Trespass by Deception and False Oath1 [Heb. 5:20] ▼
▼ Beginning with 6:1, the verse numbers through 6:30 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 6:1 ET = 5:20 HT, 6:2 ET = 5:21 HT, 6:8 ET = 6:1 HT, etc., through 6:30 ET = 6:23 HT. Beginning with 7:1 the verse numbers in the English text and Hebrew text are again the same.Then the Lord spoke to Moses: ▼ 2 “When a person sins and commits a trespass ▼ against the Lord by deceiving his fellow citizen ▼
▼ Or “neighbor” (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NASB “companion”; TEV “a fellow-Israelite.”in regard to something held in trust, or a pledge, or something stolen, or by extorting something from his fellow citizen, ▼
▼ Heb “has extorted his neighbor”; ASV “oppressed”; NRSV “defrauded.”3 or has found something lost and denies it and swears falsely ▼
▼ Heb “and swears on falsehood”; cf. CEV “deny something while under oath.”concerning any one of the things that someone might do to sin ▼
▼ Heb “on one from all which the man shall do to sin in them.”– 4 when it happens that he sins and he is found guilty, ▼
▼ Heb “and it shall happen, when he sins and becomes guilty,” which is both resumptive of the previous (vv. 2–3) and the conclusion to the protasis (cf. “then” introducing the next clause as the apodosis). In this case, “becomes guilty” (cf. NASB, NIV) probably refers to his legal status as one who has been convicted of a crime in court; thus the translation “he is found guilty.” See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:559–61.then he must return whatever he had stolen, or whatever he had extorted, or the thing that he had held in trust, ▼
▼ Heb “that had been held in trust with him.”or the lost thing that he had found, 5 or anything about which he swears falsely. ▼
▼ Heb “or from all which he swears on it to falsehood.”He must restore it in full ▼
▼ Heb “in its head.” This refers “the full amount” in terms of the “principal,” the original item or amount obtained illegally (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:338; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 84).and add one fifth to it; he must give it to its owner when he is found guilty. ▼
▼ Heb “to whom it is to him he shall give it in the day of his being guilty.” The present translation is based on the view that he has been found guilty through the legal process (see the note on v. 4 above; cf., e.g., TEV and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 33–34). Others translate the latter part as “in the day he offers his guilt [reparation] offering” (e.g., NIV and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 73, 84), or “in the day he realizes his guilt” (e.g., NRSV and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:319, 338).6 Then he must bring his guilt offering to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels, ▼ for a guilt offering to the priest. 7 So the priest will make atonement ▼ on his behalf before the Lord and he will be forgiven ▼
▼ Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).for whatever he has done to become guilty.” ▼
▼ Heb “on one from all which he does to become guilty in it”; NAB “whatever guilt he may have incurred.”
Sacrificial Instructions for the Priests: The Burnt Offering8 [Heb. 6:1] ▼ Then the Lord spoke to Moses: ▼
▼ The following paragraphs are Lev 6:8–30 in the English Bible but 6:1–23 in the Hebrew text. This initial verse makes the special priestly regulations for the people’s burnt and grain offerings into a single unit (i.e., Lev 6:8–18 [6:1–11 HT]; cf. Lev 1–2 above). Note also the separate introductions for various priestly regulations in Lev 6:19 [12 HT], 24 [17 HT], and for the common people in Lev 7:22, 28 below.9 “Command Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the burnt offering. The burnt offering is to remain on the hearth ▼
▼ Heb “It is the burnt offering on the hearth.”on the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar must be kept burning on it. ▼
▼ Heb “in it.” In this context “in it” apparently refers to the “hearth” which was on top of the altar.10 Then the priest must put on his linen robe and must put linen leggings ▼
▼ The exact nature of this article of the priest’s clothing is difficult to determine. Cf. KJV, ASV “breeches”; NAB “drawers”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “undergarments”; NCV “underclothes”; CEV “underwear”; TEV “shorts.”over his bare flesh, and he must take up the fatty ashes of the burnt offering that the fire consumed on the altar, ▼
▼ Heb “he shall lift up the fatty ashes which the fire shall consume the burnt offering on the altar.”and he must place them ▼
▼ Heb “it,” referring the “fatty ashes” as a single unit.beside the altar. 11 Then he must take off his clothes and put on other clothes, and he must bring the fatty ashes outside the camp to a ceremonially ▼
▼ The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness of the place involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.clean place, 12 but the fire which is on the altar must be kept burning on it. ▼ It must not be extinguished. So the priest must kindle wood on it morning by morning, and he must arrange the burnt offering on it and offer the fat of the peace offering up in smoke on it. 13 A continual fire must be kept burning on the altar. It must not be extinguished.
