The Genealogy of Jesus Christ1 This is the record of the genealogy ▼
▼ Grk “the book of the genealogy.” The noun βίβλος (biblos), though it is without the article, is to be translated as definite due to Apollonius’ corollary and the normal use of anarthrous nouns in titles.of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.
2 Abraham was the father ▼
▼ Grk “fathered.”of Isaac, Isaac the father of Jacob, Jacob the father of Judah and his brothers, 3 Judah the father of Perez and Zerah (by Tamar), Perez the father of Hezron, Hezron the father of Ram, 4 Ram the father of Amminadab, Amminadab the father of Nahshon, Nahshon the father of Salmon, 5 Salmon the father of Boaz (by Rahab), Boaz the father of Obed (by Ruth), Obed the father of Jesse, 6 and Jesse the father of David the king.
David was the father of Solomon (by the wife of Uriah ▼ ), 7 Solomon the father of Rehoboam, Rehoboam the father of Abijah, Abijah the father of Asa, ▼
▼ The reading ᾿Ασάφ (Asaf), a variant spelling on ᾿Ασά (Asa), is found in the earliest and most widespread witnesses (Ƥ1vid א B C [Dluc] f1, 13 700 pc it co). Although Asaph was a psalmist and Asa was a king, it is doubtful that the author mistook one for the other since other ancient documents have variant spellings on the king’s name (such as “Asab,” “Asanos,” and “Asaph”). Thus the spelling ᾿Ασάφ that is almost surely found in the original of Matt 1:7–8 has been translated as “Asa” in keeping with the more common spelling of the king’s name.8 Asa the father of Jehoshaphat, Jehoshaphat the father of Joram, Joram the father of Uzziah, 9 Uzziah the father of Jotham, Jotham the father of Ahaz, Ahaz the father of Hezekiah, 10 Hezekiah the father of Manasseh, Manasseh the father of Amon, ▼
▼ ᾿Αμώς (Amōs) is the reading found in the earliest and best witnesses (א B C [Dluc] γ δ θ f1 33 pc it sa bo), and as such is most likely original, but this is a variant spelling of the name ᾿Αμών (Amōn). The translation uses the more well-known spelling “Amon” found in the Hebrew MT and the majority of LXX mss. See also the textual discussion of “Asa“ versus “Asaph” (vv. 7–8); the situation is similar.Amon the father of Josiah, 11 and Josiah ▼ the father of Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time of the deportation to Babylon.
12 After ▼
▼ Because of the difference between Greek style, which usually begins a sentence with a conjunction, and English style, which generally does not, the conjunction δέ (de) has not been translated here.the deportation to Babylon, Jeconiah became the father of Shealtiel, ▼ Shealtiel the father of Zerubbabel, 13 Zerubbabel the father of Abiud, Abiud the father of Eliakim, Eliakim the father of Azor, 14 Azor the father of Zadok, Zadok the father of Achim, Achim the father of Eliud, 15 Eliud the father of Eleazar, Eleazar the father of Matthan, Matthan the father of Jacob, 16 and Jacob the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary, by whom ▼
▼ There are three significant variant readings at this point in the text. Some mss and versional witnesses (Θ f13 it) read, “Joseph, to whom the virgin Mary, being betrothed, bore Jesus, who is called Christ.” This reading makes even more explicit than the feminine pronoun (see [S] below) the virginal conception of Jesus and as such seems to be a motivated reading. The Sinaitic Syriac ms alone indicates that Joseph was the father of Jesus (“Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the virgin, fathered Jesus who is called the Christ”). Although much discussed, this reading has not been found in any Greek witnesses. B. M. Metzger suggests that it was produced by a careless scribe who simply reproduced the set formula of the preceding lines in the genealogy (TCGNT 6). In all likelihood, the two competing variants were thus produced by intentional and unintentional scribal alterations respectively. The reading adopted in the translation has overwhelming support from a variety of witnesses (Ƥ1 א B C L W [f1] 33 Maj. co), and therefore should be regarded as authentic. For a detailed discussion of this textual problem, see TCGNT 2–6.▼
▼ The pronoun whom is feminine gender in the Greek text, referring to Mary.Jesus was born, who is called Christ. ▼
▼ Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”▼
▼ The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations, and from David to the deportation to Babylon, fourteen generations, and from the deportation to Babylon to Christ, ▼
▼ Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”▼ fourteen generations.
The Birth of Jesus Christ18 Now the birth of Jesus Christ happened this way. While his mother Mary was engaged to Joseph, but before they came together, ▼
▼ The connotation of the Greek is “before they came together in marital and domestic union” (so BDAG 970 s.v. συνέρχομαι 3).she was found to be pregnant through the Holy Spirit. 19 Because Joseph, her husband to be, ▼
▼ Grk “husband.” See following note for discussion.was a righteous man, and because he did not want to disgrace her, he intended to divorce her ▼
▼ Or “send her away.”▼
▼ In the Jewish context, “full betrothal was so binding that its breaking required a certificate of divorce, and the death of one party made the other a widow or widower (m. Ketub. 1:2; m. Sota 1:5; m. Git. passim…)” (R. H. Gundry, Matthew: A Commentary on his Literary and Theological Art, 21).privately. 20 When he had contemplated this, an ▼
▼ Grk “behold, an angel.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).angel of the Lord ▼
▼ Or “the angel of the Lord.” Linguistically, “angel of the Lord” is the same in both testaments (and thus, he is either “an angel of the Lord” or “the angel of the Lord” in both testaments). For arguments and implications, see ExSyn 252; M. J. Davidson, “Angels,” DJG, 9; W. G. MacDonald argues for “an angel” in both testaments: “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’,” Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation, 324–35.appeared to him in a dream and said, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, because the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. 21 She will give birth to a son and you will name him ▼
▼ Grk “you will call his name.”Jesus, ▼
▼ The Greek form of the name Iēsous, which was translated into Latin as Jesus, is the same as the Hebrew Yeshua (Joshua), which means “Yahweh saves” (Yahweh is typically rendered as “Lord” in the OT). It was a fairly common name among Jews in 1st century Palestine, as references to a number of people by this name in the LXX and Josephus indicate.because he will save his people from their sins.” 22 This all happened so that what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet would be fulfilled: 23 “ Look! The virgin will conceive and bear a son, and they will call him ▼
▼ Grk “they will call his name.”Emmanuel ,” ▼ which means ▼
▼ Grk “is translated.”“God with us.” ▼ 24 When Joseph awoke from sleep he did what the angel of the Lord ▼ told him. He took his wife, 25 but did not have marital relations ▼
▼ Or “did not have sexual relations”; Grk “was not knowing her.” The verb “know” (in both Hebrew and Greek) is a frequent biblical euphemism for sexual relations. However, a translation like “did not have sexual relations with her” is too graphic in light of the popularity and wide use of Matthew’s infancy narrative. Thus the somewhat more subdued but still clear “did not have marital relations” was selected.with her until she gave birth to a son, whom he named ▼
▼ Grk “and he called his name Jesus.” The coordinate clause has been translated as a relative clause in English for stylistic reasons.Jesus.
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