Justification by Law or by Faith?1 You ▼
▼ Grk “O” (an interjection used both in address and emotion). In context the following section is highly charged emotionally.foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell ▼
▼ Or “deceived”; the verb βασκαίνω (baskainō) can be understood literally here in the sense of bewitching by black magic, but could also be understood figuratively to refer to an act of deception (see L&N 53.98 and 88.159).on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed ▼
▼ Or “publicly placarded,” “set forth in a public proclamation” (BDAG 867 s.v. προγράφω 2).as crucified! 2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law ▼
▼ Grk “by [the] works of [the] law,” a reference to observing the Mosaic law.or by believing what you heard? ▼
▼ Grk “by [the] hearing of faith.”3 Are you so foolish? Although you began ▼
▼ Grk “Having begun”; the participle ἐναρξάμενοι (enarxamenoi) has been translated concessively.with ▼
▼ Or “by the Spirit.”the Spirit, are you now trying to finish ▼
▼ The verb ἐπιτελεῖσθε (epiteleisqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534). This is something the Galatians were attempting to do, but could not accomplish successfully.by human effort? ▼
▼ Grk “in/by [the] flesh.”4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing? – if indeed it was for nothing. 5 Does God then give ▼
▼ Or “provide.”you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law ▼ or by your believing what you heard? ▼
6 Just as Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, ▼ 7 so then, understand ▼
▼ Grk “know.”that those who believe are the sons of Abraham. ▼
▼ The phrase “sons of Abraham” is used here in a figurative sense to describe people who are connected to a personality, Abraham, by close nonmaterial ties. It is this personality that has defined the relationship and its characteristics (BDAG 1024-25 s.v. υἱός 2.c.α).8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel to Abraham ahead of time, ▼
▼ For the Greek verb προευαγγελίζομαι (proeuangelizomai) translated as “proclaim the gospel ahead of time,” compare L&N 33.216.saying, “ All the nations ▼
▼ The same plural Greek word, τὰ ἔθνη (ta eqnē), can be translated as “nations” or “Gentiles.”will be blessed in you .” ▼ 9 So then those who believe ▼ are blessed along with Abraham the believer. 10 For all who ▼
▼ Grk “For as many as.”rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, “ Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law. ” ▼
▼ Grk “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all the things written in the book of the law, to do them.”▼ 11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous one will live by faith . ▼ 12 But the law is not based on faith, ▼
▼ Grk “is not from faith.”but the one who does the works of the law ▼ will live by them . ▼ 13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming ▼
▼ Grk “having become”; the participle γενόμενος (genomenos) has been taken instrumentally.a curse for us (because it is written, “ Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree ”) ▼ 14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, ▼
▼ Or “so that the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles in Christ Jesus.”so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.
Inheritance Comes from Promises and not Law15 Brothers and sisters, ▼ I offer an example from everyday life: ▼
▼ Grk “I speak according to man,” referring to the illustration that follows.When a covenant ▼ has been ratified, ▼
▼ Or “has been put into effect.”even though it is only a human contract, no one can set it aside or add anything to it. 16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his descendant. ▼
▼ Grk “his seed,” a figurative extension of the meaning of σπέρμα (sperma) to refer to descendants (L&N 10.29).Scripture ▼
▼ Grk “It”; the referent (the scripture) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The understood subject of the verb λέγει (legei) could also be “He” (referring to God) as the one who spoke the promise to Abraham.does not say, “and to the descendants,” ▼
▼ Grk “to seeds.” See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse. Here the term is plural; the use of the singular in the OT text cited later in this verse is crucial to Paul’s argument.referring to many, but “ and to your descendant ,” ▼
▼ See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse.▼ referring to one, who is Christ. 17 What I am saying is this: The law that came four hundred thirty years later does not cancel a covenant previously ratified by God, ▼
▼ Most mss (D F G I 0176 0278 Maj. it sy) read “ratified by God in Christ” whereas the omission of “in Christ” is the reading in Ƥ46 א A B C P Ψ 6 33 81 1175 1739 1881 2464 pc co. The shorter reading is strongly supported by the ms evidence, and it is probable that a copyist inserted the words as an interpretive gloss. However, this form of the “in Christ” expression is somewhat atypical in the corpus Paulinum (εἰς Χριστόν [eis Christon] rather than ἐν Χριστῷ [en Christō]), a fact which tempers one’s certainty about the shorter reading. Nevertheless, the expression is used more in Galatians than in any other of Paul’s letters (Gal 2:16; 3:24, 27), and may have been suggested by such texts to early copyists.so as to invalidate the promise. 18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise, but God graciously gave ▼
▼ On the translation “graciously gave” for χαρίζομαι (carizomai) see L&N 57.102.it to Abraham through the promise.
