Prejudice and the Law of Love1 My brothers and sisters, ▼ do not show prejudice ▼
▼ Or “partiality.”if you possess faith ▼
▼ Grk “do not have faith with personal prejudice,” with emphasis on the last phrase.in our glorious Lord Jesus Christ. ▼
▼ Grk “our Lord Jesus Christ of glory.” Here δόξης (doxēs) has been translated as an attributive genitive.2 For if someone ▼
▼ The word for “man” or “individual” here is ἀνήρ (anēr), which often means “male” or “man (as opposed to woman).” But as BDAG 79 s.v. 2 says, “equivalent to τὶς someone.”comes into your assembly ▼ wearing a gold ring and fine clothing, and a poor person enters in filthy clothes, 3 do you pay attention to the one who is finely dressed and say, ▼ “You sit here in a good place,” ▼
▼ Or “sit here, please.”and to the poor person, “You stand over there,” or “Sit on the floor”? ▼
▼ Grk “sit under my footstool.” The words “on the floor” have been supplied in the translation to clarify for the modern reader the undesirability of this seating arrangement (so also TEV, NIV, CEV, NLT). Another option followed by a number of translations is to replace “under my footstool” with “at my feet” (NAB, NIV, NRSV).4 If so, have you not made distinctions ▼ among yourselves and become judges with evil motives? ▼
▼ Grk “judges of evil reasonings.”5 Listen, my dear brothers and sisters! ▼ Did not God choose the poor in the world to be rich in faith and heirs of the kingdom that he promised to those who love him? 6 But you have dishonored the poor! ▼ Are not the rich oppressing you and dragging you into the courts? 7 Do they not blaspheme the good name of the one you belong to? ▼
▼ Grk “that was invoked over you,” referring to their baptism in which they confessed their faith in Christ and were pronounced to be his own. To have the Lord’s name “named over them” is OT imagery for the Lord’s ownership of his people (cf. 2 Chr 7:14; Amos 9:12; Isa 63:19; Jer 14:9; 15:16; Dan 9:19; Acts 15:17).8 But if you fulfill the royal law as expressed in this scripture, ▼
▼ Grk “according to the scripture.”“ You shall love your neighbor as yourself ,” ▼ you are doing well. 9 But if you show prejudice, you are committing sin and are convicted by the law as violators. ▼
▼ Or “transgressors.”10 For the one who obeys the whole law but fails ▼
▼ Or “stumbles.”in one point has become guilty of all of it. ▼
▼ Grk “guilty of all.”11 For he who said, “ Do not commit adultery ,” ▼ also said, “ Do not murder .” ▼ Now if you do not commit adultery but do commit murder, you have become a violator of the law. 12 Speak and act as those who will be judged by a law that gives freedom. ▼
▼ Grk “a law of freedom.”13 For judgment is merciless for the one who has shown no mercy. But mercy triumphs over ▼
▼ Grk “boasts against, exults over,” in victory.judgment.
Faith and Works Together14 What good is it, my brothers and sisters, ▼ if someone claims to have faith but does not have works? Can this kind of faith ▼
▼ Grk “the faith,” referring to the kind of faith just described: faith without works. The article here is anaphoric, referring to the previous mention of the noun πίστις (pistis) in the verse. See ExSyn 219.save him? ▼
▼ The form of the question in Greek expects a negative answer.15 If a brother or sister ▼ is poorly clothed and lacks daily food, 16 and one of you says to them, “Go in peace, keep warm and eat well,” but you do not give them what the body needs, ▼
▼ Grk “what is necessary for the body.”what good is it? 17 So also faith, if it does not have works, is dead being by itself. 18 But someone will say, “You have faith and I have works.” ▼
▼ There is considerable doubt about where the words of the “someone” end and where James’ reply begins. Some see the quotation running to the end of v. 18; others to the end of v. 19. But most punctuate as shown above. The “someone” is then an objector, and the sense of his words is something like, “Some have faith; others have works; don’t expect everyone to have both.” James’ reply is that faith cannot exist or be seen without works.Show me your faith without works and I will show you faith by ▼
▼ Or “from.”my works. 19 You believe that God is one; well and good. ▼
▼ Grk “you do well.”Even the demons believe that – and tremble with fear. ▼
▼ Grk “believe and tremble.” The words “with fear” are implied.
20 But would you like evidence, ▼
▼ Grk “do you want to know.”you empty fellow, ▼
▼ Grk “O empty man.” Here the singular vocative ἄνθρωπε (anqrōpe, “man”) means “person” or even “fellow.” Cf. BDAG 82 s.v. ἄνθρωπος 8 which views this as an instance of rhetorical address in a letter; the pejorative sense is also discussed under the previous heading (7).that faith without works is useless? ▼
▼ Most witnesses, including several important ones (א A C2 P Ψ 33 Maj. sy bo), have νεκρά (nekra, “dead”) here, while Ƥ74 reads κενή (kenē, “empty”). Both variants are most likely secondary, derived from ἀργή (argē, “useless”). The reading of the majority is probably an assimilation to the statements in vv. 17 and 26, while Ƥ74’s reading picks up on κενέ (kene) earlier in the verse. The external evidence (B C* 323 945 1739 sa) for ἀργή is sufficient for authenticity; coupled with the strong internal evidence for the reading (if νεκρά were original, how would ἀργή have arisen here and not in vv. 17 or 26?), it is strongly preferred.21 Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered Isaac his son on the altar? 22 You see that his faith was working together with his works and his faith was perfected by works. 23 And the scripture was fulfilled that says, “ Now Abraham believed God and it was counted to him for righteousness ,” ▼ and he was called God’s friend. ▼ 24 You see that a person is justified by works and not by faith alone. 25 And similarly, was not Rahab the prostitute also justified by works when she welcomed the messengers and sent them out by another way? 26 For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead.
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