Announcement of Sin and Judgment1 Hear this, you priests!
Pay attention, you Israelites! ▼
▼ Heb “O house of Israel” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV); NLT “all of Israel’s leaders.”
Listen closely, ▼
▼ Heb “Use the ear”; ASV “give ear.”O king! ▼
▼ Heb “O house of the king” (so KJV); NIV “O royal house.”
For judgment is about to overtake you! ▼
▼ Heb “for the judgment is to you”; or “For this accusation is against you.” Cf. NIV “This judgment is against you.”
For you were like a trap ▼
▼ The noun פַּח (pakh, “trap”) is used (1) literally of a bird-trap, used in similes and metaphors (Amos 3:5; Prov 7:23; Eccl 9:12), and (2) figuratively to refer to (a) calamities and plots (Job 18:9; 22:10; Pss 91:3; 119:110; 124:7; 140:6; 141:9; 142:4; Prov 22:5; Isa 24:17–18; Jer 18:22; 48:43–44; Hos 9:8) and (b) a source of calamity (Josh 23:13; Pss 11:6; 69:23; Isa 8:14; Hos 5:1; BDB 809 s.v. פַּח).to Mizpah, ▼
▼ Heb “you were a trap to Mizpah.”
like a net ▼ spread out to catch Tabor. ▼
▼ Heb “and a net spread out over Tabor.”
2 Those who revolt are knee-deep in slaughter, ▼
▼ The MT reads וְשַׁחֲטָה שֵׂטִים הֶעְמִיקוּ (veshakhatah setim he’miqu): “and rebels have made deep the slaughter.” The BHS editors propose ושַׁחַת הַשִּׁטִּים הֶעְמִיקוּ (veshakhat hashittim he’miqu): “they have made the pit of Shittim [place of idolatry] deep” (cf. NRSV, TEV, NLT; see BDB 1006 s.v. שַׁחֲטָּה). This involves: (1) phonological confusion between the similar sounding consonants ת (tav) and ט (tet), (2) redivision of words to take ה (hey) as the article with הַשִּׁטִּים rather than feminine noun ending of וְשַׁחֲטָה, and (3) revocalization of הַשִּׁטִּים with the two daghesh fortes. Retaining the reading of the MT is preferable here.▼
▼ Heb “and those who revolt have gone deep into slaughter” (similar KJV, NIV); NASB “deep in depravity.”
but I will discipline them all. ▼
▼ Heb “but I am discipline to all of them”; ASV “but I am a rebuker of them all.”
3 I know Ephraim all too well; ▼
▼ The phrase “all too well” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity and stylistic reasons.
the evil of ▼
▼ The phrase “the evil of” does not appear in the Hebrew text here, but is implied by the metonymical (cause-effect) use of the term “Israel.” It is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. Cf. NCV “what they have done is not hidden from me.”Israel is not hidden from me.
For you have engaged in prostitution, O Ephraim;
Israel has defiled itself. ▼
▼ Or “Israel has become corrupt”; NCV “has made itself unclean”; TEV “are unfit to worship me.”
4 Their wicked deeds do not allow them to return to their God;
because a spirit of idolatry ▼
▼ Heb “a spirit of harlotries”; NIV “a spirit of prostitution”; TEV “Idolatry has a powerful hold on them.” However, CEV takes this literally: “your constant craving for sex keeps you from knowing me.”controls their heart, ▼
▼ Heb “is in their heart” (so NIV); NASB, NRSV “is within them.”
and they do not acknowledge the Lord.
5 The arrogance of Israel testifies against it;
Israel and Ephraim will be overthrown ▼
▼ Heb “will stumble” (so NCV, NLT). The verb כָּשַׁל (kashal, “to stumble; to stagger; to totter”) is used figuratively to describe distress (Isa 59:10; Ps 107:12), the debilitating effects of misfortune and calamity (Isa 5:27), and toil in exile (Lam 5:13). It is often used figuratively to describe the overthrow of a people or nation through divine judgment (Isa 8:15; Jer 6:21; 50:32; Hos 4:5; 5:5; 14:2). The Niphal stem used here is also frequently used in reference to divine judgment: “be overthrown,” of nations, armies (Jer 6:15; 8:12; Dan 11:19, 33, 34, 41; BDB 505 s.v. כָּשַׁל 1.b). This figurative use of כָּשַׁל is often used in collocation with נָפַל (nafal, “to fall”; Isa 3:8; 31:3; 8:15; Jer 6:15; Dan 11:19).because ▼
▼ Or “in” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).of their iniquity.
