Psalms 133

1Look! How good and how pleasant it is
when brothers live together!
This statement refers to the extended family structure of ancient Israel, where brothers would often live in proximity to one another (Deut 25:5), giving the family greater social prominence and security. However, in its later application in the Israelite cult it probably envisions unity within the covenant community. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101–150 (WBC), 212-15.

2 It is like fine oil poured on the head
which flows down the beard
Heb “[it is] like the good oil on the head, going down on the beard.”

Aaron’s beard,
and then flows down his garments.
Heb “which goes down in accordance with his measured things.” The Hebrew phrase מִדּוֹתָיו (middotayv, “his measured things”) refers here to the robes worn by Aaron. HALOT 546 s.v. *מַד derives the form from מַד (midah, “robe”) rather than מִדָּה (middah, “measured thing”). Ugaritic md means “robe” and is pluralized mdt.

It is like the dew of Hermon,
Hermon refers to Mount Hermon, located north of Israel.

which flows down upon the hills of Zion.
The hills of Zion are those surrounding Zion (see Pss 87:1; 125:2). The psalmist does not intend to suggest that the dew from Mt. Hermon in the distant north actually flows down upon Zion. His point is that the same kind of heavy dew that replenishes Hermon may also be seen on Zion’s hills. See A. Cohen, Psalms (SoBB), 439. “Dew” here symbolizes divine blessing, as the next line suggests.

Or “for.”
that is where the Lord has decreed
a blessing will be available – eternal life.
Heb “there the Lord has commanded the blessing, life forever.”

Psalm 134

Psalm 134. The psalmist calls on the temple servants to praise God (vv. 1–2). They in turn pronounce a blessing on the psalmist (v. 3).

A song of ascents.

The precise significance of this title, which appears in Pss 120–134, is unclear. Perhaps worshipers recited these psalms when they ascended the road to Jerusalem to celebrate annual religious festivals. For a discussion of their background see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101–150 (WBC), 219-21.
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