Acts 20

Paul Travels Through Macedonia and Greece

After the disturbance had ended, Paul sent for the disciples, and after encouraging
Or “exhorting.”
them and saying farewell,
Or “and taking leave of them.”
he left to go to Macedonia.
Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
After he had gone through those regions
BDAG 633 s.v. μέρος 1.b.γ gives the meanings “the parts (of a geographical area), region, district,” but the use of “district” in this context probably implies too much specificity.
and spoken many words of encouragement
Grk “and encouraging them with many words.” The participle παρακαλέσας (parakalesas, “encouraging”) has been translated by the phrase “spoken…words of encouragement” because the formal equivalent is awkward in contemporary English.
to the believers there,
Grk “[to] them”; the referent (the believers there) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
he came to Greece,
In popular usage the term translated “Greece” here could also refer to the Roman province officially known as Achaia (BDAG 318 s.v. ῾Ελλάς).
where he stayed
BDAG 841 s.v. ποιέω 5.c, “w. an acc. of time spend, stay.”
for three months. Because the Jews had made
The participle βενομένης (benomenēs) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. L&N 30.71 has “ἐπιβουλῆς αὐτῷ ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων ‘because the Jews had made a plot against him’ Ac 20:3.”
a plot
This plot is one of several noted by Luke (Acts 9:20; 20:19; 23:30).
against him as he was intending
BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
to sail
BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4 gives “put out to sea” here (as a nautical technical term). However, since the English expression “put out to sea” could be understood to mean Paul was already aboard the ship (which is not clear from the context), the simpler expression “sail” is used at this point in the translation.
for Syria, he decided
BDAG 199 s.v. γίνομαι 7 has “ἐγένετο γνώμης he decided Ac 20:3.”
to return through Macedonia.
Macedonia was the Roman province of Macedonia in Greece.
Paul
Grk “He”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
was accompanied by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea,
Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) from Thessalonica.
Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica,
Grk “of the Thessalonians.”
Gaius
Grk “and Gaius,” but this καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
from Derbe,
Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 30 mi (50 km) southeast of Lystra.
and Timothy, as well as Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia.
Grk “the Asians Tychicus and Trophimus.” In the NT “Asia” always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
These had gone on ahead
Grk “These, having gone on ahead, were waiting.” The participle προελθόντες (proelthontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
and were waiting for us in Troas.
Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor.
We
This marks the beginning of another “we” section in Acts. These have been traditionally understood to mean that Luke was in the company of Paul for this part of the journey.
sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread,
The days of Unleavened Bread refer to the week following Passover. Originally an agricultural festival commemorating the beginning of harvest, it was celebrated for seven days beginning on the fifteenth day of the month Nisan (March-April). It was later combined with Passover (Exod 12:1–20; Ezek 45:21–24; Matt 26:17; Luke 22:1).
and within five days
BDAG 160 s.v. ἄχρι 1.a.α has “ἄ. ἡμερῶν πέντε within five days Ac 20:6.”
we came to the others
Grk “to them”; the referent (the others mentioned in v. 4) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
in Troas,
Troas was a port city (and surrounding region) on the northwest coast of Asia Minor. From Philippi to Troas was about 125 mi (200 km).
where we stayed for seven days.
On the first day
On the first day. This is the first mention of a Sunday gathering (1 Cor 16:2).
of the week, when we met
Or “assembled.”
to break bread, Paul began to speak
The verb διαλέγομαι (dialegomai) is frequently used of Paul addressing Jews in the synagogue. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94–95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21. In the context of a Christian gathering, it is preferable to translate διελέγετο (dielegeto) simply as “speak” here. The imperfect verb διελέγετο has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
to the people, and because he intended
BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
to leave the next day, he extended
Or “prolonged.”
his message until midnight.
(Now there were many lamps
More commonly λαμπάς (lampas) means “torch,” but here according to BDAG 585 s.v. λαμπάς 2, “lamp…w. a wick and space for oil.”
in the upstairs room where we were meeting.)
This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author.
A young man named Eutychus, who was sitting in the window,
This window was probably a simple opening in the wall (see also BDAG 462 s.v. θυρίς).
was sinking
Grk “sinking into a deep sleep.” BDAG 529 s.v. καταφέρω 3 has “ὕπνῳ βαθεῖ sink into a deep sleepAc 20:9a.” The participle καταφερόμενος (kataferomenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
into a deep sleep while Paul continued to speak
The participle διαλεγομένου (dialegomenou) has been taken temporally.
for a long time. Fast asleep,
BDAG 529 s.v. καταφέρω 3 has “κατενεχθεὶς ἀπὸ τοῦ ὔπνου overwhelmed by sleep vs. 9b, ” but this expression is less common in contemporary English than phrases like “fast asleep” or “sound asleep.”
he fell down from the third story and was picked up dead.
