Pr 10:1-32. Here begins the second part of the book, Pr 10:1-22:16, which, with the third, Pr 22:16-25:28, contains series of proverbs whose sense is complete in one or two verses, and which, having no logical connection, admit of no analysis. The parallelisms of Pr 10:1-15:33 are mostly antithetic; and those of Pr 16:1-22:16, synthetic. The evidences of art in the structure are very clear, and indicate, probably, a purpose of facilitating the labor of memorizing.
1. wise [and] foolish—as they follow or reject the precepts of wisdom.maketh . . . father—or, "gladdens a father." heaviness—or, "grief."
2. Treasures . . . nothing—that is, Ill-gotten gains give no true happiness (compare Pr 4:17; Mt 6:19).righteousness—especially beneficence (Ps 112:9). death—the greatest of all evils.
3. (Compare Ps 37:16-20). The last clause is better: "He will repel the greedy desires of the wicked."
4. slack—literally, "deceitful," failing of its purpose (compare Ho 7:16).maketh rich—(compare Pr 10:22).
5. son—as Pr 1:8, 10, and often.sleepeth—in indolence, and not for rest. causeth shame—literally, "is base" (compare Pr 14:35; 17:2).
6. Blessings—literally, "Praises." The last clause is better: "The mouth of the wicked covereth (or concealeth) violence (or mischievous devices)" to be executed in due time (Ps 5:9; 10:7; Ro 3:14), and hence has no praises (compare Pr 10:11).
7. blessed—literally, "for a blessing," or praise.shall rot—literally, "be worm-eaten," useless and disgusting.
8. wise, &c.—(compare Pr 9:8, 9, 16), opposed toprating fool—or, "fool of lips of wicked language." fall—headlong, suddenly.
9. perverteth his ways—acts deceitfully.known—discovered and punished.
10. Two vices contrasted; hypocrisy, or insinuating evil against one (Pr 6:13; Ps 35:19), and rashness of speech. In each case, the results are on the evildoers.
11. a well—or, "source" of good to himself and others (Joh 7:37, 38). On last clause, see on Pr 10:6.
12. strifes—or, "litigations."covereth—by forgiveness and forbearance.
13. In the lips . . . found—hence, not beaten, as the wicked-speaking fool.void of understanding— (Pr 6:32; 7:7).
14. lay up knowledge—that is, as treasures for good use.mouth . . . destruction—or, "as to the mouth," &c., destruction is near; they expose themselves to evil by prating.
16. The industry of the righteous is alone truly successful, while the earnings of the wicked tempt and lead to sin.
17. keepeth—observes (Pr 3:18; 4:22).refuseth—or, "turns from reproof," which might direct him aright.
18. Both vices must one day be known and punished, and hence their folly.
19. Much speech involves risk of sin; hence the wisdom of restraining the tongue (Ps 39:1; Jas 1:26).
20. Right speech is the fruit of a good heart, but the wicked show theirs to be useless.
21. Fools not only fail to benefit others, as do the righteous, but procure their own ruin (compare Pr 10:11, 17; Ho 4:6).
22. it maketh, &c.—"it" is emphatic. Riches from God are without the sorrow of ill-gotten wealth (compare Ec 2:21-23; 1Ti 6:9, 10, 17).
23. Sin is the pleasure of the wicked; wisdom that of the good.
24. it—the very thing. The wicked get dreaded evil; the righteous, desired good.
25. (Compare Ps 1:4; 37:9, 10, 36).righteous . . . foundation—well laid and firm (Mt 7:24, 25).
26. that is, causes vexation.
27. (Compare Pr 9:11; Ps 55:23).
28. gladness—in confidence of realizing it.expectation . . . perish—in disappointment.
29. The way, &c.—that is, God's providence sustains the righteous and overthrows the wicked (Ho 14:9).
30. (Compare Pr 12:3; Ps 37:9-11; 102:28).earth—or, "land of promise."
31. bringeth forth—literally, "germinates" as a plant.froward—(Compare Pr 2:12, 14). cut off—as an unproductive plant.
32. know—regard and provide for (Ps 1:6).frowardness—all kinds of deceit and ill-nature. The word is plural.
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