Ephesians 61 Children, ▼
▼ The use of the article τά (ta) with τέκνα (tekna) functions in a generic way to distinguish this group from husbands, wives, fathers and slaves and is left, therefore, untranslated. The generic article is used with γύναῖκες (gunaikes) in 5:22, ἄνδρες (andres) in 5:25, δοῦλοι (douloi) in 6:5, and κύριοι (kurioi) in 6:9.obey your parents in the Lord ▼
▼ B D* F G as well as a few versional and patristic representatives lack “in the Lord” (ἐν κυρίῳ, en kuriō), while the phrase is well represented in Ƥ46 א A D1 Ivid Ψ 0278 0285 33 1739 1881 Maj. sy co. Scribes may have thought that the phrase could be regarded a qualifier on the kind of parents a child should obey (viz., only Christian parents), and would thus be tempted to delete the phrase to counter such an interpretation. It is unlikely that the phrase would have been added, since the form used to express such sentiment in this Haustafel is ὡς τῷ κυρίῳ/Χριστῷ (hōs tō kuriō/Christō, “as to the Lord/Christ”; see 5:22; 6:5). Even though the witnesses for the omission are impressive, it is more likely that the phrase was deleted than added by scribal activity.for this is right. 2 “Honor your father and mother,” ▼ which is the first commandment accompanied by a promise, namely, 3 “ that it may go ▼
▼ Grk “be.”well with you and that you will live ▼
▼ Grk “will be.”a long time on the earth. ” ▼
4 Fathers, ▼
▼ Or perhaps “Parents” (so TEV, CEV). The plural οἱ πατέρες (hoi pateres, “fathers”) can be used to refer to both the male and female parent (BDAG 786 s.v. πατήρ 1.b).do not provoke your children to anger, ▼ but raise them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.
5 Slaves, ▼
▼ Traditionally, “Servants” (KJV). Though δοῦλος (doulos) is often translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.obey your human masters ▼
▼ Grk “the masters according to the flesh.” In the translation above, the article τοῖς (tois) governing κυρίοις (kuriois) is rendered in English as a possessive pronoun (i.e., “your”) and the prepositional phrase κατὰ σάρκα (kata sarka) is taken as modifying κυρίοις (indicating that the author is referring to human masters) and not modifying the imperative ὑπακούετε (hupakouete, which would indicate that obedience was according to a human standard or limitation).with fear and trembling, in the sincerity of your heart as to Christ, 6 not like those who do their work only when someone is watching ▼
▼ Grk “not according to eye-service.”– as people-pleasers – but as slaves of Christ doing the will of God from the heart. ▼
▼ Grk “from the soul.”7 Obey ▼
▼ Though the verb does not appear again at this point in the passage, it is nonetheless implied and supplied in the English translation for the sake of clarity.with enthusiasm, as though serving the Lord ▼
▼ Grk “serving as to the Lord.”and not people, 8 because you know that each person, whether slave or free, if he does something good, this ▼
▼ The pronoun “this” (τοῦτο, touto) stands first in its clause for emphasis, and stresses the fact that God will reward those, who in seeking him, do good.will be rewarded by the Lord.
9 Masters, ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.treat your slaves ▼
▼ Though the Greek text only has αὐτούς (autous, “them”), the antecedent is the slaves of the masters. Therefore, it was translated this way to make it explicit in English.the same way, ▼
▼ Grk “do the same things to them.”giving up the use of threats, ▼
▼ Grk “giving up the threat.”because you know that both you and they have the same master in heaven, ▼
▼ Grk “because of both they and you, the Lord is, in heaven…”and there is no favoritism with him.
