1 Timothy 1
According to the commandment ( κατ' επιταγην ). A late Koine word (Polybius, Diodorus), but a Pauline word also in N.T. This very idiom ("by way of command") in 1Co 7:6; 2Co 8:8; Ro 16:26; 1Ti 1:1; Tit 1:3. Paul means to say that he is an apostle under orders.
Of God our Saviour ( θεου σωτηρος ημων ). Genitive case with επιταγην. In the LXX σωτηρ (old word from σωζω for agent in saving, applied to deities, princes, kings, etc.) occurs 20 times, all but two to God. The Romans called the emperor "Saviour God." In the N.T. the designation of God as Saviour is peculiar to Lu 1:47; Jude 1:25; 1Ti 1:3; 2:3; 4:10; Tit 1:3; 2:10; 3:4. In the other Epistles Paul uses it of Christ (Php 3:20; Eph 5:23) as in 2Ti 1:10. In 2Pe 1:1 we have "our God and Saviour Jesus Christ" as in Tit 2:13.
Our hope ( της ελπιδος ημων ). Like Col 1:27. More than the author and object of hope, "its very substance and foundation" (Ellicott).
True ( γνησιω ). Legitimate, not spurious. Old word from γινομα, but Pauline only in N.T. (Php 4:3; 2Co 8:8; Tit 1:4). In Php 2:20 the adverb γνησιως occurs and of Timothy again.
Christ Jesus ( Χριστου Ιησου ). So twice already in verse 1 and as usual in the later Epistles (Col 1:1; Eph 1:1).
As I exhorted ( καθως παρεκαλεσα ). There is an ellipse of the principal clause in verse 4 ( so do I now not being in the Greek).
To tarry ( προσμεινα ). First aorist active infinitive of προσμενω, old verb, attributed by Luke to Paul in Ac 13:43.
That thou mightest charge ( ινα παραγγειληις ). Subfinal clause with ινα and the first aorist active subjunctive of παραγγελλω, old verb, to transmit a message along ( παρα ) from one to another. See 2Th 3:4,6,10. Lock considers this idiom here an elliptical imperative like Eph 4:29; 5:33.
Certain men ( τισιν ). Dative case. Expressly vague (no names as in 1:20), though Paul doubtless has certain persons in Ephesus in mind.
Not to teach a different doctrine ( μη ετεροδιδασκαλειν ). Earliest known use of this compound like κακοδιδασκαλειν of Clement of Rome. Only other N.T. example in 6:3. Eusebius has ετεροδιδασκαλος. Same idea in Ga 1:6; 2Co 11:4; Ro 16:17. Perhaps coined by Paul.
To give heed ( προσεχειν ). With νουν understood. Old and common idiom in N.T. especially in Luke and Acts (Ac 8:10ff.). Not in Paul's earlier Epistles. 1Ti 3:8; 4:1,13; Tit 1:14.
To fables ( μυθοις ). Dative case of old word for speech, narrative, story, fiction, falsehood. In N.T. only 2Pe 1:16; 1Ti 1:4; 4:7; Tit 1:14; 2Ti 4:4.
Genealogies ( γενεαλογιαις ). Dative of old word, in LXX, in N.T. only here and Tit 3:9.
Endless ( απεραντοις ). Old verbal compound (from α privative and περαινω, to go through), in LXX, only here in N.T. Excellent examples there for old words used only in the Pastorals because of the subject matter, describing the Gnostic emphasis on aeons.
Questionings ( εκζητησεις ). "Seekings out." Late and rare compound from εκζητεω (itself Koine word, Ro 3:11 from LXX and in papyri). Here only in N.T. Simplex ζητησις in Ac 15:2; 1Ti 6:4; Tit 3:9; 2Ti 2:23.
A dispensation ( οικονομιαν ). Pauline word (1Co 9:17; Col 1:25; Eph 1:9; 3:9; 1Ti 1:4), Lu 16:2-4 only other N.T. examples.
In faith ( εν πιστε ). Pauline use of πιστις.
The end ( το τελος ). See Ro 6:21; 10:4 for τελος (the good aimed at, reached, result, end).
Love ( αγαπη ). Not "questionings." Ro 13:9. "Three conditions for the growth of love" (Parry): "Out of a pure heart" ( εκ καθαρας καρδιας, O.T. conception), "and a good conscience" ( κα συνειδησεως αγαθης, for which see Ro 2:25), "and faith unfeigned" ( κα πιστεως ανυποκριτου, late compound verbal in 2Co 6:6; Ro 12:9).
Having swerved ( αστοχησαντες ). First aorist active participle of αστοχεω, compound Koine verb (Polybius, Plutarch) from αστοχος ( α privative and στοχος, a mark), "having missed the mark." In N.T. only here, 6:21; 2Ti 2:18. With the ablative case ων (which).
