Exodus 12

* The beginning of the year changed, The passover instituted.

(1-20) The people instructed how to observe the passover.

(21-28) The death of the first-born of the Egyptians The

Israelites urged to leave the land of Egypt. (29-36) The

Israelites' first journey to Succoth. (37-42) Ordinance

respecting the passover. (43-51)

1-20 The Lord makes all things new to those whom he delivers

from the bondage of Satan, and takes to himself to be his

people. The time when he does this is to them the beginning of a

new life. God appointed that, on the night wherein they were to

go out of Egypt, each family should kill a lamb, or that two or

three families, if small, should kill one lamb. This lamb was to

be eaten in the manner here directed, and the blood to be

sprinkled on the door-posts, to mark the houses of the

Israelites from those of the Egyptians. The angel of the Lord,

when destroying the first-born of the Egyptians, would pass over

the houses marked by the blood of the lamb: hence the name of

this holy feast or ordinance. The passover was to be kept every

year, both as a remembrance of Israel's preservation and

deliverance out of Egypt, and as a remarkable type of Christ.

Their safety and deliverance were not a reward of their own

righteousness, but the gift of mercy. Of this they were

reminded, and by this ordinance they were taught, that all

blessings came to them through the shedding and sprinkling of

blood. Observe, 1. The paschal lamb was typical. Christ is our

passover, #1Co 5:7|. Christ is the Lamb of God, #Joh 1:29|;

often in the Revelation he is called the Lamb. It was to be in

its prime; Christ offered up himself in the midst of his days,

not when a babe at Bethlehem. It was to be without blemish; the

Lord Jesus was a Lamb without spot: the judge who condemned

Christ declared him innocent. It was to be set apart four days

before, denoting the marking out of the Lord Jesus to be a

Saviour, both in the purpose and in the promise. It was to be

slain, and roasted with fire, denoting the painful sufferings of

the Lord Jesus, even unto death, the death of the cross. The

wrath of God is as fire, and Christ was made a curse for us. Not

a bone of it must be broken, which was fulfilled in Christ, #Joh

19:33|, denoting the unbroken strength of the Lord Jesus. 2. The

sprinkling of the blood was typical. The blood of the lamb must

be sprinkled, denoting the applying of the merits of Christ's

death to our souls; we must receive the atonement, #Ro 5:11|.

Faith is the bunch of hyssop, by which we apply the promises,

and the benefits of the blood of Christ laid up in them, to

ourselves. It was to be sprinkled on the door-posts, denoting

the open profession we are to make of faith in Christ. It was

not to be sprinkled upon the threshold; which cautions us to

take heed of trampling under foot the blood of the covenant. It

is precious blood, and must be precious to us. The blood, thus

sprinkled, was a means of preserving the Israelites from the

destroying angel, who had nothing to do where the blood was. The

blood of Christ is the believer's protection from the wrath of

God, the curse of the law, and the damnation of hell, #Ro 8:1|.

3. The solemn eating of the lamb was typical of our gospel duty

to Christ. The paschal lamb was not to be looked upon only, but

to be fed upon. So we must by faith make Christ our own; and we

must receive spiritual strength and nourishment from him, as

from our food, see #Joh 6:53,55|. It was all to be eaten; those

who by faith feed upon Christ, must feed upon a whole Christ;

they must take Christ and his yoke, Christ and his cross, as

well as Christ and his crown. It was to be eaten at once, not

put by till morning. To-day Christ is offered, and is to be

accepted while it is called to-day, before we sleep the sleep of

death. It was to be eaten with bitter herbs, in remembrance of

the bitterness of their bondage in Egypt; we must feed upon

Christ with sorrow and brokenness of heart, in remembrance of

sin. Christ will be sweet to us, if sin be bitter. It was to be

eaten standing, with their staves in their hands, as being ready

to depart. When we feed upon Christ by faith, we must forsake

the rule and the dominion of sin; sit loose to the world, and

every thing in it; forsake all for Christ, and reckon it no bad

bargain, #Heb 13:13,14|. 4. The feast of unleavened bread was

typical of the Christian life, #1Co 5:7,8|. Having received

Christ Jesus the Lord, we must continually delight ourselves in

Christ Jesus. No manner of work must be done, that is, no care

admitted and indulged, which does not agree with, or would

lessen this holy joy. The Jews were very strict as to the

passover, so that no leaven should be found in their houses. It

must be a feast kept in charity, without the leaven of malice;

and in sincerity, without the leaven of hypocrisy. It was by an

ordinance for ever; so long as we live we must continue feeding

upon Christ, rejoicing in him always, with thankful mention of

the great things he has done for us.
21-28 That night, when the first-born were to be destroyed, no

