Revelation of John 10
The Angel with the Little Scroll1 Then ▼ I saw another powerful angel descending from heaven, wrapped ▼
▼ Or “clothed.”in a cloud, with a rainbow above his head; his face was like the sun and his legs were like pillars of fire. ▼
▼ Or “like fiery pillars,” translating πυρός (puros) as an attributive genitive.2 He held ▼
▼ Grk “and having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”in his hand a little scroll that was open, and he put his right foot on the sea and his left on the land. 3 Then ▼ he shouted in a loud voice like a lion roaring, and when he shouted, the seven thunders sounded their voices. 4 When the seven thunders spoke, I was preparing to write, but ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.just then ▼
▼ The words “just then” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.I heard a voice from heaven say, “Seal up what the seven thunders spoke and do not write it down.” 5 Then ▼ the angel I saw standing on the sea and on the land raised his right hand to heaven 6 and swore by the one who lives forever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, and the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, “There will be no more delay! ▼
▼ On this phrase see BDAG 1092 s.v. χρόνος.7 But in the days ▼
▼ Grk “But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel.”when the seventh angel is about to blow his trumpet, the mystery of God is completed, ▼
▼ The aorist ἐτελέσθη (etelesqē) has been translated as a proleptic (futuristic) aorist (ExSyn 564 cites this verse as an example).just as he has ▼
▼ The time of the action described by the aorist εὐηγγέλισεν (euēngelisen) seems to be past with respect to the aorist passive ἐτελέσθη (etelesqē). This does not require that the prophets in view here be OT prophets. They may actually refer to the martyrs in the church (so G. B. Caird, Revelation [HNTC], 129).proclaimed to his servants ▼ the prophets.” 8 Then ▼ the voice I had heard from heaven began to speak ▼
▼ The participle λαλοῦσαν (lalousan) has been translated as “began to speak.” The use of πάλιν (palin) indicates an ingressive idea.to me ▼
▼ Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met’ emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”again, ▼
▼ Grk “again, saying.” The participle λέγουσαν (legousan) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.“Go and take the open ▼
▼ The perfect passive participle ἠνεῳγμένον (ēneōgmenon) is in second attributive position and has been translated as an attributive adjective.scroll in the hand of the angel who is standing on the sea and on the land.” 9 So ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the instructions given by the voice.I went to the angel and asked him to give me the little scroll. He ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.said to me, “Take the scroll ▼
▼ The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.and eat it. It ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.will make your stomach bitter, but it will be as sweet as honey in your mouth.” 10 So ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the instructions given by the angel.I took the little scroll from the angel’s hand and ate it, and it did taste ▼
▼ Grk “it was.” The idea of taste is implied.as sweet as honey in my mouth, but ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.when I had eaten it, my stomach became bitter. 11 Then ▼ they ▼
▼ The referent of “they” is not clear in the Greek text.told me: “You must prophesy again about many peoples, nations, ▼
▼ Grk “and nations,” but καί (kai) has not been translated here or before the next item since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.languages, and kings.”
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