Mark 12

The Parable of the Tenant Farmers in the Vineyard

And he began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard, and put a fence around it, and dug a trough for the winepress, and built a watchtower, and leased it to tenant farmers, and went on a journey.
And he sent a slave to the tenant farmers at the proper time, so that he could collect some of the fruit of the vineyard from the tenant farmers. And they seized him and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“seized”) has been translated as a finite verb
beat him
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
and sent him
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
away empty-handed.
And again he sent to them another slave, and that one they struck on the head and dishonored. And he sent another, and that one they killed. And he sent
The words “ he sent” are not in the Greek text, but are an implied repetition from earlier in the verse
many others, some of whom they beat and some of whom they killed.
He had one more, a beloved son. Last of all he sent him to them, saying, ‘They will respect my son.’ But those tenant farmers said to one another, ‘This is the heir. Come, let us kill him and the inheritance will be ours!’ And they seized and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“seized”) has been translated as a finite verb
killed him and threw him out of the vineyard.
What
Some manuscripts have “What then”
will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the tenant farmers and give the vineyard to others.
10 Have you not read this scripture:

‘The stone which the builders rejected,
this has become ˻the cornerstone˼.
Literally “the head of the corner”

11 This came about from the Lord,
and it is marvelous in our eyes’?”
A quotation from Ps 118:22–23

12 And they were seeking to arrest him, and they were afraid of the crowd, because they knew that he had told the parable with reference to them. And they left him and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“left”) has been translated as a finite verb
went away.

13 

Paying Taxes to Caesar

And they sent some of the Pharisees and the Herodians to him so that they could catch him unawares in a statement.
14 And when they
Here “ when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“came”) which is understood as temporal
came, they said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful and ˻you do not care what anyone thinks˼,
Literally “it is not a care to you concerning anyone”
˻because you do not regard the opinion of people˼
Literally “because you do not look at the face of men”
but teach the way of God in truth. Is it permitted to pay taxes to Caesar or not? Should we pay or should we not pay?”
15 But because he
Here “ because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“knew”) which is understood as causal
knew their hypocrisy, he said to them, “Why are you testing me? Bring me a denarius so that I can look at it!”
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
16 So they brought one.
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
And he said to them, “Whose image and inscription is this?” And they said to him, “Caesar’s.”
17 And Jesus said to them, “Give to Caesar the things of Caesar, and to God the things of God!” And they were utterly amazed at him.

18 

A Question About Marriage and the Resurrection

And Sadducees—who say there is no resurrection—came up to him and began to ask
The imperfect tense has been translated as ingressive here (“began to ask”)
him, saying,
19 “Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if someone’s brother dies and he leaves behind a wife and does not leave a child, that his brother should take the wife and ˻father˼
Literally “raise up”
descendants for his brother.
20 There were seven brothers, and the first took a wife. And when he
Here “ when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“died”) which is understood as temporal
died, he did not leave descendants.
21 And the second took her, and he died without leaving descendants. And the third likewise. 22 And the seven did not leave descendants. Last of all the woman also died. 23 In the resurrection, when they rise, ˻whose˼
Literally “who of them”
wife will she be? For the seven had her as wife.
24 Jesus said to them, “Are you not deceived because of this, because you
Here “ because” is supplied as a component of the participle (“know”) which is understood as causal
do not know the scriptures or the power of God?
25 For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 26 Now concerning the dead, that they are raised, have you not read in the book of Moses ˻in the passage about the bush˼
Literally “at the bush”
how God spoke to him, saying, ‘I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob’?
A quotation from Exod 3:6
27 He is not God of the dead, but of the living. You are very much mistaken!”

28 

The Greatest Commandment

And one of the scribes came up and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“came up”) has been translated as a finite verb
heard them debating. When he
Here “ when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“saw”) which is understood as temporal
saw that he answered them well, he asked him, “Which commandment is the most important of all?”
29 Jesus answered, “The most important is, ‘Listen, Israel! The Lord our God, the Lord is one. 30 And you shall love the Lord your God from your whole heart and from your whole soul and from your whole mind and from your whole strength.’
A quotation from Deut 6:4–5; Josh 22:5
31 The second is this: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.’
A quotation from Lev 19:18
There is no other commandment greater than these.”
32 And the scribe said to him, “That is true, Teacher. You have said ˻correctly˼
Literally “in accordance with truth”
that he is one and there is no other except him.
33 And to love him from your
Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
whole heart and from your
Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
whole understanding and from your
Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
whole strength, and to love your
Literally “the”; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
neighbor as yourself, is much more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.”
34 And Jesus, when he
Here “ when” is supplied as a component of the participle (“saw”) which is understood as temporal
saw that he had answered thoughtfully, said to him, “You are not far from the kingdom of God.” And no one dared to put a question to him any longer.

35 

David’s Son and Lord

And continuing, Jesus said while
Here “ while” is supplied as a component of the participle (“teaching”) which is understood as temporal
teaching in the temple courts
Here “ courts” is supplied to distinguish this area from the interior of the temple building itself
“How can the scribes say that the Christ is David’s son?
36 David himself said by the Holy Spirit,

‘The Lord said to my Lord,
“Sit at my right hand,
until I put your enemies
under your feet.” ’
A quotation from Ps 110:1

37 David himself calls him ‘Lord,’ and how is he his son?” And the large crowd was listening to him gladly.

38 

Warning to Beware of the Scribes

And in his teaching he said, “Beware of the scribes, who like walking around in long robes and greetings in the marketplaces
39 and the best seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets, 40 who devour the houses of widows and pray lengthy prayers for the sake of appearance. These will receive more severe condemnation!”

41 

A Poor Widow’s Offering

And he sat down opposite the contribution box and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“sat down”) has been translated as a finite verb
was observing how the crowd was putting coins into the contribution box. And many rich people were putting in many coins.
Although often translated “large sums,” the plural here suggests large numbers of individual coins, which would make an impressive noise
42 And one poor widow came and
Here “ and” is supplied because the previous participle (“came”) has been translated as a finite verb
put in two small copper coins
This coin was the lepton, worth 1/128 of a denarius
(that is, a penny).
This coin was the quadrans, the smallest Roman coin, worth 2 lepta
43 And summoning his disciples, he said to them, “Truly I say to you that this poor widow put in more than all those who put offerings
Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
into the contribution box.
44 For they all ˻contributed˼
Literally “put in”
out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty put in everything she had, her whole means of subsistence.”

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