Romans 1

The Gospel Exalted

1Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus
Lit a called apostle
b  called as an apostle c  set apart for d  the gospel of God,
2which He e  promised beforehand through His f  prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3concerning His Son, who was born g  of a
Lit seed
descendant of David i  according to the flesh,
4who was declared j  the Son of God with power
Or as a result of
by the resurrection from the dead, according to the
Or spirit
Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord,
5through whom we have received grace and m  apostleship
Lit for obedience
to bring about the o  obedience of faith among p  all the Gentiles for His name’s sake,
6among whom you also are the q  called of Jesus Christ;

7to all who are r  beloved of God in Rome, called as
Or holy ones
t  saints: u  Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

8First v  I thank my God through Jesus Christ
Or concerning you all, that...
for you all, because x  your faith is being proclaimed throughout the whole world.
9For y  God, whom I z  serve in my spirit in the preaching of the gospel of His Son, is my witness as to how unceasingly aa  I make mention of you, 10always in my prayers making request, if perhaps now at last by ab  the will of God I may succeed in coming to you. 11For ac  I long to see you so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, that you may be
Or strengthened
12that is, that I may be encouraged together with you while among you, each of us by the other’s faith, both yours and mine. 13 ae  I do not want you to be unaware af  brethren, that often I ag  have planned to come to you (and have been prevented so far) so that I may obtain some ah  fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles. 14 ai  I am
Lit debtor
under obligation both to Greeks and to ak  barbarians, both to the wise and to the foolish.
15So, for my part, I am eager to al  preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.

16For I am not am  ashamed of the gospel, for an  it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the ao  Jew first and also to ap  the Greek. 17For in it aq  the righteousness of God is revealed
Or by
from faith to faith; as it is written,
Or But he who is righteous by faith shall live
at  But the righteous man shall live by faith.”

Unbelief and Its Consequences

18For au  the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who av  suppress the truth
Or by
in unrighteousness,
19because ax  that which is known about God is evident
Or among
within them; for God made it evident to them.
20For az  since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, ba  being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. 21For even though they knew God, they did not
Lit glorify
honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became bc  futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.
22 bd  Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23and be  exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and
Or reptiles
crawling creatures.

24Therefore bg  God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be bh  dishonored among them. 25For they exchanged the truth of God for
Lit the lie
a bj  lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator bk  who is blessed
Lit unto the ages
forever. Amen.

26For this reason bm  God gave them over to bn  degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is
Lit against nature
27and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another bp  men with men committing
Lit the shameless deed
indecent acts and receiving in
Lit themselves
their own persons the due penalty of their error.

28And just as they did not see fit
Lit to have God in knowledge
to acknowledge God any longer, bt  God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper,
29being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are bu  gossips, 30slanderers
Or hateful to God
bw  haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil bx  disobedient to parents,
31without understanding, untrustworthy by  unloving, unmerciful; 32and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of bz  death, they not only do the same, but also ca  give hearty approval to those who practice them.
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