Revelation of John 4After these things I looked, and there was ▼
▼ Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).a door standing open in heaven! ▼
▼ Or “in the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).And the first voice I had heard speaking to me ▼
▼ Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met’ emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”like a trumpet ▼ said: “Come up here so that ▼
▼ The conjunction καί (kai), much like the vav-consecutive in Hebrew, appears to be introducing a final/purpose clause here rather than a coordinate clause.I can show you what must happen after these things.” 1 Immediately I was in the Spirit, ▼
▼ Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).and ▼
▼ Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).a throne was standing ▼
▼ BDAG 537 s.v. κεῖμαι 2 gives the translation “stand” for the term in this verse.in heaven with someone seated on it! 2 And the one seated on it was like jasper ▼
▼ Grk “jasper stone.”▼
▼ Jasper was a semiprecious gemstone, probably green in color (L&N 2.30).and carnelian ▼
▼ Carnelian was a semiprecious gemstone, usually red in color (L&N 2.36).in appearance, and a rainbow looking like it was made of emerald ▼
▼ Or “a rainbow emerald-like in appearance.”encircled the throne. 3 In ▼ a circle around the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on those thrones were twenty-four elders. They were ▼
▼ Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were” to indicate the connection to the preceding material.dressed in white clothing and had golden crowns ▼ on their heads. 4 From ▼ the throne came out flashes of lightning and roaring ▼ and crashes of thunder. Seven flaming torches, which are the seven spirits of God, ▼
▼ Some interpret the seven spirits of God as angelic beings, while others see them as a reference to the sevenfold ministry of the Holy Spirit.were burning in front of the throne 5 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. ▼
▼ This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.
In ▼ the middle of the throne ▼
▼ Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).and around the throne were four living creatures ▼ full of eyes in front and in back. 6 The ▼ first living creature was like a lion, the ▼
▼ Both here and before the phrase “the third,” καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. 7 Each one of the four living creatures had six wings ▼
▼ Grk “six wings apiece,” but this is redundant with “each one” in English.and was full of eyes all around and inside. ▼
▼ Some translations render ἔσωθεν (esōqen) as “under [its] wings,” but the description could also mean “filled all around on the outside and on the inside with eyes.” Since the referent is not available to the interpreter, the exact force is difficult to determine.They never rest day or night, saying: ▼
▼ Or “They never stop saying day and night.”
“Holy Holy Holy is the Lord God, the All-Powerful, ▼ ▼
Who was and who is, and who is still to come!”
8 And whenever the living creatures give glory, honor, ▼
▼ Here καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.and thanks to the one who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, 9 the twenty-four elders throw themselves to the ground ▼
▼ Grk “the twenty-four elders fall down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”before the one who sits on the throne and worship the one who lives forever and ever, and they offer their crowns ▼ before his ▼
▼ The pronoun “his” is understood from the demonstrative force of the article τοῦ (tou) before θρόνου (qronou).throne, saying:
10 “You are worthy, our Lord and God,
to receive glory and honor and power,
since you created all things,
and because of your will they existed and were created!” ▼
▼ The past tense of “they existed” (ἦσαν, ēsan) and the order of the expression “they existed and were created” seems backwards both logically and chronologically. The text as it stands is the more difficult reading and seems to have given rise to codex A omitting the final “they were created,” 2329 replacing “they existed” (ἦσαν) with “have come into being” (ἐγένοντο, egeneto), and 046 adding οὐκ (ouk, “not”) before ἦσαν (“they did not exist, [but were created]”). Several mss (1854 2050 Maj.A sa) also attempt to alleviate the problem by replacing ἦσαν with “they are” (εἰσιν, eisin).
The Opening of the Scroll
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