Conduct Toward Those Outside the Church1 Remind them to be subject to rulers and ▼
▼ Most later witnesses (D2 0278 Maj. lat sy) have καί (kai, “and”) after ἀρχαῖς (archais, “rulers”), though the earliest and best witnesses (א A C D* F G Ψ 33 104 1739 1881) lack the conjunction. Although the καί is most likely not authentic, it has been added in translation due to the requirements of English style. For more discussion, see TCGNT 586.authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work. 2 They must not slander ▼
▼ Or “discredit,” “damage the reputation of.”anyone, but be peaceable, gentle, showing complete courtesy to all people. 3 For we too were once foolish, disobedient, misled, enslaved to various passions and desires, spending our lives in evil and envy, hateful and hating one another. 4 ▼ But “when the kindness of God our Savior and his love for mankind appeared, 5 he saved us not by works of righteousness that we have done but on the basis of his mercy, through the washing of the new birth and the renewing of the Holy Spirit, 6 whom he poured out on us in full measure ▼
▼ Or “on us richly.”through Jesus Christ our Savior. 7 And so, ▼ since we have been justified by his grace, we become heirs with the confident expectation of eternal life.” ▼
▼ Grk “heirs according to the hope of eternal life.”
Summary of the Letter8 This saying ▼ is trustworthy, and I want you to insist on such truths, ▼
▼ Grk “concerning these things.”so that those who have placed their faith in God may be intent on engaging in good works. These things are good and beneficial for all people. 9 But avoid foolish controversies, genealogies, ▼ quarrels, and fights about the law, ▼ because they are useless and empty. 10 Reject a divisive person after one or two warnings. 11 You know ▼
▼ Grk “knowing” (as a continuation of the previous clause).that such a person is twisted by sin ▼
▼ Grk “is perverted and is sinning.”and is conscious of it himself. ▼
▼ Grk “is sinning, being self-condemned.”
Final Instructions and Greeting12 When I send Artemas or Tychicus to you, do your best to come to me at Nicopolis, for I have decided to spend the winter there. 13 Make every effort to help ▼
▼ Grk “Eagerly help.”Zenas the lawyer ▼
▼ Although it is possible the term νομικός (nomikos) indicates an expert in Jewish religious law here, according to L&N 33.338 and 56.37 it is more probable that Zenas was a specialist in civil law.and Apollos on their way; make sure they have what they need. ▼
▼ Grk “that nothing may be lacking for them.”14 Here is another way that our people ▼
▼ Grk “that those who are ours” (referring to the Christians).can learn ▼
▼ Grk “and also let our people learn.”to engage in good works to meet pressing needs and so not be unfruitful. 15 Everyone with me greets you. Greet those who love us in the faith. ▼
▼ Or “faithfully.”Grace be with you all. ▼
▼ Most witnesses (א2 D1 F G H Ψ 0278 Maj. lat sy bo) conclude this letter with ἀμήν (amēn, “amen”). Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, early and excellent witnesses (א* A C D* 048 33 81 1739 1881 sa) lack the particle, rendering the omission the preferred reading.
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