Proverbs 71My child, ▼
▼ Heb “my son.”keep my words
and treasure up my commands in your own keeping. ▼
▼ Heb “within you” (so NASB, NIV); KJV, ASV, NRSV “with you.” BDB 860 s.v. צָפַן Qal.1 suggests that “within you” means “in your own keeping.”
2 Keep my commands ▼ so that you may live, ▼
▼ The construction of an imperative with the vav (ו) of sequence after another imperative denotes a logical sequence of purpose or result: “that you may live,” or “and you will live.”
and obey ▼ my instruction as your most prized possession. ▼
▼ Heb “the little man in your eye.” Traditionally this Hebrew idiom is translated into English as “the apple of your eye” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); a more contemporary rendering would be “as your most prized possession.” The word for “man” has the diminutive ending on it. It refers to the pupil, where the object focused on – a man – is reflected in miniature. The point is that the teaching must be the central focus of the disciple’s vision and attention.
3 Bind them on your forearm; ▼
write them on the tablet of your heart. ▼
4 Say to wisdom, “You are my sister,” ▼
▼ The metaphor is meant to signify that the disciple will be closely related to and familiar with wisdom and understanding, as close as to a sibling. Wisdom will be personified in the next two chapters, and so referring to it as a sister in this chapter certainly prepares for that personification.
and call understanding a close relative,
5 so that they may keep you ▼
▼ The infinitive construct with the preposition shows the purpose of associating closely with wisdom: Wisdom will obviate temptations, the greatest being the sexual urge.from the adulterous ▼
▼ Heb “strange” (so KJV, ASV).woman,
from the loose woman ▼
▼ Heb “strange woman.” This can be interpreted as a “wayward wife” (so NIV) or an “unfaithful wife” (so NCV). As discussed earlier, the designations “strange woman” and “foreign woman” could refer to Israelites who stood outside the community in their lawlessness and loose morals – an adulteress or wayward woman. H. Ringgren and W. Zimmerli, however, suggest that she is also a promoter of a pagan cult, but that is not entirely convincing (Spruche/Prediger [ATD], 19).who flatters you ▼
▼ The term “you” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness.with her words. ▼
▼ Heb “she makes smooth her words.” This expression means “she flatters with her words.”
6 For at the window of my house
through my window lattice I looked out
7 and I saw among the naive –
I discerned among the youths ▼
▼ Heb “sons.”–
a young man ▼
▼ Heb “lad” or “youth.”who lacked wisdom. ▼
▼ Heb “heart.”▼
▼ This young man who lacked wisdom is one of the simpletons, lacking keen judgment, one void of common sense (cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT) or understanding (cf. KJV, ASV). He is young, inexperienced, featherbrained (so D. Kidner, Proverbs [TOTC], 75).
8 He was passing by the street near her corner,
making his way ▼
▼ The verb צָעַד (tsa’ad) means “to step; to march.” It suggests that the youth was intentionally making his way to her house. The verb is the imperfect tense; it stresses continual action parallel to the active participle that began the verse, but within a context that is past time.along the road to her house ▼
▼ Heb “way of her house.” This expression uses an adverbial accusative of location, telling where he was marching along. The term “house” is the genitive of location, giving the goal.
9 in the twilight, the evening, ▼
▼ Heb “in the evening of the day.”
in the dark of the night. ▼
▼ Heb “in the middle of the night, and dark”; KJV “in the black and dark night”; NRSV “at the time of night and darkness.”
10 Suddenly ▼
▼ The particle וְהִנֵּה (vehinneh) introduces a dramatic sense of the immediate to the narrative; it has a deictic force, “and look! – there was a woman,” or “all of a sudden this woman….”a woman came out to meet him!
She was dressed like a prostitute ▼
▼ Heb “with the garment of a prostitute.” The noun שִׁית (shith, “garment”) is an adverbial accusative specifying the appearance of the woman. The words “she was” are supplied in the translation to make a complete English sentence.and with secret intent. ▼
▼ Heb “kept secret of heart”; cf. ASV, NRSV “wily of heart.” The verbal form is the passive participle from נָצַר (natsar) in construct. C. H. Toy lists the suggestions of the commentators: false, malicious, secret, subtle, excited, hypocritical (Proverbs [ICC], 149). The LXX has “causes the hearts of the young men to fly away.” The verb means “to guard; to watch; to keep”; to be guarded of heart means to be wily, to have secret intent – she has locked up her plans and gives nothing away (e.g., Isaiah 48:6 as well). Interestingly enough, this contrasts with her attire which gives everything away.
