Ezekiel 31He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you see in front of you ▼
▼ Heb “eat what you find.”– eat this scroll – and then go and speak to the house of Israel.” 2So I opened my mouth and he fed me the scroll.
3 He said to me, “Son of man, feed your stomach and fill your belly with this scroll I am giving to you.” So I ate it, ▼
▼ Heb “I ate,” a first common singular preterite plus paragogic he (ה). The ancient versions read “I ate it,” which is certainly the meaning in the context, and indicates they read the he as a third feminine singular pronominal suffix. The Masoretes typically wrote a mappiq in the he for the pronominal suffix but apparently missed this one.▼ and it was sweet like honey in my mouth.
4 He said to me, “Son of man, go to the house of Israel and speak my words to them. 5For you are not being sent to a people of unintelligible speech ▼
▼ Heb “deep of lip” (in the sense of incomprehensible).and difficult language, ▼ but ▼
▼ The conjunction “but” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied from the context.to the house of Israel – 6not to many peoples of unintelligible speech and difficult language, whose words you cannot understand ▼
▼ Heb “hear.”– surely if ▼ I had sent you to them, they would listen to you! 7But the house of Israel is unwilling to listen to you, ▼ because they are not willing to listen to me, ▼ for the whole house of Israel is hard-headed and hard-hearted. ▼
▼ Heb “hard of forehead and stiff of heart.”
8 “I have made your face adamant ▼
▼ Heb “strong, resolute.”to match their faces, and your forehead hard to match their foreheads. 9I have made your forehead harder than flint – like diamond! ▼ Do not fear them or be terrified of the looks they give you, ▼
▼ Heb “of their faces.”for they are a rebellious house.”
10 And he said to me, “Son of man, take all my words that I speak to you to heart and listen carefully. 11Go to the exiles, to your fellow countrymen, ▼
▼ Heb “to the sons of your people.”and speak to them – say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says,’ whether they pay attention or not.”
Ezekiel Before the Exiles12 Then a wind lifted me up ▼ and I heard a great rumbling sound behind me as the glory of the Lord rose from its place, ▼
▼ This translation accepts the emendation suggested in BHS of בְּרוּם (berum) for בָּרוּךְ (barukh). The letters mem (מ) and kaph (כ) were easily confused in the old script while בָּרוּךְ (“blessed be”) both implies a quotation which is out of place here and also does not fit the later phrase, “from its place,” which requires a verb of motion.13and the sound of the living beings’ wings brushing against each other, and the sound of the wheels alongside them, a great rumbling sound. 14A wind lifted me up and carried me away. I went bitterly, ▼
▼ The traditional interpretation is that Ezekiel embarked on his mission with bitterness and anger, either reflecting God’s attitude toward the sinful people or his own feelings about having to carry out such an unpleasant task. L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 1:13) takes “bitterly” as a misplaced marginal note and understands the following word, normally translated “anger,” in the sense of fervor or passion. He translates, “I was passionately moved” (p. 4). Another option is to take the word translated “bitterly” as a verb meaning “strengthened” (attested in Ugaritic). See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 152.my spirit full of fury, and the hand of the Lord rested powerfully ▼
▼ Heb “the hand of the Lord was on me heavily.” The “hand of the Lord” is a metaphor for his power or influence; the modifier conveys intensity.▼ on me. 15I came to the exiles at Tel Abib, ▼
▼ The name “Tel Abib” is a transliteration of an Akkadian term meaning “mound of the flood,” i.e., an ancient mound. It is not to be confused with the modern city of Tel Aviv in Israel.who lived by the Kebar River. ▼
▼ Or “canal.”I sat dumbfounded among them there, where they were living, for seven days. ▼
16 At the end of seven days the word of the Lord came to me: ▼
▼ This phrase occurs about fifty times in the book of Ezekiel.17“Son of man, I have appointed you a watchman ▼ for the house of Israel. Whenever you hear a word from my mouth, you must give them a warning from me. 18When I say to the wicked, “You will certainly die,” ▼
▼ Even though the infinitive absolute is used to emphasize the warning, the warning is still implicitly conditional, as the following context makes clear.and you do not warn him – you do not speak out to warn the wicked to turn from his wicked deed and wicked lifestyle so that he may live – that wicked person will die for his iniquity, ▼ but I will hold you accountable for his death. ▼ 19But as for you, if you warn the wicked and he does not turn from his wicked deed and from his wicked lifestyle, he will die for his iniquity but you will have saved your own life. ▼
20 “When a righteous person turns from his righteousness and commits iniquity, and I set an obstacle ▼ before him, he will die. If you have not warned him, he will die for his sin. The righteous deeds he performed will not be considered, but I will hold you accountable for his death. 21However, if you warn the righteous person not to sin, and he ▼
▼ Heb “the righteous man.”does not sin, he will certainly live because he was warned, and you will have saved your own life.”
Isolated and Silenced22 The hand ▼
▼ Or “power.”▼ of the Lord rested on me there, and he said to me, “Get up, go out to the valley, ▼ and I will speak with you there.” 23So I got up and went out to the valley, and the glory of the Lord was standing there, just like the glory I had seen by the Kebar River, ▼
▼ Or “canal.”and I threw myself face down.
24 Then a wind ▼ came into me and stood me on my feet. The Lord ▼
▼ Heb “he.”spoke to me and said, “Go shut yourself in your house. 25As for you, son of man, they will put ropes on you and tie you up with them, so you cannot go out among them. 26I will make your tongue stick to the roof of your mouth so that you will be silent and unable to reprove ▼ them, for they are a rebellious house. 27But when I speak with you, I will loosen your tongue ▼
▼ Heb “open your mouth.”and you must say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says.’ Those who listen will listen, but the indifferent will refuse, ▼
▼ Heb “the listener will listen, the refuser will refuse.” Because the word for listening can also mean obeying, the nuance may be that the obedient will listen, or that the one who listens will obey. Also, although the verbs are not jussive as pointed in the MT, some translate them with a volitive sense: “the one who listens – let that one listen, the one who refuses – let that one refuse.”for they are a rebellious house.
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