Romans 11

A Remnant of Israel Remains

Therefore I say, God has not rejected his people, has he?
The negative construction in Greek anticipates a negative answer here
May it never be! For I also am an Israelite, from the descendants of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.
God has not rejected his people, whom he foreknew! Or do you not know, in the passage about
The words “the passage about” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied for clarity
Elijah, what the scripture says—how he appeals to God against Israel?
“Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have torn down your altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my life!”
A quotation from 1 Kgs 19:10, 14
But what does the divine response say to him? “I have left for myself seven thousand people
Or perhaps “males,” referring to men only
who have not bent the knee to Baal.”
A quotation from 1 Kgs 19:18
So in this way also at the present time, there is a remnant ˻selected by grace˼
Literally “according to selection of grace”
But if by grace, it is no longer by works, for otherwise grace would no longer be grace.

What then? What Israel was searching for, this it did not obtain. But the elect obtained it, and the rest were hardened, just as it is written,

“God gave them a spirit of stupor,
eyes that do not see and ears that do not hear,
until this very day.”
A quotation from Deut 29:4; Isa 29:10

And David says,

“Let their table become a snare and a trap,
and a cause for stumbling and a retribution to them;
10 let their eyes be darkened so that they do not see,
and cause their backs to bend ˻continually˼
Literally “throughout everything”
A quotation from Ps 69:22–23

11 I say then, they did not stumble so that they fell, did they?
The negative construction in Greek anticipates a negative answer here
May it never be! But by their trespass, salvation has come to the Gentiles, in order to provoke them to jealousy.
The words “to jealousy” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied for clarity
12 And if their trespass means riches for the world and their loss means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their fullness mean?


Gentile Branches Grafted in

Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. Therefore, inasmuch as I am apostle to the Gentiles, I promote my ministry,
14 if somehow I may provoke my people to jealousy and save some of them. 15 For if their rejection means the reconciliation of the world, what will their acceptance mean except life from the dead? 16 Now if the first fruits are holy, so also is the whole batch of dough, and if the root is holy, so also are the branches.

17 Now if some of the branches were broken off, and you, although you
Here “ although” is supplied as a component of the participle (“were”) which is understood as concessive
were a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them and became a sharer of the root of the olive tree’s richness,
18 do not boast against the branches. But if you boast against them, you do not support the root, but the root supports you. 19 Then you will say, “Branches were broken off in order that I could be grafted in.” 20 Well said! They were broken off because of unbelief, but you stand firm because of faith. Do not think arrogant thoughts, but be afraid. 21 For if God did not spare the ˻natural˼
Literally “according to nature”
branches, neither will he spare you.
Some manuscripts have “perhaps he will not spare you either”
22 See, then, the kindness and severity of God: severity upon those who have fallen, but upon you the kindness of God—if you continue in his kindness, for otherwise you also will be cut off. 23 And those also, if they do not persist in unbelief, will be grafted in, because God is able to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut off from what is by nature a wild olive tree, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these who are ˻natural branches˼
Literally “by nature”
be grafted into their own olive tree?


All Israel to be Saved

For I do not want you to be ignorant, brothers, of this mystery, so that you will not be wise ˻in your own sight˼
Literally “in yourselves”
that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the full number of the Gentiles has come in,
26 and so all Israel will be saved, just as it is written,

“The deliverer will come out of Zion;
he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.
27 And this is the covenant from me with them
A quotation from Isa 59:20–21

when I take away their sins.”
A quotation from Isa 27:9; Jer 31:33–34

28 With respect to the gospel, they are enemies for your sake, but with respect to election, they are dearly loved for the sake of the fathers. 29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable. 30 For just as you formerly were disobedient to God, but now have been shown mercy because of the disobedience of these, 31 so also these have now been disobedient for your mercy, in order that they also may now be shown mercy. 32 For God confined them all in disobedience, in order that he could have mercy on them all.

33  Oh, the depth of the riches
and the wisdom and the knowledge of God!
How unsearchable are his judgments
and how incomprehensible are his ways!
34 “For who has known the mind of the Lord,
or who has been his counselor?
A quotation from Isa 40:13

35 Or who has given in advance to him,
and it will be paid back to him?”
A quotation from Job 41:11

36 For from him and through him and to him are all things.
To him be glory for eternity! Amen.
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