1 John 4

Beloved ( αγαπητο ). Three times in this chapter (1,7,11) we have this tender address on love.

Believe not every spirit ( μη παντ πνευματ πιστευετε ). "Stop believing," as some were clearly carried away by the spirits of error rampant among them, both Docetic and Cerinthian Gnostics. Credulity means gullibility and some believers fall easy victims to the latest fads in spiritualistic humbuggery.

Prove the spirits ( δοκιμαζετε τα πνευματα ). Put them to the acid test of truth as the metallurgist does his metals. If it stands the test like a coin, it is acceptable ( δοκιμος, 2Co 10:18), otherwise it is rejected ( αδοκιμος, 1Co 9:27; 2Co 13:5-7).

Many false prophets ( πολλο ψευδοπροφητα ). Jesus had warned people against them (Mt 7:15), even when they as false Christs work portents (Mt 24:11,24; Mr 13:22). It is an old story (Lu 6:26) and recurs again and again (Ac 13:6; Re 16:13; 19:20; 20:10) along with false teachers (2Pe 2:1).

Are gone out ( εξεληλυθασιν ). Perfect active indicative of  εξερχομα. Cf. aorist in 2:19. They are abroad always.

Hereby know ye ( εν τουτω γινωσκετε ). Either present active indicative or imperative. The test of "the Spirit of God" ( το πνευμα του θεου ) here alone in this Epistle, save verse 13. With the clamour of voices then and now this is important. The test ( εν τουτω, as in 3:19) follows.

That Jesus Christ is come in the flesh ( Ιησουν Χριστον εν σαρκ εληλυθοτα ). The correct text (perfect active participle predicate accusative), not the infinitive ( εληλυθενα, B Vg). The predicate participle (see Joh 9:22 for predicate accusative with  ομολογεω ) describes Jesus as already come in the flesh (his actual humanity, not a phantom body as the Docetic Gnostics held). See this same idiom in 2Jo 1:7 with  ερχομενον (coming). A like test is proposed by Paul for confessing the deity of Jesus Christ in 1Co 12:3 and for the Incarnation and Resurrection of Jesus in Ro 10:6-10.

Confesseth not ( μη ομολογε ). Indefinite relative clause with the subjective negative  μη rather than the usual objective negative  ου (verse 6). It is seen also in 2Pe 1:9; Tit 1:11, a survival of the literary construction (Moulton, Prolegomena, p. 171). The Vulgate (along with Irenaeus, Tertullian, Augustine) reads solvit ( λυε ) instead of  μη ομολογε, which means "separates Jesus," apparently an allusion to the Cerinthian heresy (distinction between Jesus and Christ) as the clause before refers to the Docetic heresy. Many MSS. have here also  εν σαρκ εληλυθοτα repeated from preceding clause, but not A B Vg Cop. and not genuine.

The spirit of the antichrist ( το του αντιχριστου ).  Πνευμα (spirit) not expressed, but clearly implied by the neuter singular article to. It is a repetition of the point about antichrists made in 2:18-25.

Whereof ( ο ). Accusative of person (grammatical neuter referring to  πνευμα ) with  ακουω along with accusative of the thing ( οτ ερχετα, as in 2:18, futuristic present middle indicative). Here the perfect active indicative ( ακηκοατε ), while in 2:18 the aorist ( ηκουσατε ).

And now already ( κα νυν ηδη ). As in 2:18 also (many have come). "The prophecy had found fulfilment before the Church had looked for it" (Westcott). It is often so. For  ηδη see Joh 4:35; 9:27.

Have overcome them ( νενικηκατε αυτους ). Perfect active indicative of  νικαω, calm confidence of final victory as in 2:13; Joh 16:33. The reference in  αυτους (them) is to the false prophets in 4:1.

Because ( οτ ). The reason for the victory lies in God, who abides in them (3:20,24; Joh 14:20; 15:4f.). God is greater than Satan, "he that is in the world" ( ο εν τω κοσμω ), the prince of this world (Joh 12:31; 14:30), the god of this age (2Co 4:4), powerful as he seems.

Of the world ( εκ του κοσμου ). As Jesus is not and as the disciples are not (Joh 17:14ff.).

As of the world ( εκ του κοσμου ). No "as" ( ως ), but that is the idea, for their talk proceeds from the world and wins a ready hearing. The false prophets and the world are in perfect unison.

We ( ημεις ). In sharp contrast with the false prophets and the world. We are in tune with the Infinite God. Hence "he that knoweth God" ( ο γινωσκων τον θεον, present active articular participle, the one who keeps on getting acquainted with God, growing in his knowledge of God) "hears us" ( ακουε ημων ). This is one reason why sermons are dull (some actually are, others so to dull hearers) or inspiring. There is a touch of mysticism here, to be sure, but the heart of Christianity is mysticism (spiritual contact with God in Christ by the Holy Spirit). John states the same idea negatively by a relative clause parallel with the preceding articular participle, the negative with both clauses. John had felt the cold, indifferent, and hostile stare of the worldling as he preached Jesus.

