2 Kings 25

1So King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon came against Jerusalem with his whole army and set up camp outside
Or “against.”
it. They built siege ramps all around it. He arrived on the tenth day of the tenth month in the ninth year of Zedekiah’s reign.
This would have been Jan 15, 588 b.c. The reckoning is based on the calendar that begins the year in the spring (Nisan = March/April).
2The city remained under siege until King Zedekiah’s eleventh year. 3By the ninth day of the fourth month
The MT has simply “of the month,” but the parallel passage in Jer 52:6 has “fourth month,” and this is followed by almost all English translations. The word “fourth,” however, is not actually present in the MT of 2 Kgs 25:3.
According to modern reckoning that would have been July 18, 586 b.c. The siege thus lasted almost a full eighteen months.
the famine in the city was so severe the residents
Heb “the people of the land.”
had no food.
4The enemy broke through the city walls,
Heb “the city was breached.”
and all the soldiers tried to escape. They left the city during the night.
The Hebrew text is abrupt here: “And all the men of war by the night.” The translation attempts to capture the sense.
They went through the gate between the two walls that is near the king’s garden.
The king’s garden is mentioned again in Neh 3:15 in conjunction with the pool of Siloam and the stairs that go down from the city of David. This would have been in the southern part of the city near the Tyropean Valley which agrees with the reference to the “two walls” which were probably the walls on the eastern and western hills.
(The Babylonians were all around the city.) Then they headed for the Jordan Valley.
Heb “toward the Arabah.” The Arabah was the rift valley north and south of the Dead Sea. Here the intention was undoubtedly to escape across the Jordan to Moab or Ammon. It appears from Jer 40:14; 41:15 that the Ammonites were known to harbor fugitives from the Babylonians.
5But the Babylonian army chased after the king. They caught up with him in the plains of Jericho,
For location see Map5-B2; Map6-E1; Map7-E1; Map8-E3; Map10-A2; Map11-A1.
and his entire army deserted him.
6They captured the king and brought him up to the king of Babylon at Riblah,
Riblah was a strategic town on the Orontes River in Syria. It was at a crossing of the major roads between Egypt and Mesopotamia. Pharaoh Necho had earlier received Jehoahaz there and put him in chains (2 Kgs 23:33) prior to taking him captive to Egypt. Nebuchadnezzar had set up his base camp for conducting his campaigns against the Palestinian states there and was now sitting in judgment on prisoners brought to him.
where he
The Hebrew text has the plural form of the verb, but the parallel passage in Jer 52:9 has the singular.
passed sentence on him.
7Zedekiah’s sons were executed while Zedekiah was forced to watch.
Heb “were killed before his eyes.”
The king of Babylon
Heb “he”; the referent (the king of Babylon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
then had Zedekiah’s eyes put out, bound him in bronze chains, and carried him off to Babylon.

Nebuchadnezzar Destroys Jerusalem

8 On the seventh
The parallel account in Jer 52:12 has “tenth.”
day of the fifth month,
The seventh day of the month would have been August 14, 586 b.c. in modern reckoning.
in the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, the captain of the royal guard
For the meaning of this phrase see BDB 371 s.v. טַבָּח 2, and compare the usage in Gen 39:1.
who served the king of Babylon, arrived in Jerusalem.
9He burned down the Lord’s temple, the royal palace, and all the houses in Jerusalem, including every large house.
Heb “and every large house he burned down with fire.”
10The whole Babylonian army that came with the captain of the royal guard tore down the walls that surrounded Jerusalem. 11Nebuzaradan, the captain of the royal guard, deported the rest of the people who were left in the city, those who had deserted to the king of Babylon, and the rest of the craftsmen.
The MT has “the multitude.” But הֶהָמוֹן (hehamon) should probably be emended to הֶאָמוֹן (heamon).
12But he
Heb “the captain of the royal guard.” However, the subject is clear from the preceding and contemporary English style would normally avoid repeating the proper name and title.
left behind some of the poor of the land and gave them fields and vineyards.

13 The Babylonians broke the two bronze pillars in the Lord’s temple, as well as the movable stands and the big bronze basin called the “The Sea.”
See the note at 1 Kgs 7:23.
They took the bronze to Babylon.
14They also took the pots, shovels,
These shovels were used to clean the altar.
trimming shears,
These were used to trim the wicks.
pans, and all the bronze utensils used by the priests.
Heb “with which they served [or, ‘fulfilled their duty’].”
15The captain of the royal guard took the golden and silver censers
These held the embers used for the incense offerings.
and basins.
16The bronze of the items that King Solomon made for the Lord’s temple – including the two pillars, the big bronze basin called “The Sea,” the twelve bronze bulls under “The Sea,”
The MT lacks “the twelve bronze bulls under ‘the Sea,’” but these words have probably been accidentally omitted by homoioarcton. The scribe’s eye may have jumped from the וְהָ (veha-) on וְהַבָּקָר (vehabbaqar), “and the bulls,” to the וְהָ on וְהַמְּכֹנוֹת (vehammekhonot), “and the movable stands,” causing him to leave out the intervening words. See the parallel passage in Jer 52:20.
and the movable stands – was too heavy to be weighed.
17Each of the pillars was about twenty-seven feet
Heb “eighteen cubits.” The standard cubit in the OT is assumed by most authorities to be about eighteen inches (45 cm) long.
high. The bronze top of one pillar was about four and a half feet
Heb “three cubits.” The parallel passage in Jer 52:22 has “five.”
high and had bronze latticework and pomegranate shaped ornaments all around it. The second pillar with its latticework was like it.