Israelite must stir out of doors till called to march out of

Egypt. Their safety was owing to the blood of sprinkling. If

they put themselves from under the protection of that, it was at

their peril. They must stay within, to wait for the salvation of

the Lord; it is good to do so. In after-times they should

carefully teach their children the meaning of this service. It

is good for children to ask about the things of God; they that

ask for the way will find it. The keeping of this solemnity

every year was, 1. To look backward, that they might remember

what great things God had done for them and their fathers. Old

mercies, to ourselves, or to our fathers, must not be forgotten,

that God may be praised, and our faith in him encouraged. 2. It

was designed to look forward, as an earnest of the great

sacrifice of the Lamb of God in the fulness of time. Christ our

passover was sacrificed for us; his death was our life.
29-36 The Egyptians had been for three days and nights kept in

anxiety and horror by the darkness; now their rest is broken by

a far more terrible calamity. The plague struck their

first-born, the joy and hope of their families. They had slain

the Hebrews' children, now God slew theirs. It reached from the

throne to the dungeon: prince and peasant stand upon the same

level before God's judgments. The destroying angel entered every

dwelling unmarked with blood, as the messenger of woe. He did

his dreadful errand, leaving not a house in which there was not

one dead. Imagine then the cry that rang through the land of

Egypt, the long, loud shriek of agony that burst from every

dwelling. It will be thus in that dreadful hour when the Son of

man shall visit sinners with the last judgment. God's sons, his

first-born, were now released. Men had better come to God's

terms at first, for he will never come to theirs. Now Pharaoh's

pride is abased, and he yields. God's word will stand; we get

nothing by disputing, or delaying to submit. In this terror the

Egyptians would purchase the favour and the speedy departure of

Israel. Thus the Lord took care that their hard-earned wages

should be paid, and the people provided for their journey.
37-42 The children of Israel set forward without delay. A mixed

multitude went with them. Some, perhaps, willing to leave their

country, laid waste by plagues; others, out of curiosity;

perhaps a few out of love to them and their religion. But there

were always those among the Israelites who were not Israelites.

Thus there are still hypocrites in the church. This great event

was 430 years from the promise made to Abraham: see #Ga 3:17|.

So long the promise of a settlement was unfulfilled. But though

God's promises are not performed quickly, they will be, in their

season. This is that night of the Lord, that remarkable night,

to be celebrated in all generations. The great things God does

for his people, are to be not only a few days' wonder, but to be

remembered throughout all ages; especially the work of our

redemption by Christ. This first passover-night was a night of

the Lord, much to be observed; but the last passover-night, in

which Christ was betrayed and in which the first passover, with

the rest of the Jewish ceremonies, was done away, was a night of

the Lord, much more to be observed. Then a yoke, heavier than

that of Egypt, was broken from off our necks, and a land, better

than that of Canaan, set before us. It was a redemption to be

celebrated in heaven, for ever and ever.
43-51 In times to come, all the congregation of Israel must

keep the passover. All that share in God's mercies should join

in thankful praises for them. The New Testament passover, the

Lord's supper, ought not to be neglected by any. Strangers, if

circumcised, might eat of the passover. Here is an early

indication of favour to the gentiles. This taught the Jews that

their being a nation favoured by God, entitled them to their

privileges, not their descent from Abraham. Christ our passover

is sacrificed for us, #1Co 5:7|; his blood is the only ransom

for our souls; without the shedding of it there is no remission;

without the sprinkling of it there can be no salvation. Have we,

by faith in him, sheltered our souls from deserved vengeance

under the protection of his atoning blood? Do we keep close to

him, constantly depending upon him? Do we so profess our faith

in the Redeemer, and our obligations to him, that all who pass

by may know to whom we belong? Do we stand prepared for his

service, ready to walk in his ways, and to separate ourselves

from his enemies? These are questions of vast importance to the

soul; may the Lord direct our consciences honestly to answer

them.
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