Even Judah will be brought down ▼
▼ Heb “will stumble” (so NCV). The term כָּשַׁל (kashal) appeared in the preceding line (Niphal “be overthrown”) and now appears here (Qal “will stumble”). The repetition of כָּשַׁל emphasizes that a similar fate will befall Judah because it failed to learn its lesson from God’s judgment on Israel. The verb כָּשַׁל (“to stumble”) does not describe the moral stumbling of Judah, but the effect of God’s judgment (Isa 8:15; Jer 6:21; 50:32; Hos 4:5; 5:5; 14:2), and the toil of exile (Lam 5:13).with them.
The Futility of Sacrificial Ritual without Moral Obedience6 Although they bring their flocks and herds ▼
to seek ▼
▼ Heb “they go out to seek the Lord”; NCV “to worship the Lord”; NLT “to offer sacrifices to the Lord.”the favor of the Lord, ▼
▼ Heb “the Lord”; the phrase “the favor of” does not appear in Hebrew here, but is supplied for the sake of clarity. It is implied by the metonymical (cause-effect) reference to the Lord, the source of favor and forgiveness.
They will not find him –
he has withdrawn himself from them!
7 They have committed treason ▼
▼ Heb “dealt treacherously against” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “dealt faithlessly”; NLT “betrayed the honor of.”against the Lord,
because they bore illegitimate children.
Soon ▼ the new moon festival will devour them and their fields.
The Prophet’s Declaration of Judgment8 Blow the ram’s horn in Gibeah!
Sound the trumpet in Ramah!
Sound the alarm in Beth Aven! ▼
▼ See the note on the place name Beth Aven in 4:15.
Tremble in fear, ▼
▼ The MT reads the anomalous אַחֲרֶיךָ בִּנְיָמִין (’akharekha binyamin, “behind you, O Benjamin”), a reading followed by many English versions. The LXX reads ἐξέστη (exestē) which might reflect an alternate textual tradition of הַחֲרִדוּ בִּנְיָמִין (hakharidu binyamin, “Tremble in fear, O Benjamin”); the verb form would be a Hiphil imperative 2nd person masculine plural from חָרַד (kharad, “to tremble, be terrified”; BDB 353 s.v. חָרַד). For discussion of this textual problem, see D. Barthélemy, ed., Preliminary and Interim Report on the Hebrew Old Testament Text Project, 5:236.O Benjamin!
9 Ephraim will be ruined in the day of judgment! ▼
▼ Heb “day of rebuke” (so KJV, NASB); NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT “day of punishment.”
What I am declaring ▼
▼ The verb הוֹדַעְתִּי (hoda’ti, Hiphil perfect 1st person common singular from יָדַע, yada’; Qal “to know,” Hiphil “to make known, declare”) here functions as (1) an instantaneous perfect, representing an action being performed at the same instant that the speaker utters the statement (e.g., Gen 14:22; Deut 8:19; 26:3; 2 Sam 17:11; 19:30; Ps 143:6); or (2) an epistolary perfect, representing a situation in past time from the viewpoint of the recipient of the message but in present time from the viewpoint of the writer (e.g., 1 Kgs 15:19; 2 Chr 2:12). For functions of the perfect tense (suffix-conjugation), see IBHS 486–90 #30.5.1.to the tribes of Israel will certainly take place! ▼
▼ The substantival use of the Niphal participle נֶאֱמָנָה (ne’emanah, “that which is sure”) refers to an event that will occur in the future (BDB 52 s.v. אָמַן 2).
