Luke 20

Jesus’ Authority Challenged

And it happened that on one of the days while
Here “ while” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“was teaching”)
he was teaching the people in the temple courts
Here “ courts” is supplied to distinguish this area from the interior of the temple building itself
and proclaiming the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes approached together with the elders
and said, saying to him, “Tell us, by what authority you are doing these things, or who is the one who gave you this authority? And he answered and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“answered”) has been translated as a finite verb
said to them, “I also will ask you a question, and you tell me:
The baptism of John—was it from heaven or from men? And they discussed this
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
with one another, saying, “If we say ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why did you not believe him?’
But if we say, ‘From men,’ all the people will stone us to death, because they are convinced that John was a prophet.” And they replied that they did not know where it was from. And Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things.”

The Parable of the Tenant Farmers in the Vineyard

And he began to tell the people this parable: “A man
Some manuscripts have “A certain man”
planted a vineyard, and leased it to tenant farmers, and went on a journey for a long time.
10 And at the proper time he sent a slave to the tenant farmers, so that they would give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the tenant farmers sent him away empty-handed after
Here “ after” is supplied as a component of the participle (“beating”) which is understood as temporal
beating him.
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
11 And he proceeded to send another slave, but they beat and dishonored that one also, and
Here “ and” is supplied because the two previous participles (“beat” and “dishonored”) have been translated as finite verbs
sent him
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
away empty-handed.
12 And he proceeded to send a third, but they wounded and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“wounded”) has been translated as a finite verb
threw out this one also.
13 So the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do? I will send my beloved son; perhaps they will respect him.’ 14 But when
Here “ when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“saw”) which is understood as temporal
the tenant farmers saw him, they began to reason
The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here (“began to reason”)
with one another, saying, ‘This is the heir. Let us kill him so that the inheritance will become ours!’
15 And they threw him out of the vineyard and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“threw”) has been translated as a finite verb
killed him.
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them?
16 He will come and destroy those tenant farmers and give the vineyard to others.” And when they
Here “ when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“heard”) which is understood as temporal
heard this,
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
they said, “May this never happen!”
17 But he looked intently at them and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“looked intently at”) has been translated as a finite verb
said, “What then is this that is written:

‘The stone which the builders rejected,
this has become ˻the cornerstone˼.’
Literally “the head of the corner”

18 Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, and the one on whom it falls—it will crush him!” 19 And the scribes and the chief priests sought to lay their
Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
hands on him at that same hour, and they were afraid of the people, for they knew that he had told this parable with reference to them.

20 

Paying Taxes to Caesar

And they watched him
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
closely and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“watched closely”) has been translated as a finite verb
sent spies who pretended they were upright, in order that they could catch him in a statement, so that they could hand him over to the authority and the jurisdiction of the governor.
21 And they asked him, saying, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach rightly, and do not ˻show partiality˼,
Literally “receive face”
but teach the way of God in truth.
22 Is it permitted for us to pay taxes
Or “the tribute tax”
to Caesar or not?”
23 But seeing through their craftiness, he said to them, 24 “Show me a denarius! Whose image and inscription does it have?” And they answered and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“answered”) has been translated as a finite verb
said,
Some manuscripts have “And they said”
“Caesar’s.”
25 So he said to them, “Well then, give to Caesar the things of Caesar, and to God the things of God!” 26 And they were not able to catch him
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation

Some manuscripts explicitly state “him”
in a statement in the sight of the people, and astonished at his answer, they became silent.

27 

A Question About Marriage and the Resurrection

Now some of the Sadducees—who deny ˻that there is a resurrection˼
Literally “resurrection not to exist”
—came up and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“came up”) has been translated as a finite verb
asked him,
28 saying, “Teacher, Moses wrote for us if someone’s brother dies having a wife, and this man is childless, that his brother should take the wife and ˻father˼
Literally “raise up”
descendants for his brother.
29 Now there were seven brothers, and the first took a wife and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“took”) has been translated as a finite verb
died childless,
30 and the second, 31 and the third took her, and likewise also the seven did not leave children and died. 32 Finally the woman also died. 33 Therefore in the resurrection, the woman—whose wife will she be? For the seven had her as wife.” 34 And Jesus said to them, “The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, 35 but those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and to the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage, 36 for they are not even able to die any longer, because they are like the angels and are sons of God, because they
Here “ because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“are”) which is understood as causal
are sons of the resurrection.
37 But that the dead are raised, even Moses revealed in the passage about
The words “ the passage about” are not in the Greek text but are implied; here a common form of rabbinic citation is being used to refer to an Old Testament passage
the bush, when he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.
38 Now he is not God of the dead, but of the living, for all live to him!” 39 And some of the scribes answered and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“answered”) has been translated as a finite verb
said, “Teacher, you have spoken well.”
40 For they no longer dared to ask him anything.

41 

David’s Son and Lord

But he said to them, “In what sense do they say that the Christ is David’s son?
42 For David himself says in the book of Psalms,

‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“Sit at my right hand,
43 until I make your enemies
a footstool for your feet.” ’
A quotation from Ps 110:1

44 David therefore calls him ‘Lord,’ and how is he his son?”

45 

Warning to Beware of the Scribes

And while
Here “ while” is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle (“were listening”)
all the people were listening, he said to the disciples,
Some manuscripts have “to his disciples”
46 “Beware of the scribes, who like walking around in long robes and who love greetings in the marketplaces and the best seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets, 47 who devour the houses of widows and pray lengthy prayers for the sake of appearance. These will receive more severe condemnation!”

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