


Perhaps three orders may be intended: 1. The priesthood. 2. The

dictatorship, including the Scribes, Pharisees, &c. 3. The

magistracy, the great sanhedrin, and the smaller councils. These

were all annihilated by the Roman conquest.

Verse 9. I will not feed you] I shall instruct you no longer:

some of you are appointed to death by famine; others, to be cut

off by the sword; and others of you, to such desparation that ye

shall destroy one another.

Verse 10. I took my staff-Beauty, and cut it asunder] And thus I

showed that I determined no longer to preserve them in their free

and glorious state. And thus I brake my covenant with them, which

they had broken on their part already.

Verse 11. So the poor of the flock] The pious, who attended to

my teaching, saw that this was the word-the design, of God.

Verse 12. If ye think good, give me my price] "Give me my hire."

And we find they rated it contemptuously; thirty pieces of silver

being the price of a slave, Ex 21:32.

Verse 13. And the Lord said unto me, Cast it unto the potter]

Jehovah calls the price of his prophet his own price; and commands

that it should not be accepted, but given to a potter, to

foreshadow the transaction related Mt 27:7.

"Earthen vessels were used in the temple; and we may suppose

that some Levites were employed within the sacred precincts to

furnish them. To these, the humblest of his ministers in the

temple, God commands that the degrading price should be cast."

This is the substance of the notes on these two verses, given by

Abp. Newcome.

We may look at it in another light, Give me my price!

habu sichri, bring my price, or give him my price; that is, Give

the money to Judas which you have agreed to give him; for he can

neither betray me nor you crucify me, but my own permission. But

if not, forbear; take time to consider this bloody business, and

in time forbear. For though I permit you to do it, yet remember

that the permission does not necessitate you to do it; and the

salvation of the world may be effected without this treachery and


See my notes on this place, See Clarke on Mt 27:9, where I have

examined the evidence for the reading of "Zechariah the prophet,"

instead of "Jeremiah."

Verse 14. That I might break the brotherhood] I cannot, says

Newcome, explain this passage, without supposing that the

kingdom of Israel subsisted when the prophet wrote it; and that

either the wars between Judah and Israel are referred to, (see

2Ki 16:5,) or the captivity of the ten tribes, when the

brotherly connection between these kingdoms ceased.

Verse 15. The instruments of a foolish shepherd.] Such as a bag

without bread, a scrip without measure, and a staff without a

hook, &c., things that were needless or of no use; to point out

to the Jewish pastors, who took no care of the flock, but devoured

them, or ruled them with force and with cruelty.

Verse 16. I will raise up a shepherd in the land] Some wicked

king; and Newcome supposes Hoshea may be meant. See 2Ki 17:1, 2,

and to such an abominable sovereign the prophecy may well apply.

Verse 17. Wo to the idol shepherd] roi haelil, "the

worthless," or "good for nothing shepherd." The shepherd in name

and office, but not performing the work of one. See Joh 10:11.

The sword shall be upon his arm] Punishment shall be executed

upon the wicked Jews, and especially their wicked kings and

priests. See Zec 11:16.

Arm-the secular power; right eye-the ecclesiastical state.

His arm shall be clean dried up] The secular power shall be

broken, and become utterly inefficient.

His right eye shall be utterly darkened] Prophecy shall be

restrained; and the whole state, ecclesiastical and civil, shall

be so completely eclipsed, that none of their functions shall be

performed. This may refer to the worthless and wicked governor

mentioned in the preceding verse.

There are several things in this chapter that are very obscure,

and we can hardly say what opinion is right; nor is it at all

clear whether they refer to a very early or late period of the

Jewish history.

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