The Grain Offering of the Common Person14 “‘This is the law of the grain offering. The sons of Aaron are to present it ▼
▼ Heb “offering it, the sons of Aaron.” The verb is a Hiphil infinitive absolute, which is used here in place of the finite verb as either a jussive (GKC 346 #113.cc, “let the sons of Aaron offer”) or more likely an injunctive in light of the verbs that follow (Joüon 2:430 #123.v, “the sons of Aaron shall/must offer”).before the Lord in front of the altar, 15 and the priest ▼ must take up with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering ▼
▼ Heb “shall take up from it with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering.”and some of its olive oil, and all of the frankincense that is on the grain offering, and he must offer its memorial portion ▼ up in smoke on the altar ▼ as a soothing aroma to the Lord. ▼
▼ Heb “and he shall offer up in smoke [on] the altar a soothing aroma, its memorial portion, to the Lord.”16 Aaron and his sons are to eat what is left over from it. It must be eaten unleavened in a holy place; they are to eat it in the courtyard of the Meeting Tent. 17 It must not be baked with yeast. ▼ I have given it as their portion from my gifts. It is most holy, ▼
▼ Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; cf. NAB “most sacred.”like the sin offering and the guilt offering. 18 Every male among the sons of Aaron may eat it. It is a perpetual allotted portion ▼
▼ Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “a permanent ordinance”; NRSV “as their perpetual due.”throughout your generations ▼
▼ Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come.”from the gifts of the Lord. Anyone who touches these gifts ▼
▼ Heb “touches them”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. In this context “them” must refer to the “gifts” of the Lord.must be holy.’” ▼
▼ Or “anyone/anything that touches them shall become holy” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:443–56). The question is whether this refers to the contagious nature of holy objects (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) or whether it simply sets forth a demand that anyone who touches the holy gifts of the Lord must be a holy person (cf. CEV). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:900–902.
The Grain Offering of the Priests19 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: ▼ 20 “This is the offering of Aaron and his sons which they must present to the Lord on the day when he is anointed: a tenth of an ephah ▼
▼ A tenth of an ephah is about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306).of choice wheat flour ▼ as a continual grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it in the evening. 21 It must be made with olive oil on a griddle and you must bring it well soaked, ▼
▼ The term rendered here “well soaked” (see, e.g., NRSV; the Hebrew term is מֻרְבֶּכֶת, murbbekhet) occurs only three times (here; 7:12, and 1 Chr 23:29), and is sometimes translated “well-mixed” (e.g., NIV, NCV, NLT; NASB “well stirred”; NAB “well kneaded”). The meaning is uncertain (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:399–400), but in Lev 7:12 it stands parallel to already prepared grain offerings either “mixed” (the Hebrew term is בְּלוּלֹת (belulot), not מֻרְבֶּכֶת as in Lev 6:21 [6:14 HT]) or anointed with oil.so you must present a grain offering of broken pieces ▼
▼ Heb “broken bits [?] of a grain offering of pieces,” but the meaning of the Hebrew term rendered here “broken bits” (תֻּפִינֵי, tufiney) is quite uncertain. Some take it from the Hebrew verb “to break up, to crumble” (פַּת [pat]; e.g., the Syriac, NAB, NIV, NLT “broken” pieces) and others from “to bake” (אָפַה, ’afah; e.g., NRSV “baked pieces”). For a good summary of other proposed options, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90. Compare Lev 2:5–6 for the general regulations regarding this manner of grain offering. Similar but less problematic terminology is used there.as a soothing aroma to the Lord. 22 The high priest who succeeds him ▼
▼ Heb “And the anointed priest under him.”from among his sons must do it. It is a perpetual statute; it must be offered up in smoke as a whole offering to the Lord. 23 Every grain offering of a priest must be a whole offering; it must not be eaten.”
The Sin Offering24 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: ▼ 25 “Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the sin offering. In the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered the sin offering must be slaughtered before the Lord. It is most holy. ▼
▼ Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is.” Cf. NAB “most sacred”; CEV “very sacred”; TEV “very holy.”26 The priest who offers it for sin is to eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place, in the court of the Meeting Tent. 27 Anyone who touches its meat must be holy, and whoever spatters some of its blood on a garment, ▼
▼ Heb “on the garment”; NCV “on any clothes”; CEV “on the clothes of the priest.”you must wash ▼
▼ The translation “you must wash” is based on the MT as it stands (cf. NASB, NIV). Smr, LXX, Syriac, Tg. Ps.-J., and the Vulgate have a third person masculine singular passive form (Pual), “[the garment] must be washed” (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). This could also be supported from the verbs in the following verse, and it requires only a repointing of the Hebrew text with no change in consonants. See the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90 and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:404.whatever he spatters it on in a holy place. 28 Any clay vessel it is boiled in must be broken, and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then that vessel ▼
▼ Heb “it”; the words “that vessel” are supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.must be rubbed out and rinsed in water. 29 Any male among the priests may eat it. It is most holy. ▼ 30 But any sin offering from which some of its blood is brought into the Meeting Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary must not be eaten. It must be burned up in the fire. ▼
▼ Heb “burned with fire,” an expression which is sometimes redundant in English, but here means “burned up,” “burned up entirely.”
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