Have turned aside ( εξετραπησαν ). Second aorist passive indicative of εκτρεπω, old and common verb, to turn or twist out or aside. In medical sense in Heb 12:13. As metaphor in 1Ti 1:6; 6:20; 2Ti 4:4.
Vain talking ( ματαιολογιαν ). Late word from ματαιολογος, only here in N.T., in the literary Koine.
Teachers of the law ( νομοδιδασκαλο ). Compound only in N.T. (here, Lu 5:17; Ac 5:34) and ecclesiastical writers.
Though they understand ( νοουντες ). Concessive participle of νοεω, old verb (Eph 3:4,20).
Neither what ( μητε α ). Relative α (which things).
Nor whereof ( μητε περ τινων ). Here the interrogative τινων used in sense of relative ων. It may be regarded as the use of an indirect question for variety (Parry).
They confidently affirm ( διαβεβαιουντα ). Present middle indicative of the common Koine compound, in N.T. only here and Tit 3:8.
If a man use it lawfully ( εαν τις αυτω χρητα ). Condition of third class with εαν and present middle subjunctive of χραομα with instrumental case.
Is not made for ( ου κειτα ). The use of κειτα for τεθειτα (perfect passive of τιθημ ) is a common enough idiom. See the same point about law in Ga 18-23; Ro 13:13. For "knowing this" ( ειδως τουτο ) see Eph 5:5.
Unruly ( ανυποτακτοις ). Dative (like all these words) of the late verbal ( α privative and υποτασσω ). In N.T. only here, Tit 1:6,10; Heb 2:8.
Ungodly ( ασεβεσ ). See Ro 4:5; 5:6.
Sinners ( αμαρτωλοις ). See Ro 3:7.
Unholy ( ανοσιοις ). Common word ( α privative and οσιος. In N.T. only here and 2Ti 3:2.
Profane ( βεβηλοις ). Old word from βαινω, to go, and βηλος, threshold. See Heb 12:16.
Murderers of fathers ( πατρολωιαις ). Late form for common Attic πατραλωιαις (from πατηρ, father, and αλοιαω, to smite) only here in N.T.
Murderers of mothers ( μητρολωιαις ). Late form Attic μητραλωιαις. Only here in N.T.
Manslayers ( ανδραφονοις ). Old compound ( ανηρ, man, φονος, murder). Only here in N.T.
For abusers of themselves with men ( αρσενοκοιταις ). Late compound for sodomites. In N.T. only here and 1Co 6:9.
Men-stealers ( ανδραποδισταις ). Old word from ανδραποδιζω (from ανηρ, man, πους, foot, to catch by the foot), to enslave. So enslavers, whether kidnappers (men-stealers) of free men or stealers of the slaves of other men. So slave-dealers. By the use of this word Paul deals a blow at the slave-trade (cf. Philemon).
Liars ( ψευσταις ). Old word, see Ro 3:4.
False swearers ( επιορκοις ). Old word ( επι, ορκος, oath). Perjurers. Only here in N.T. For similar lists, see 1Co 5:11; 6:9f.; Ga 5:19f.; Ro 1:28f.; 13:13; Col 3:5; Eph 5:5; 2Ti 3:2f.
The sound doctrine ( τη υγιαινουση διδασκαλια ). Dative case after αντικειτα, for which verb see Ga 5:17 for the conflict between the Spirit and the flesh. "The healthful ( υγιαινω, old word for being well, as Lu 5:31; 3Jo 1:2, in figurative sense in N.T. only in the Pastorals) teaching." See Tit 1:9; 2Ti 4:3.
Of the blessed God ( του μακαριου θεου ). Applied to God only here and 6:15, but in Tit 2:13 μακαριος occurs with ελπις (hope) of the "epiphany of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ."
Which was committed to my trust ( ο επιστευθην εγω ). "with which ( ο accusative retained with first aorist passive verb επιστευθην ) I was entrusted."
I thank ( χαριν εχω ). "I have gratitude to." Common phrase (Lu 17:9), not elsewhere in Paul.
That enabled me ( τω ενδυναμωσαντ με ). First aorist active articular participle of ενδυναμοω. Late verb, but regular Pauline idiom (Ro 4:20; Php 4:13; Eph 6:10; 1Ti 1:12; 2Ti 4:17).
Appointing me to his service ( θεμενος εις διακονιαν ). Second aorist middle participle. Pauline phrase and atmosphere (Ac 20:24; 1Co 3:5; 12:18,28; 2Co 3:6; 4:1; Col 1:23; Eph. 3:7; 1Ti 4:6; 2Ti 4:5,11).
Before ( το προτερον ). Accusative of general reference of the articular comparative, "as to the former-time," formerly, as in Ga 4:13.
Though I was ( οντα ). Concessive participle agreeing with με.
Blasphemer ( βλασφημον ). Old word either from βλαξ (stupid) and φημη, speech, or from βλαπτω, to injure. Rare in N.T. but Paul uses βλασφημεω, to blaspheme in Ro 2:24.