19 Why then was the law given? ▼
▼ Grk “Why then the law?”It was added ▼
▼ For προσετέθη (proseteqē) several Western mss have ἐτέθη (eteqē, “it was established”; so D* F G it Irlat Ambst Spec). The net effect of this reading, in conjunction with the largely Western reading of πράξεων (praxeōn) for παραβάσεων (parabaseōn), seems to be a very positive assessment of the law. But there are compelling reasons for rejecting this reading: (1) externally, it is provincial and relatively late; (2) internally: (a) transcriptionally, there seems to be a much higher transcriptional probability that a scribe would try to smooth over Paul’s harsh saying here about the law than vice versa; (b) intrinsically:  Paul has already argued that the law came after the promise (vv. 15–18), indicating, more than likely, its temporary nature;  the verb “was added” in v. 19 (προσετέθη) is different from the verb in v. 15 (ἐπιδιατάσσεται, epidiatassetai); virtually all exegetes recognize this as an intentional linguistic shift on Paul’s part in order not to contradict his statement in v. 15;  the temper of 3:1–4:7 is decidedly against a positive statement about the Torah’s role in Heilsgeschichte.because of transgressions, ▼
▼ παραδόσεων (paradoseōn; “traditions, commandments”) is read by D*, while the vast majority of witnesses read παραβάσεων (parabaseōn, “transgressions”). D’s reading makes little sense in this context. πράξεων (praxeōn, “of deeds”) replaces παραβάσεων in Ƥ46 F G it Irlat Ambst Spec. The wording is best taken as going with νόμος (nomos; “Why then the law of deeds?”), as is evident by the consistent punctuation in the later witnesses. But such an expression is unpauline and superfluous; it was almost certainly added by some early scribe(s) to soften the blow of Paul’s statement.until the arrival of the descendant ▼ to whom the promise had been made. It was administered ▼
▼ Or “was ordered.” L&N 31.22 has “was put into effect” here.through angels by an intermediary. ▼
▼ Many modern translations (NASB, NIV, NRSV) render this word (μεσίτης, mesitēs; here and in v. 20) as “mediator,” but this conveys a wrong impression in contemporary English. If this is referring to Moses, he certainly did not “mediate” between God and Israel but was an intermediary on God’s behalf. Moses was not a mediator, for example, who worked for compromise between opposing parties. He instead was God’s representative to his people who enabled them to have a relationship, but entirely on God’s terms.20 Now an intermediary is not for one party alone, but God is one. ▼
▼ The meaning of this verse is disputed. According to BDAG 634 s.v. μεσίτης, “It prob. means that the activity of an intermediary implies the existence of more than one party, and hence may be unsatisfactory because it must result in a compromise. The presence of an intermediary would prevent attainment, without any impediment, of the purpose of the εἶς θεός in giving the law.” See also A. Oepke, TDNT 4:598–624, esp. 618–19.21 Is the law therefore opposed to the promises of God? ▼
▼ The reading τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) is well attested in א A C D (F G read θεοῦ without the article) Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Maj. lat sy co. However, Ƥ46 B d Ambst lack the words. Ƥ46 and B perhaps should not to be given as much weight as they normally are, since the combination of these two witnesses often produces a secondary shorter reading against all others. In addition, one might expect that if the shorter reading were original other variants would have crept into the textual tradition early on. But 104 (a.d. 1087) virtually stands alone with the variant τοῦ Χριστοῦ (tou Christou, “of Christ”). Nevertheless, if τοῦ θεοῦ were not part of the original text, it is the kind of variant that would be expected to show up early and often, especially in light of Paul’s usage elsewhere (Rom 4:20; 2 Cor 1:20). A slight preference should be given to the τοῦ θεοῦ over the omission. NA27 rightly places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that was able to give life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. ▼
▼ Or “have been based on the law.”22 But the scripture imprisoned ▼
▼ Or “locked up.”everything and everyone ▼
▼ Grk “imprisoned all things” but τὰ πάντα (ta panta) includes people as part of the created order. Because people are the emphasis of Paul’s argument ( “given to those who believe” at the end of this verse.), “everything and everyone” was used here.under sin so that the promise could be given – because of the faithfulness ▼
▼ Or “so that the promise could be given by faith in Jesus Christ to those who believe.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pistis Christou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 2:16, 20; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730–44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.▼
▼ On the phrase because of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.of Jesus Christ – to those who believe.
Sons of God Are Heirs of Promise23 Now before faith ▼
▼ Or “the faithfulness [of Christ] came.”came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners ▼
▼ Instead of the present participle συγκλειόμενοι (sunkleiomenoi; found in Ƥ46 א A B D* F G P Ψ 33 1739 al), C D1 0176 0278 Maj. have the perfect συγκεκλεισμένοι (sunkekleismenoi). The syntactical implication of the perfect is that the cause or the means of being held in custody was confinement (“we were held in custody [by/because of] being confined”). The present participle of course allows for such options, but also allows for contemporaneous time (“while being confined”) and result (“with the result that we were confined”). Externally, the perfect participle has little to commend it, being restricted for the most part to later and Byzantine witnesses.▼
▼ Grk “being confined.”until the coming faith would be revealed. 24 Thus the law had become our guardian ▼
▼ Or “disciplinarian,” “custodian,” or “guide.” According to BDAG 748 s.v. παιδαγωγός, “the man, usu. a slave…whose duty it was to conduct a boy or youth…to and from school and to superintend his conduct gener.; he was not a ‘teacher’ (despite the present mng. of the derivative ‘pedagogue’…When the young man became of age, the π. was no longer needed.” L&N 36.5 gives “guardian, leader, guide” here.until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous ▼
▼ Or “be justified.”by faith. 25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. ▼
▼ See the note on the word “guardian” in v. 24. The punctuation of vv. 25, 26, and 27 is difficult to represent because of the causal connections between each verse. English style would normally require a comma either at the end of v. 25 or v. 26, but in so doing the translation would then link v. 26 almost exclusively with either v. 25 or v. 27; this would be problematic as scholars debate which two verses are to be linked. Because of this, the translation instead places a period at the end of each verse. This preserves some of the ambiguity inherent in the Greek and does not exclude any particular causal connection.26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. ▼
▼ Or “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”27 For all of you who ▼
▼ Grk “For as many of you as.”were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave ▼ nor free, there is neither male nor female ▼
▼ Grk “male and female.”– for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, ▼ heirs according to the promise.
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