The Oppressors of the Helpless Will Be Oppressed10 The princes of Judah are like those who move boundary markers.
I will pour out my rage on them like a torrential flood! ▼
11 Ephraim will be oppressed, ▼
▼ The verb עָשַׁק (’ashaq, “to oppress”) may refer to (1) oppressing the poor and defenseless (BDB 798 s.v. עָשַׁק 1), or more likely to (2) oppression of one nation by another as the judgment of God (Deut 28:29, 33; 1 Chr 16:21; Pss 105:14; 119:121, 122; Isa 52:4; Jer 50:33; Hos 5:11; BDB 798 s.v. 2). The Qal passive participles עָשׁוּק (’ashuq, “oppressed”) and רְצוּץ (retsuts, “crushed”) might refer to a present situation (so KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); however, the context suggests that they refer to a future situation (so NLT). When a participle is used in reference to the future, it often denotes an imminent future situation and may be rendered, “about to” (e.g., Gen 6:17; 15:14; 20:3; 37:30; 41:25; 49:29; Exod 9:17–18; Deut 28:31; 1 Sam 3:11; 1 Kgs 2:2; 20:22; 2 Kgs 7:2). For functions of the participle, see IBHS 627–28 #37.6f.crushed ▼ under judgment, ▼
▼ Heb “crushed of judgment” (רְצוּץ מִשְׁפָּט, retsuts mishpat). The second term is a genitive of cause (“crushed because of judgment” or “crushed under judgment”) rather than respect (“crushed in judgment,” as in many English versions).
because he was determined to pursue worthless idols. ▼
▼ The meaning of the Hebrew term translated “worthless idols” is uncertain; cf. KJV “the commandment”; NASB “man’s command”; NAB “filth”; NRSV “vanity.”
The Curse of the Incurable Wound12 I will be like a moth to Ephraim,
like wood rot ▼ to the house of Judah.
13 When Ephraim saw ▼ his sickness
and Judah saw his wound,
then Ephraim turned ▼
▼ Heb “went to” (so NAB, NRSV, TEV); CEV “asked help from.”to Assyria,
and begged ▼
▼ Heb “sent to” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV).its great king ▼
▼ The MT reads מֶלֶךְ יָרֵב (melekh yarev, “a contentious king”). This is translated as a proper name (“king Jareb”) by KJV, ASV, NASB. However, the stative adjective יָרֵב (“contentious”) is somewhat awkward. The words should be redivided as an archaic genitive-construct מַלְכִּי רָב (malki rav, “great king”; cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) which preserves the old genitive hireq yod ending. This is the equivalent of the Assyrian royal epithet sarru rabbu (“the great king”). See also the [V] note on the same phrase in 10:6.for help.
But he will not be able to heal you!
He cannot cure your wound! ▼
▼ Heb “your wound will not depart from you.”▼
▼ Hosea personifies Ephraim’s “wound” as if it could depart from the sickly Ephraim (see the formal equivalent rendering in the preceding [T]). Ephraim’s sinful action in relying upon an Assyrian treaty for protection will not dispense with its problems.
The Lion Will Carry Israel Off Into Exile14 I will be like a lion to Ephraim,
like a young lion to the house of Judah.
I myself will tear them to pieces,
then I will carry them off, and no one will be able to rescue them!
15 Then I will return again to my lair
until they have suffered their punishment. ▼
▼ The verb יֶאְשְׁמוּ (ye’shemu, Qal imperfect 3rd person masculine plural from אָשַׁם, ’asham, “to be guilty”) means “to bear their punishment” (Ps 34:22–23; Prov 30:10; Isa 24:6; Jer 2:3; Hos 5:15; 10:2; 14:1; Zech 11:5; Ezek 6:6; BDB 79 s.v. אָשַׁם 3). Many English versions translate this as “admit their guilt” (NIV, NLT) or “acknowledge their guilt” (NASB, NRSV), but cf. NAB “pay for their guilt” and TEV “have suffered enough for their sins.”
Then they will seek me; ▼
▼ Heb “seek my face” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “seek my presence.”
in their distress they will earnestly seek me.
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