Exhortations for Spiritual Warfare10 Finally, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength of his power. 11 Clothe yourselves with the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand against the schemes ▼
▼ Or “craftiness.” See BDAG 625 s.v. μεθοδεία.of the devil. 12 For our struggle ▼
▼ BDAG 752 s.v. πάλη says, “struggle against…the opponent is introduced by πρός w. the acc.”is not against flesh and blood, ▼
▼ Grk “blood and flesh.”but against the rulers, against the powers, against the world rulers of this darkness, ▼
▼ BDAG 561 s.v. κοσμοκράτωρ suggests “the rulers of this sinful world” as a gloss.▼
▼ The phrase world-rulers of this darkness does not refer to human rulers but the evil spirits that rule over the world. The phrase thus stands in apposition to what follows (the spiritual forces of evil in the heavens); see note on heavens at the end of this verse.against the spiritual forces ▼ of evil in the heavens. ▼
▼ The phrase spiritual forces of evil in the heavens serves to emphasize the nature of the forces which oppose believers as well as to indicate the locality from which they originate.13 For this reason, take up the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand your ground ▼
▼ The term ἀνθίστημι (anqistēmi) carries the idea of resisting or opposing something or someone (BDAG 80 s.v.). In Eph 6:13, when used in combination with στῆναι (stēnai; cf. also στῆτε [stēte] in v. 14) and in a context of battle imagery, it seems to have the idea of resisting, standing firm, and being able to stand your ground.on the evil day, and having done everything, to stand. 14 Stand firm therefore, by fastening ▼ the belt of truth around your waist, ▼
▼ Grk “girding your waist with truth.” In this entire section the author is painting a metaphor for his readers based on the attire of a Roman soldier prepared for battle and its similarity to the Christian prepared to do battle against spiritually evil forces. Behind the expression “with truth” is probably the genitive idea “belt of truth.” Since this is an appositional genitive (i.e., belt which is truth), the author simply left unsaid the idea of the belt and mentioned only his real focus, namely, the truth. (The analogy would have been completely understandable to his 1st century readers.) The idea of the belt is supplied in the translation to clarify the sense in English.by putting on the breastplate of righteousness, 15 by fitting your ▼
▼ The definite article τοῖς (tois) was taken as a possessive pronoun, i.e., “your,” since it refers to a part of the physical body.feet with the preparation that comes from the good news ▼
▼ Grk “gospel.” However, this is not a technical term here.of peace, ▼
▼ Grk “in preparation of the gospel of peace.” The genitive τοῦ εὐαγγελίου (tou euangeliou) was taken as a genitive of source, i.e., “that comes from….”16 and in all of this, ▼
▼ Grk “in everything.”by taking up the shield ▼
▼ The Greek word translated shield (θυρεός, thureos) refers to the Roman soldier’s large rectangular wooden shield, called in Latin scutum, about 4 ft (1.2 m) high, covered with leather on the outside. Before a battle in which flaming arrows might be shot at them, the soldiers wet the leather covering with water to extinguish the arrows. The Roman legionaries could close ranks with these shields, the first row holding theirs edge to edge in front, and the rows behind holding the shields above their heads. In this formation they were practically invulnerable to arrows, rocks, and even spears.of faith with which you can extinguish all the flaming arrows of the evil one. 17 And take the helmet of salvation ▼ and the sword ▼
▼ The Greek term translated sword (μάχαιρα, machaira) refers to the Roman gladius, a short sword about 2 ft (60 cm) long, used for close hand-to-hand combat. This is the only clearly offensive weapon in the list of armor mentioned by the author (he does not, for example, mention the lance [Latin pilum]).of the Spirit, which is the word of God. 18 With every prayer and petition, pray ▼
▼ Both “pray” and “be alert” are participles in the Greek text (“praying…being alert”). Both are probably instrumental, loosely connected with all of the preceding instructions. As such, they are not additional commands to do but instead are the means through which the prior instructions are accomplished.at all times in the Spirit, and to this end ▼
▼ Grk “and toward it.”be alert, with all perseverance and requests for all the saints. 19 Pray ▼ for me also, that I may be given the message when I begin to speak ▼
▼ Grk “that a word may be given to me in the opening of my mouth.” Here “word” (λόγος, logos) is used in the sense of “message.”– that I may confidently make known ▼
▼ The infinitive γνωρίσαι (gnōrisai, “to make known”) is functioning epexegetically to further explain what the author means by the preceding phrase “that I may be given the message when I begin to speak.”the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains. Pray that I may be able to speak boldly as I ought to speak.
Farewell Comments21 Tychicus, my ▼
▼ Grk “the.” The Greek article ὁ (ho) was translated with the possessive pronoun, “my.” See ExSyn 215.dear brother and faithful servant in the Lord, will make everything known to you, so that you too may know about my circumstances, ▼
▼ Grk “the things according to me.”how I am doing. 22 I have sent him to you for this very purpose, that you may know our circumstances ▼
▼ Grk “the things concerning us.”and that he may encourage your hearts.
23 Peace to the brothers and sisters, ▼
▼ Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 24 Grace be ▼
▼ Or “is.”with all of those who love our Lord Jesus Christ with an undying love. ▼
▼ Most witnesses (א2 D Ψ Maj. it sy) have ἀμήν (amēn, “amen”) at the end of the letter. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. The earliest and best witnesses (Ƥ46 א* A B F G 0278 6 33 81 1175 1241 1739* 1881 sa) lack the particle, giving firm evidence that Ephesians did not originally conclude with ἀμήν.▼
▼ Grk “without corruption.” The term “love” is not found at the end of the sentence, but is supplied to clarify the sense in English. The term “undying” which modifies it captures the sense of the kind of love the author is referring to here. He is saying that God’s grace will be with those whose love for Jesus never ceases.
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