Romans 31:1 called (f-7) 'A called apostle,' i.e. an apostle by (divine) calling. Cf. ver. 7 'called saints,' and see note there.3:3 faith (a-13) Or 'faithfulness.' 3:4 written, (b-18) See Ps. 51.4. 3:5 wrath? (c-17) 'Inflicts wrath' is hardly English, as wrath is a sentiment of the mind; and it is what reaches another which is inflicted, as punishment or pain. But 'executes' is not the sense, nor is 'takes vengeance.' The form of expression in Greek, as in the use of 'inflict' in English, is a figure of the effect for the cause, so I have ventured to use it. 3:7 abounded (d-12) Or 'has more abounded by my lie.' In the translation in the text the thought is 'he remained true in spite of my failure.' 3:12 one. (e-26) Ps. 14.1-3. 3:13 deceit; (f-13) Ps. 5.9. lips. (g-19) Ps. 140.3. 3:14 bitterness; (h-8) Ps. 10.7. 3:17 known. (i-8) Isa. 59.7-8. 3:18 eyes. (k-9) Ps. 36.1. 3:19 under (l-15) Lit. 'in' en. be (m-28) i.e. 'become in that state,' not future, but the existing consequence. 3:21 without (n-3) 'Apart from.' see Heb. 9.28. God (o-7) See Note, ch. 1.17. 3:23 short (p-7) The present fact, 'they come short;' 'come' is not dependent on 'have.' 3:25 mercy-seat, (q-7) I do not think this word can be used for '[a] propitiatory [sacrifice]' or 'propitiation;' it certainly is not the habitual use in the LXX; and we have the two parts of the work of the great day of atonement, here and in ch. 4.25; 'set forth,' here, has a reflexive force; see Note e, Heb. 1.3. by (a-25) 'In respect of the passing by the sins.' I have hesitated as to using dia with the accusative in this sense here; but on the whole I do not doubt it gives the sense. God had passed by, not brought into judgment, the sins of Old Testament believers; and the accomplishment of the atonement showed His righteousness in this. Now the righteousness is itself shown, and to be relied on.
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