10 But Paul went down,
Grk “going down.” The participle καταβάς (katabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
threw himself
BDAG 377 s.v. ἐπιπίπτω 1.b has “ἐπέπεσεν αὐτῷ he threw himself upon him Ac 20:10.”
on the young man,
Grk “on him”; the referent (the young man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
put his arms around him,
BDAG 959 s.v. συμπεριλαμβάνω has “to throw one’s arms around, embrace w. acc. to be supplied Ac 20:10.” However, “embraced the young man” might be taken (out of context) to have erotic implications, while “threw his arms around him” would be somewhat redundant since “threw” has been used in the previous phrase.
and said, “Do not be distressed, for he is still alive!”
Grk “for his life is in him” (an idiom).
11 Then Paul
Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
went back upstairs,
Grk “going back upstairs.” The participle ἀναβάς (anabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
and after he had broken bread and eaten, he talked with them
Grk “talking with them.” The participle ὁμιλήσας (homilēsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
a long time, until dawn. Then he left.
12 They took the boy home alive and were greatly
Grk “were not to a moderate degree” (an idiom). L&N 78.11 states: “μετρίως: a moderate degree of some activity or state - ‘moderately, to a moderate extent.’ ἤγαγον δὲ τὸν παῖδα ζῶντα, καὶ παρεκλήθησαν οὐ μετρίωθς ‘they took the young man home alive and were greatly comforted’ Ac 20:12. In Ac 20:12 the phrase οὐ μετρίως, literally ‘not to a moderate degree,’ is equivalent to a strong positive statement, namely, ‘greatly’ or ‘to a great extent.’”
comforted.

The Voyage to Miletus

13  We went on ahead
Grk “going on ahead.” The participle προελθόντες (proelthontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
to the ship and put out to sea
BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (ἀ. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”
for Assos,
Assos was a city of Mysia about 24 mi (40 km) southeast of Troas.
intending
BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
to take Paul aboard there, for he had arranged it this way.
Or “for he told us to do this.” Grk “for having arranged it this way, he.” The participle διατεταγμένος (diatetagmenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. BDAG 237 s.v. διατάσσω 1 has “οὕτως διατεταγμένος ἦν he had arranged it so Ac 20:13.” L&N 15.224 has “‘he told us to do this.”
He
A new sentence was begun here in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence; in Greek this is part of the preceding sentence beginning “We went on ahead.”
himself was intending
BDAG 628 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.γ has “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mindAc 17:31; 20:3, 7, 13ab; 23:15; 26:2; 27:30.”
to go there by land.
Or “there on foot.”
14 When he met us in Assos,
Assos was a city of Mysia about 24 mi (40 km) southeast of Troas.
we took him aboard
Grk “taking him aboard, we.” The participle ἀναλαβόντες (analabontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
and went to Mitylene.
Mitylene was the most important city on the island of Lesbos in the Aegean Sea. It was about 44 mi (70 km) from Assos.
15 We set sail
Grk “setting sail from there.” The participle ἀποπλεύσαντες (apopleusantes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
from there, and on the following day we arrived off Chios.
Or “offshore from Chios.”
Chios was an island in the Aegean Sea off the western coast of Asia Minor with a city of the same name.
The next day we approached
Or “crossed over to,” “arrived at.” L&N 54.12 has “παραβάλλω: (a technical, nautical term) to sail up to or near - ‘to approach, to arrive at, to sail to.’ παρεβάλομεν εἰς Σάμον ‘we approached Samos’ or ‘we arrived at Samos’ Ac 20:15.”
Samos,
Samos is an island in the Aegean Sea off the western coast of Asia Minor.
and the day after that we arrived at Miletus.
Miletus was a seaport on the western coast of Asia Minor about 40 mi (70 km) south of Ephesus. From Mitylene to Miletus was about 125 mi (200 km).
16 For Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus so as not to spend time
Grk “so that he might not have to spend time.” L&N 67.79 has “ὅπως μὴ γένηται αὐτῷ χρονοτριβῆσαι ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίᾳ ‘so as not to spend any time in the province of Asia’ Ac 20:16.”
in the province of Asia,
Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
for he was hurrying
Or “was eager.”
to arrive in Jerusalem, if possible,
Grk “if it could be to him” (an idiom).
by the day of Pentecost.