By this ( εκ τουτου ). "From this," deduction drawn from the preceding; only example in the Epistle for the common  εν τουτω as in 4:2. The power of recognition ( γινωσκομεν, we know by personal experience) belongs to all believers (Westcott). There is no reason for Christians being duped by "the spirit of error" ( το πνευμα της πλανης ), here alone in the N.T., though we have  πνευμασιν πλανοις (misleading spirits) in 1Ti 4:1. Rejection of the truth may be due also to our not speaking the truth in love (Eph 4:15).

Of God ( εκ του θεου ). Even human love comes from God, "a reflection of something in the Divine nature itself" (Brooke). John repeats the old commandment of 2:7f. Persistence in loving (present tense  αγαπωμεν indicative and  αγαπων participle) is proof that one "has been begotten of God" ( εκ του θεου γεγεννητα as in 2:29) and is acquainted with God. Otherwise mere claim to loving God accompanied by hating one's brother is a lie (2:9-11).

He that loveth not ( ο μη αγαπων ). Present active articular participle of  αγαπαω "keeps on not loving."

Knoweth not God ( ουκ εγνω τον θεον ). Timeless aorist active indicative of  γινωσκω, has no acquaintance with God, never did get acquainted with him.

God is love ( ο θεος αγαπη εστιν ). Anarthrous predicate, not  η αγαπη. John does not say that love is God, but only that God is love. The two terms are not interchangeable. God is also light (1:5) and spirit (Joh 4:24).

Was manifested ( εφανερωθη ). First aorist passive indicative of  φανεροω. The Incarnation as in 3:5. Subjective genitive as in 2:5.

In us ( εν ημιν ). In our case, not "among us" nor "to us." Cf. Ga 1:16.

Hath sent ( απεσταλκεν ). Perfect active indicative of  αποστελλω, as again in verse 14, the permanent mission of the Son, though in verse 10 the aorist  απεστειλεν occurs for the single event. See Joh 3:16 for this great idea.

His only-begotten Son ( τον υιον αυτου τον μονογενη ). "His Son the only-begotten" as in Joh 3:16. John applies  μονογενης to Jesus alone (Joh 1:14,18), but Luke (Lu 7:12; 8:42; 9:38) to others. Jesus alone completely reproduces the nature and character of God (Brooke).

That we might live through him ( ινα ζησωμεν δι' αυτου ). Purpose clause with  ινα and the first aorist (ingressive, get life) active subjunctive of  ζαω. "Through him" is through Christ, who is the life (Joh 14:6). Christ also lives in us (Ga 2:20). This life begins here and now.

Not that ( ουχ οτ )

--but that ( αλλ' οτ ). Sharp contrast as in Joh 7:22; 2Co 7:9; Php 4:17.

We loved ( ηγαπησαμεν ). First aorist active indicative, but B reads  ηγαπηκαμεν (perfect active, we have loved).

He ( αυτος ). Emphatic nominative (God).

To be the propitiation ( ιλασμον ). Merely predicate accusative in apposition with  υιον (Son). For the word see 2:2; Ro 3:25 for  ιλαστηριον, and for  περ see also 2:2.

If God so loved us ( ε ουτως ο θεος ηγαπησεν ημας ). Condition of first class with  ε and the first aorist active indicative. As in Joh 3:16, so here  ουτως emphasises the manifestation of God's love both in its manner and in its extent (Ro 8:32).

Ought ( οφειλομεν ). As in 2:6. Noblesse oblige. "Keep on loving," ( αγαπαιν ) as in 3:11.

No one hath beheld God at any time ( θεον ουδεις πωποτε τεθεατα ). Perfect middle indicative of  θεαομα (Joh 1:14). Almost the very words of Joh 1:18  θεον ουδεις πωποτε εωρακεν (instead of  τεθεατα ).

If we love one another ( εαν αγαπωμεν αλληλους ). Third-class condition with  εαν and the present active subjunctive, "if we keep on loving one another."

God abideth in us ( ο θεος εν ημιν μενε ). Else we cannot go on loving one another.

His love ( η αγαπη αυτου ). More than merely subjective or objective (2:5; 4:9). "Mutual love is a sign of the indwelling of God in men" (Brooke).

Is perfected ( τετελειωμενη εστιν ). Periphrastic (see usual form  τετελειωτα in 2:5; 4:17) perfect passive indicative of  τελειοω (cf. 1:4). See verse 18 for "perfect love."

Hereby know we ( εν τουτω γινωσκομεν ). The Christian's consciousness of the fact of God dwelling in him is due to the Spirit of God whom God has given ( δεδωκεν, perfect active indicative here, though the aorist  εδωκεν in 3:24). This gift of God is proof of our fellowship with God.

We have beheld ( τεθεαμεθα ). Perfect middle of  θεαομα as in verse 12, though the aorist in 1:1; Joh 1:14 ( εθεασαμεθα ). John is qualified to bear witness ( μαρτυρουμεν as in 1:2) as Jesus had charged the disciples to do (Ac 1:8).