11 (She is loud and rebellious,
▼ Heb “her feet.” This is a synecdoche, a part for the whole; the point is that she never stays home, but is out and about all the time.does not remain ▼
▼ Heb “dwell” or “settle”; NAB “her feet cannot rest.”at home –
12 at one time outside, at another ▼
▼ The repetition of the noun “time, step,” usually translated “now, this time,” signifies here “at one time…at another time” (BDB 822 s.v. פַּעַם 3.e).in the wide plazas,
and by every corner she lies in wait.)
13 So she grabbed him and kissed him,
and with a bold expression ▼
▼ Heb “she makes bold her face.” The Hiphil perfect of עָזַז (’azar, “to be strong”) means she has an impudent face (cf. KJV, NAB, NRSV), a bold or brazen expression (cf. NASB, NIV, NLT).she said to him,
14 “I have ▼
▼ Heb “with me.”fresh meat at home; ▼
▼ Heb “I have peace offerings.” The peace offerings refer to the meat left over from the votive offering made at the sanctuary (e.g., Lev 7:11–21). Apparently the sacrificial worship meant as little to this woman spiritually as does Christmas to modern hypocrites who follow in her pattern. By expressing that she has peace offerings, she could be saying nothing more than that she has fresh meat for a meal at home, or that she was ceremonially clean, perhaps after her period. At any rate, it is all probably a ruse for winning a customer.
today I have fulfilled my vows!
15 That is why I came out to meet you,
to look for you, ▼
▼ Heb “to look diligently for your face.”and I found you!
16 I have spread my bed with elegant coverings, ▼
▼ Heb “with spreads.” The sentence begins with the cognate accusative: “with spreads I have spread my bed.” The construction enhances the idea – she has covered her bed.
with richly colored fabric ▼
▼ The feminine noun means “dark-hued stuffs” (BDB 310 s.v. חֲטֻבוֹת). The form is a passive participle from a supposed root II חָטַב (khatav), which in Arabic means to be of a turbid, dusky color mixed with yellowish red. Its Aramaic cognate means “variegated”; cf. NAB “with brocaded cloths of Egyptian linen.” BDB’s translation of this colon is unsatifactory: “with dark hued stuffs of yarn from Egypt.”from Egypt.
17 I have perfumed my bed
with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon.
18 Come, let’s drink deeply ▼
▼ The form נִרְוֶה (nirveh) is the plural cohortative; following the imperative “come” the form expresses the hortatory “let’s.” The verb means “to be saturated; to drink one’s fill,” and can at times mean “to be intoxicated with.”of lovemaking ▼
▼ Heb “loves.” The word דּוֹד (dod) means physical love or lovemaking. It is found frequently in the Song of Solomon for the loved one, the beloved. Here the form (literally, “loves”) is used in reference to multiple acts of sexual intercourse, as the phrase “until morning” suggests.until morning,
let’s delight ourselves ▼
▼ The form is the Hitpael cohortative of עָלַס (’alas), which means “to rejoice.” Cf. NIV “let’s enjoy ourselves.”with sexual intercourse. ▼
▼ Heb “with love.”
19 For my husband ▼
▼ Heb “the man.” The LXX interpreted it as “my husband,” taking the article to be used as a possessive. Many English versions do the same.is not at home; ▼
▼ Heb “in his house.”
he has gone on a journey of some distance.
20 He has taken a bag of money with him; ▼
▼ Heb “in his hand.”
he will not return until ▼
▼ Heb “he will come back at.”the end of the month.” ▼
21 She persuaded him ▼
▼ Heb “she turned him aside.” This expression means that she persuaded him. This section now begins the description of the capitulation, for the flattering speech is finished.with persuasive words; ▼
▼ The term לֶקַח (leqakh) was used earlier in Proverbs for wise instruction; now it is used ironically for enticement to sin (see D. W. Thomas, “Textual and Philological Notes on Some Passages in the Book of Proverbs,” VTSup 3 : 280-92).
with her smooth talk ▼
▼ Heb “smooth of her lips”; cf. NAB “smooth lips”; NASB “flattering lips.” The term “lips” is a metonymy of cause representing what she says.she compelled him. ▼
▼ The verb means “to impel; to thrust; to banish,” but in this stem in this context “to compel; to force” into some action. The imperfect tense has the nuance of progressive imperfect to parallel the characteristic perfect of the first colon.