17 From Miletus
Miletus was a seaport on the western coast of Asia Minor about 45 mi (72 km) south of Ephesus.
he sent a message
The words “a message” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
to Ephesus, telling the elders of the church to come to him.
The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. L&N 33.311 has for the verb μετακαλέομαι (metakaleomai) “to summon someone, with considerable insistence and authority - ‘to summon, to tell to come.’”


18  When they arrived, he said to them, “You yourselves know how I lived
Grk “You yourselves know, from the first day I set foot in Asia, how I was with you the whole time.” This could be understood to mean “how I stayed with you the whole time,” but the following verses make it clear that Paul’s lifestyle while with the Ephesians is in view here. Thus the translation “how I lived the whole time I was with you” makes this clear.
the whole time I was with you, from the first day I set foot
Or “I arrived.” BDAG 367 s.v. ἐπιβαίνω 2, “set foot in…εἰς τ. ᾿Ασίαν set foot in Asia Ac 20:18.” However, L&N 15.83 removes the idiom: “you know that since the first day that I came to Asia.”
in the province of Asia,
Grk “Asia”; see the note on this word in v. 16.
19 serving the Lord with all humility and with tears, and with the trials that happened to me because of the plots
These plots are mentioned in Acts 9:24; 20:13.
of the Jews.
20 You know that I did not hold back from proclaiming
Or “declaring.”
to you anything that would be helpful,
Or “profitable.” BDAG 960 s.v. συμφέρω 2.b.α has “τὰ συμφέροντα what advances your best interests or what is good for you Ac 20:20, ” but the broader meaning (s.v. 2, “to be advantageous, help, confer a benefit, be profitable/useful”) is equally possible in this context.
and from teaching you publicly
Or “openly.”
and from house to house,
21 testifying
BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 1 has “testify of, bear witness to (orig. under oath)…of repentance to Judeans and Hellenes Ac 20:21.”
to both Jews and Greeks about repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus.
Several mss, including some of the more important ones (Ƥ74 א Α C [D] E 33 36 323 945 1175 1241 1505 1739 pm and a number of versions), read Χριστόν (Christon, “Christ”) at the end of this verse. This word is lacking in B H L P Ψ 614 pm. Although the inclusion is supported by many earlier and better mss, internal evidence is on the side of the omission: In Acts, both “Lord Jesus” and “Lord Jesus Christ” occur, though between 16:31 and the end of the book “Lord Jesus Christ” appears only in 28:31, perhaps as a kind of climactic assertion. Thus, the shorter reading is to be preferred.
Repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus. Note the twofold description of the message. It is a turning to God involving faith in Jesus Christ.
22 And now,
Grk “And now, behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.
compelled
Grk “bound.”
by the Spirit, I am going to Jerusalem
This journey to Jerusalem suggests a parallel between Paul and Jesus, since the “Jerusalem journey” motif figures so prominently in Luke’s Gospel (9:51–19:44).
without knowing what will happen to me there,
BDAG 965 s.v. συναντάω 2 has τὰ ἐν αὐτῇ συναντήσοντα ἐμοὶ μὴ εἰδώς without knowing what will happen to me there Ac 20:22.”
23 except
BDAG 826 s.v. πλήν 1.d has “πλὴν ὅτι except thatAc 20:23.”
that the Holy Spirit warns
The verb διαμαρτύρομαι (diamarturomai) can mean “warn” (BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 2 has “solemnly urge, exhort, warn…w. dat. of pers. addressed”), and this meaning better fits the context here, although BDAG categorizes Acts 20:23 under the meaning “testify of, bear witness to” (s.v. 1).
me in town after town
The Greek text here reads κατὰ πόλιν (kata polin).
that
Grk “saying that,” but the participle λέγον (legon) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
imprisonment
Grk “bonds.”
and persecutions
Or “troubles,” “suffering.” See Acts 19:21; 21:4, 11.
are waiting for me.
24 But I do not consider my life
Grk “soul.”
worth anything
Or “I do not consider my life worth a single word.” According to BDAG 599 s.v. λόγος 1.a.α, “In the textually uncertain pass. Ac 20:24 the text as it stands in N., οὐδενὸς λόγου (v.l. λόγον) ποιοῦμαι τὴν ψυχὴν τιμίαν, may well mean: I do not consider my life worth a single word (cp. λόγου ἄξιον [ἄξιος 1a] and our ‘worth mention’).”
to myself, so that
BDAG 1106 s.v. ὡς 9 describes this use as “a final particle, expressing intention/purpose, with a view to, in order to.”