Hath sent ( απεσταλκεν ). As in verse 9, though  απεστειλεν in verse 10.

To be the Saviour of the world ( σωτηρα του κοσμου ). Predicate accusative of  σωτηρ (Saviour), like  ιλασμον in verse 10. This very phrase occurs elsewhere only in Joh 4:42 as the confession of the Samaritans, but the idea is in Joh 3:17.

Whosoever shall confess ( ος εαν ομολογηση ). Indefinite relative clause with modal  εαν (=an) and the first aorist active subjunctive, "whoever confesses." See 2:23; 4:2f. for  ομολογεω.

That ( οτ ). Object clause (indirect assertion) after  ομολογεω. This confession of the deity of Jesus Christ implies surrender and obedience also, not mere lip service (cf. 1Co 12:3; Ro 10:6-12). This confession is proof (if genuine) of the fellowship with God (1:3f.; 3:24).

We know ( εγνωκαμεν ). Perfect active indicative, "we have come to know and still know" as in Joh 6:9, only there order is changed ( πεπιστευκαμεν coming before  εγνωκαμεν ). Confession ( ομολογεω ) follows experimental knowledge ( γινωσκω ) and confident trust ( πιστευω ). Believers are the sphere ( εν ημιν, in our case) in which the love of God operates (Westcott). See Joh 13:35 for "having love."

God is love ( ο θεος αγαπη εστιν ). Repeated from verse 8. So he gathers up the whole argument that one who is abiding in love is abiding in God and shows that God is abiding in him. Thoroughly Johannine style.

Herein ( εν τουτω ). It is not clear whether the  ινα clause (sub-final use) is in apposition with  εν τουτω as in Joh 15:8 or the  οτ clause (because) with the  ινα clause as parenthesis. Either makes sense. Westcott argues for the latter idea, which is reinforced by the preceding sentence.

With us ( μεθ' ημων ). Construed with the verb  τετελειωτα (is perfected). In contrast to  εν ημιν (verses 12,16), emphasising cooperation. "God works with man" (Westcott). For boldness ( παρρησιαν ) in the day of judgment (only here with both articles, but often with no articles as in 2Pe 2:9) see 2:28.

As he is ( καθως εκεινος εστιν ). That is Christ as in 2:6; 3:3,5,7,16. Same tense (present) as in 3:7. "Love is a heavenly visitant" (David Smith). We are in this world to manifest Christ.

Fear ( φοβος ). Like a bond-slave (Ro 8:15), not the reverence of a son ( ευλαβεια, Heb 5:7f.) or the obedience to a father ( εν φοβω, 1Pe 1:17). This kind of dread is the opposite of  παρρησια (boldness).

Perfect love ( η τελεια αγαπη ). There is such a thing, perfect because it has been perfected (verses 12,17). Cf. Jas 1:4.

Casteth out fear ( εξω βαλλε τον φοβον ). "Drives fear out" so that it does not exist in real love. See  εκβαλλω εξω in Joh 6:37; 9:34f.; 12:31; 15:6 to turn out-of-doors, a powerful metaphor. Perfect love harbours no suspicion and no dread (1Co 13).

Hath punishment ( κολασιν εχε ). Old word, in N.T. only here and Mt 25:46.  Τιμωρια has only the idea of penalty,  κολασις has also that of discipline, while  παιδεια has that of chastisement (Heb 12:7). The one who still dreads ( φοβουμενος ) has not been made perfect in love ( ου τετελειωτα ). Bengel graphically describes different types of men: "sine timore et amore; cum timore sine amore; cum timore et amore; sine timore cum amore."

He first ( αυτος πρωτος ). Note  πρωτος (nominative), not  πρωτον, as in Joh 20:4,8. God loved us

before we loved him (Joh 3:16). Our love is in response to his love for us.  Αγαπωμεν is indicative (we love), not subjunctive (let us love) of the same form. There is no object expressed here.

If a man say ( εαν τις ειπη ). Condition of third class with  εαν and second aorist active subjunctive. Suppose one say. Cf. 1:6.

I love God ( Αγαπω τον θεον ). Quoting an imaginary disputant as in 2:4.

And hateth ( κα μισε ). Continuation of the same condition with  εαν and the present active subjunctive, "and keep on hating." See 2:9; 3:15 for use of  μισεω (hate) with  αδελφος (brother). A liar ( ψευστης ). Blunt and to the point as in 1:10; 2:4.

That loveth not ( ο μη αγαπων ). "The one who does not keep on loving" (present active negative articular participle).

Hath seen ( εωρακεν ). Perfect active indicative of  οραω, the form in Joh 1:18 used of seeing God.

Cannot love ( ου δυνατα αγαπαιν ). "Is not able to go on loving," with which compare 2:9,  ου δυνατα αμαρτανειν (is not able to go on sinning). The best MSS. do not have  πως (how) here.

That ( ινα ). Sub-final object clause in apposition with  εντολην as in Joh 13:34; 15:13.

From him ( απ' αυτου ). Either God or Christ. See Mr 12:29-31 for this old commandment (2:7f.).

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