22 Suddenly he went ▼
▼ The participle with “suddenly” gives a more vivid picture, almost as if to say “there he goes.”after her
like an ox that goes to the slaughter,
like a stag prancing into a trapper’s snare ▼
▼ The present translation follows R. B. Y. Scott (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes [AB], 64). This third colon of the verse would usually be rendered, “fetters to the chastening of a fool” (KJV, ASV, and NASB are all similar). But there is no support that עֶכֶס (’ekhes) means “fetters.” It appears in Isaiah 3:16 as “anklets.” The parallelism here suggests that some animal imagery is required. Thus the ancient versions have “as a dog to the bonds.”
23 till an arrow pierces his liver ▼
▼ The figure of an arrow piercing the liver (an implied comparison) may refer to the pangs of a guilty conscience that the guilty must reap along with the spiritual and physical ruin that follows (see on these expressions H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament).–
like a bird hurrying into a trap,
and he does not know that it will cost him his life. ▼
24 So now, sons, ▼
▼ The literal translation “sons” works well here in view of the warning. Cf. KJV, NAB, NRSV “children.”listen to me,
and pay attention to the words I speak. ▼
▼ Heb “the words of my mouth.”
25 Do not let your heart turn aside to her ways –
do not wander into her pathways;
26 for she has brought down ▼
▼ Heb “she has caused to fall.”many fatally wounded,
and all those she has slain are many. ▼
▼ Heb “numerous” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT) or “countless.”
27 Her house is the way to the grave, ▼
▼ The noun “Sheol” in parallelism to “the chambers of death” probably means the grave. The noun is a genitive of location, indicating the goal of the road(s). Her house is not the grave; it is, however, the sure way to it.▼
▼ Her house is the way to the grave. The young man’s life is not destroyed in one instant; it is taken from him gradually as he enters into a course of life that will leave him as another victim of the wages of sin. The point of the warning is to prevent such a course from starting. Sin can certainly be forgiven, but the more involvement in this matter the greater the alienation from the healthy community.
going down ▼
▼ The Qal active participle modifies “ways” to Sheol. The “road,” as it were, descends to the place of death.to the chambers ▼
▼ “Chambers” is a hypocatastasis, comparing the place of death or the grave with a bedroom in the house. It plays on the subtlety of the temptation. Cf. NLT “Her bedroom is the den of death.”of death.
The Appeal of Wisdom▼
▼ In this chapter wisdom is personified. In 1:20–33 wisdom proclaims her value, and in 3:19–26 wisdom is the agent of creation. Such a personification has affinities with the wisdom literature of the ancient Near East, and may have drawn on some of that literature, albeit with appropriate safeguards (Claudia V. Camp, Wisdom and the Feminine in the Book of Proverbs, 23–70). Wisdom in Proverbs 8, however, is not a deity like Egypt’s Ma`at or the Assyrian-Babylonian Ishtar. It is simply presented as if it were a self-conscious divine being distinct but subordinate to God; but in reality it is the personification of the attribute of wisdom displayed by God (R. B. Y. Scott, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes [AB], 69-72; and R. Marcus, “On Biblical Hypostases of Wisdom,” HUCA 23 [1950-1951]: 157-71). Many have equated wisdom in this chapter with Jesus Christ. This connection works only in so far as Jesus reveals the nature of the Father, just as Proverbs presents wisdom as an attribute of God. Jesus’ claims included wisdom (Matt 12:42) and a unique knowledge of God (Matt 11:25–27). He even personified wisdom in a way that was similar to Proverbs (Matt 11:19). Paul saw the fulfillment of wisdom in Christ (Col 1:15–20; 2:3) and affirmed that Christ became our wisdom in the crucifixion (1 Cor 1:24, 30). So this personification in Proverbs provides a solid foundation for the similar revelation of wisdom in Christ. But because wisdom is a creation of God in Proverbs 8, it is unlikely that wisdom here is to be identified with Jesus Christ. The chapter unfolds in three cycles: After an introduction (1–3), wisdom makes an invitation (4, 5) and explains that she is noble, just, and true (6–9); she then makes another invitation (10) and explains that she is valuable (11–21); and finally, she tells how she preceded and delights in creation (22–31) before concluding with the third invitation (32–36).
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