18 The captain of the royal guard took Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah, the priest who was second in rank, and the three doorkeepers. 19From the city he took a eunuch who was in charge of the soldiers, five
The parallel passage in Jer 52:25 has “seven.”
of the king’s advisers
Heb “five seers of the king’s face.”
who were discovered in the city, an official army secretary who drafted citizens
Heb “the people of the land.”
for military service, and sixty citizens from the people of the land who were discovered in the city.
20Nebuzaradan, captain of the royal guard, took them and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. 21The king of Babylon ordered them to be executed
Heb “struck them down and killed them.”
at Riblah in the territory
Heb “land.”
of Hamath. So Judah was deported from its land.

Gedaliah Appointed Governor

22 Now King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon appointed Gedaliah son of Ahikam, son of Shaphan, as governor over the people whom he allowed to remain in the land of Judah.
Heb “And the people who were left in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon left, he appointed over them Gedaliah son of Ahikam, son of Shaphan.”
23All of the officers of the Judahite army
Heb “of the army.” The word “Judahite” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
and their troops heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah to govern. So they came to Gedaliah at Mizpah. The officers who came were Ishmael son of Nethaniah, Johanan son of Kareah, Seraiah son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah son of the Maacathite.
24Gedaliah took an oath so as to give them and their troops some assurance of safety.
The words “so as to give them…some assurance of safety” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
He said, “You don’t need to be afraid to submit to the Babylonian officials. Settle down in the land and submit to the king of Babylon. Then things will go well for you.”
25But in the seventh month
It is not altogether clear whether this is in the same year that Jerusalem fell or not. The wall was breached in the fourth month (= early July; Jer 39:2) and Nebuzaradan came and burned the palace, the temple, and many of the houses and tore down the wall in the fifth month (= early August; Jer 52:12). That would have left time between the fifth month and the seventh month (October) to gather in the harvest of grapes, dates and figs, and olives (Jer 40:12). However, many commentators feel that too much activity takes place in too short a time for this to have been in the same year and posit that it happened the following year or even five years later when a further deportation took place, possibly in retaliation for the murder of Gedaliah and the Babylonian garrison at Mizpah (Jer 52:30). The assassination of Gedaliah had momentous consequences and was commemorated in one of the post exilic fast days lamenting the fall of Jerusalem (Zech 8:19).
Ishmael son of Nethaniah, son of Elishama, who was a member of the royal family,
Heb “[was] from the seed of the kingdom.”
came with ten of his men and murdered Gedaliah,
Heb “and they struck down Gedaliah and he died.”
as well as the Judeans and Babylonians who were with him at Mizpah.
26Then all the people, from the youngest to the oldest, as well as the army officers, left for
Heb “arose and went to.”
Egypt, because they were afraid of what the Babylonians might do.

Jehoiachin in Babylon

27 In the thirty-seventh year of the exile of King Jehoiachin of Judah, on the twenty-seventh
The parallel account in Jer 52:31 has “twenty-fifth.”
day of the twelfth month,
The twenty-seventh day would be March 22, 561 b.c. in modern reckoning.
King Evil-Merodach of Babylon, in the first year of his reign, pardoned
Heb “lifted up the head of.”
King Jehoiachin of Judah and released him
The words “released him” are supplied in the translation on the basis of Jer 52:31.
from prison.
28He spoke kindly to him and gave him a more prestigious position than
Heb “made his throne above the throne of.”
the other kings who were with him in Babylon.
Heb “he”; the referent (Jehoiachin) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
took off his prison clothes and ate daily in the king’s presence for the rest of his life.
30He was given daily provisions by the king for the rest of his life until the day he died.
The words “until the day he died” do not appear in the MT, but they are included in the parallel passage in Jer 52:34. Probably they have been accidentally omitted by homoioteleuton. A scribe’s eye jumped from the final vav (ו) on בְּיוֹמוֹ (beyomo), “in his day,” to the final vav (ו) on מוֹתוֹ (moto), “his death,” leaving out the intervening words.

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