I may finish my task
Grk “course.” See L&N 42.26, “(a figurative extension of meaning of δρόμος ‘race’) a task or function involving continuity, serious, effort, and possibly obligation - ‘task, mission’…Ac 20:24.” On this Pauline theme see also Phil 1:19–26; Col 1:24; 2 Tim 4:6–7.
and the ministry that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify to the good news
Or “to the gospel.”
of God’s grace.

25  “And now
Grk “And now, behold.” Here ἰδού (idou) has not been translated.
I know that none
Grk “all of you…will not see.” Greek handles its negation somewhat differently from English, and the translation follows English grammatical conventions.
of you among whom I went around proclaiming the kingdom
Note how Paul’s usage of the expression proclaiming the kingdom is associated with (and intertwined with) his testifying to the good news of God’s grace in v. 24. For Paul the two concepts were interrelated.
will see me
Grk “will see my face” (an idiom for seeing someone in person).
again.
26 Therefore I declare
Or “testify.”
to you today that I am innocent
Grk “clean, pure,” thus “guiltless” (BDAG 489 s.v. καθαρός 3.a).
I am innocent. Paul had a clear conscience, since he had faithfully carried out his responsibility of announcing to (the Ephesians) the whole purpose of God.
of the blood of you all.
That is, “that if any of you should be lost, I am not responsible” (an idiom). According to L&N 33.223, the meaning of the phrase “that I am innocent of the blood of all of you” is “that if any of you should be lost, I am not responsible.” However, due to the length of this phrase and its familiarity to many modern English readers, the translation was kept closer to formal equivalence in this case. The word “you” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; Paul is addressing the Ephesian congregation (in the person of its elders) in both v. 25 and 27.
27 For I did not hold back from
Or “did not avoid.” BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 2.b has “shrink from, avoid implying fear…οὐ γὰρ ὑπεστειλάμην τοῦ μὴ ἀναγγεῖλαι I did not shrink from proclaiming Ac 20:27”; L&N 13.160 has “to hold oneself back from doing something, with the implication of some fearful concern - ‘to hold back from, to shrink from, to avoid’…‘for I have not held back from announcing to you the whole purpose of God’ Ac 20:27.”
announcing
Or “proclaiming,” “declaring.”
to you the whole purpose
Or “plan.”
of God.
28 Watch out for
Or “Be on your guard for” (cf. v. 29). Paul completed his responsibility to the Ephesians with this warning.
yourselves and for all the flock of which
Grk “in which.”
the Holy Spirit has made you overseers,
Or “guardians.” BDAG 379-80 s.v. ἐπίσκοπος 2 states, “The term was taken over in Christian communities in ref. to one who served as overseer or supervisor, with special interest in guarding the apostolic tradition…Ac 20:28.” This functional term describes the role of the elders (see v. 17). They were to guard and shepherd the congregation.
to shepherd the church of God
The reading “of God” (τοῦ θεοῦ, tou theou) is found in א B 614 1175 1505 al vg sy; other witnesses have “of the Lord” (τοῦ κυρίου, tou kuriou) here (so Ƥ74 A C* D E Ψ 33 1739 al co), while the majority of the later minuscule mss conflate these two into “of the Lord and God” (τοῦ κυρίου καὶ [τοῦ] θεοῦ, tou kuriou kai [tou] qeou). Although the evidence is evenly balanced between the first two readings, τοῦ θεοῦ is decidedly superior on internal grounds. The final prepositional phrase of this verse, διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ ἰδίου (dia tou haimatos tou idiou), could be rendered “through his own blood” or “through the blood of his own.” In the latter translation, the object that “own” modifies must be supplied (see [T] below for discussion). But this would not be entirely clear to scribes; those who supposed that ἰδίου modified αἵματος would be prone to alter “God” to “Lord” to avoid the inference that God had blood. In a similar way, later scribes would be prone to conflate the two titles, thereby affirming the deity (with the construction τοῦ κυρίου καὶ θεοῦ following the Granville Sharp rule and referring to a single person [see ExSyn 272, 276–77, 290]) and substitutionary atonement of Christ. For these reasons, τοῦ θεοῦ best explains the rise of the other readings and should be considered authentic.
that he obtained
Or “acquired.”
with the blood of his own Son.
