Romans 51:1 called (f-7) 'A called apostle,' i.e. an apostle by (divine) calling. Cf. ver. 7 'called saints,' and see note there.5:2 have (i-4) Perfect tense. 'have obtained and possess.' 5:6 died (k-13) Or 'died.' so ver. 8. The aorist; but 'has died' is used in English for the fact, which is the force of the aorist. That is, it is so used where the moral import is an abiding one, and time is not in question, even if no abiding effect is meant. 'He has taken a journey.' The simple preterite, 'died,' is not an aorist in English; it is historical, and the fact is viewed as past and done with. 5:9 of] (a-11) Or 'by his blood,' 'by his life.' when en is used morally it has the force of 'in the power of,' 'in the intrinsic character of;' thus 'in flesh,' 'in spirit.' The article and pronoun here give it a somewhat more instrumental character. 'Through' in ver. 10 is dia. 5:10 of] (a-29) Or 'by his blood,' 'by his life.' when en is used morally it has the force of 'in the power of,' 'in the intrinsic character of;' thus 'in flesh,' 'in spirit.' The article and pronoun here give it a somewhat more instrumental character. 'Through' in ver. 10 is dia. 5:12 (b-0) The epistle divides itself here, as to doctrine, into two distinct parts, which a new paragraph hardly shows. Up to ch. 5.11 'sins' had been treated of; from this point 'sin' is in view. 5:13 account (c-15) This is a different word from that translated 'reckoned' in ch. 4.22,23 (both 'imputed' in A.V.). There, a man is judicially estimated such or such. here, a particular fault is put to a person's account. The former is found in Gal. 3.6 and 2Cor. 5.19; this only in Philem. 18. 5:14 reigned (d-3) Or 'has reigned,' aorist. in (e-15) Or 'according to.' 'Sinned after' is not the sense here. It refers to Hos. 6.7, 'They, like Adam, have transgressed the covenant.' this of Israel. But they who had no law did not. The point here is the form or character in or with which anything happens; that which gives it its character. 5:15 offence? (f-11) Or 'not as the offence [is] the act of favour.' one (g-18) Lit. 'the one.' 5:16 gift? (h-12) Or 'And not as by one that sinned [is] the gift.' I would add that I have translated the Greek words, dorema as 'gift,' charisma as 'act of favour,' and dorea as 'free gift.' This will distinguish them. of (i-17) That is, had its foundation in, was grounded on, one single thing or act. justification. (k-30) Dikaioma; or 'judicial righteousness.' Here the Greek is more exact than English perhaps allows. It is the state of accomplished subsisting righteousness before God, in which justification places us. The word dikaiosis, 'justification,' in ver. 18 and ch. 4.25 is the act of justifying. In English we must use justification for both. I cannot say 'righteousness;' that might be practical. In ch. 4.25 the doing of it was in view, 'for our justifying;' not, as some read, 'because we are justified,' which could only be said in connection with faith, whereas 'for our justifying' is the effect future to the rising again. 5:17 Christ.) (l-38) Vers. 13-17 are a parenthesis. 5:18 righteousness (m-17) Here dikaioma; the same word as translated 'justification,' ver. 16, but it cannot be so translated here. It is the accomplished subsisting righteousness answering to the one offence. 5:20 in, (a-4) Came in as an extra thing, or by the by. 5:21 righteousness (b-20) i.e. on that principle of righteousness, dikaiosune. i.e. the quality itself, as ch. 3.21.
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