Or “with his own blood”; Grk “with the blood of his own.” The genitive construction could be taken in two ways: (1) as an attributive genitive (second attributive position) meaning “his own blood”; or (2) as a possessive genitive, “with the blood of his own.” In this case the referent is the Son, and the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. See further C. F. DeVine, “The Blood of God,” CBQ 9 (1947): 381-408.
That he obtained with the blood of his own Son. This is one of only two explicit statements in Luke-Acts highlighting the substitutionary nature of Christ’s death (the other is in Luke 22:19).
29 I know that after I am gone
Grk “after my departure.”
fierce wolves
That is, people like fierce wolves. See BDAG 167-68 s.v. βαρύς 4 on the term translated “fierce.” The battle that will follow would be a savage one.
will come in among you, not sparing the flock.
30 Even from among your own group
Grk “from among yourselves.”
men
The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anēr), which only rarely is used in a generic sense to refer to both males and females. Since Paul is speaking to the Ephesian elders at this point and there is nothing in the context to suggest women were included in that group (“from among your own group”), it is most likely Paul was not predicting that these false teachers would include women.
will arise, teaching perversions of the truth
Grk “speaking crooked things”; BDAG 237 s.v. διαστρέφω 2 has “λαλεῖν διεστραμμένα teach perversions (of the truth) Ac 20:30.”
These perversions of the truth refer to the kinds of threats that would undermine repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ (cf. v. 21). Instead these false teachers would arise from within the Ephesian congregation (cf. 1 John 2:18–19) and would seek to draw the disciples away after them.
to draw the disciples away after them.
31 Therefore be alert,
Or “be watchful.”
remembering that night and day for three years I did not stop warning
Or “admonishing.”
each one of you with tears.
32 And now I entrust
Or “commend.” BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “τινά τινι entrust someone to the care or protection of someone…Of divine protection παρέθεντο αὐτοὺς τῷ κυρίῳ Ac 14:23; cp. 20:32.”
you to God and to the message
Grk “word.”
of his grace. This message
Grk “the message of his grace, which.” The phrase τῷ δυναμένῳ οἰκοδομῆσαι… (tō dunamenō oikodomēsai…) refers to τῷ λόγω (tō logō), not τῆς χάριτος (tēs caritos); in English it could refer to either “the message” or “grace,” but in Greek, because of agreement in gender, the referent can only be “the message.” To make this clear, a new sentence was begun in the translation and the referent “the message” was repeated at the beginning of this new sentence.
is able to build you up and give you an inheritance among all those who are sanctified.
33 I have desired
Traditionally, “coveted.” BDAG 371 s.v. ἐπιθυμέω 1 has “to have a strong desire to do or secure someth., desire, long for w. gen. of the thing desired…silver, gold, clothing Ac 20:33.” The traditional term “covet” is not in common usage and difficult for many modern English readers to understand. The statement affirms Paul’s integrity. He was not doing this for personal financial gain.
no one’s silver or gold or clothing.
34 You yourselves know that these hands of mine
The words “of mine” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to clarify whose hands Paul is referring to.
provided for my needs and the needs of those who were with me.
35 By all these things,
The expression By all these things means “In everything I did.”
I have shown you that by working in this way we must help
Or “must assist.”
the weak,
Or “the sick.” See Eph 4:28.
and remember the words of the Lord Jesus that he himself said, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive.’”
The saying is similar to Matt 10:8. Service and generosity should be abundant. Interestingly, these exact words are not found in the gospels. Paul must have known of this saying from some other source.


36  When
Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
he had said these things, he knelt down
Grk “kneeling down…he prayed.” The participle θείς (qeis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
with them all and prayed.
37 They all began to weep loudly,
Grk “weeping a great deal,” thus “loudly” (BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός and BDAG 546 s.v. κλαυθμός).
and hugged
Grk “fell on Paul’s neck” (an idiom, see BDAG 1014 s.v. τράχηλος).
Paul and kissed him,
The Ephesians elders kissed Paul as a sign of both affection and farewell. The entire scene shows how much interrelationship Paul had in his ministry and how much he and the Ephesians meant to each other.
38 especially saddened
Or “pained.”
by what
Grk “by the word that he had said.”
he had said, that they were not going to see him
Grk “to see his face” (an idiom for seeing someone in person).
again. Then they accompanied
BDAG 873 s.v. προπέμπω 1 has “they accompanied him to the ship Ac 20:38.”
him to the ship.

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