Persecutor ( διωκτης ). So far found only here. Probably made by Paul from διωκω, which he knew well enough (Ac 22:4,7; 26:14f.; Ga 1:13,23; Php 3:6; 2Ti 3:12).
Injurious ( υβριστην ). Substantive, not adjective, "an insolent man." Old word from υβριζω, in N.T. only here and Ro 1:30.
I obtained mercy ( ελεηθην ). First aorist passive indicative of ελεεω, old verb. See 2Co 4:1; Ro 11:30f.
Ignorantly ( αγνοων ). Present active participle of αγνοεω, "not knowing." Old verb (Ro 2:4). In a blindness of heart.
In unbelief ( εν απιστια ). See Ro 11:20,25.
Abounded exceedingly ( υπερεπλεονασεν ). Aorist active indicative of the late and rare (So 5:19 and in Herond.) compound υπερπλεοναζω (here alone in N.T.), in later ecclesiastical writers. The simplex πλεοναζω Paul used in Ro 5:20; 6:1 and the kindred υπερεπερισσευσεν used also with η χαρις. Paul is fond of compounds with υπερ. For "faith in Christ Jesus" see Ga 3:26, for "faith and love in Christ Jesus" as here, see 2Ti 1:13.
Faithful is the saying ( πιστος ο λογος ). Five times in the Pastorals (1Ti 1:15; 3:1; 4:9; Tit 3:8; 2Ti 2:11). It will pay to note carefully πιστισ, πιστευω, πιστος. Same use of πιστος (trustworthy) applied to λογος in Tit 1:9; Re 21:5; 22:6. Here and probably in 2Ti 2:11 a definite saying seems to be referred to, possibly a quotation ( οτ ) of a current saying quite like the Johannine type of teaching. This very phrase (Christ coming into the world) occurs in Joh 9:37; 11:27; 16:28; 18:37. Paul, of course, had no access to the Johannine writings, but such "sayings" were current among the disciples. There is no formal quotation, but "the whole phrase implies a knowledge of Synoptic and Johannine language" (Lock) as in Lu 5:32; Joh 12:47.
Acceptation ( αποδοχης ). Genitive case with αξιος (worthy of). Late word (Polybius, Diod., Jos.) in N.T. only here and 4:9.
Chief ( πρωτος ). Not ην (I was), but ειμ (I am). "It is not easy to think of any one but St. Paul as penning these words" (White). In 1Co 15:9 he had called himself "the least of the apostles" ( ελαχιστος των αποστολων ). In Eph 3:8 he refers to himself as "the less than the least of all saints" ( τω ελαχιστοτερω παντων αγιων ). On occasion Paul would defend himself as on a par with the twelve apostles (Ga 2:6-10) and superior to the Judaizers (2Co 11:5f.; 12:11). It is not mock humility here, but sincere appreciation of the sins of his life (cf. Ro 7:24) as a persecutor of the church of God (Ga 1:13), of men and even women (Ac 22:4f.; 26:11). He had sad memories of those days.
In me as chief ( εν εμο πρωτω ). Probably starts with the same sense of πρωτος as in verse 15 (rank), but turns to order (first in line). Paul becomes the "specimen" sinner as an encouragement to all who come after him.
Might shew forth ( ενδειξητα ). First aorist middle subjunctive (purpose with ινα ) of ενδεικνυμ, to point out, for which see Eph 2:7 (same form with ινα ).
Longsuffering ( μακροθυμιαν ). Common Pauline word (2Co 6:6).
For an ensample ( προς υποτυπωσιν ). Late and rare word (in Galen, Sext. Emp., Diog. Laert., here only in N.T.) from late verb υποτυποω (in papyri) to outline. So substantive here is a sketch, rough outline. Paul is a sample of the kind of sinners that Jesus came to save. See υποδειγμα in 2Pe 2:6.
This noble doxology is a burst of gratitude for God's grace to Paul. For other doxologies see Ga 1:5; Ro 11:36; 16:27; Php 4:20; Eph 3:21; 1Ti 6:16. White suggests that Paul may have often used this doxology in his prayers. Lock suggests "a Jewish liturgical formula" (a needless suggestion in view of Paul's wealth of doxologies seen above). For God's creative activity (King of the ages) see 1Co 10:11; Eph 2:7; 3:9,11.
Incorruptible ( αφθαρτω ). As an epithet of God also in Ro 1:23.
Invisible ( αορατω ). Epithet of God in Col 1:15.
The only God ( μονω θεω ). So Ro 16:27; Joh 5:44; 17:3.
For ever and ever ( εις τους αιωνας των αιωνων ). "Unto the ages of ages." Cf. Eph 3:21 "of the age of the ages."
I commit ( παρατιθεμα ). Present middle indicative of old and common verb, to place beside ( παρα ) as food on table, in the middle to entrust (Lu 12:48) and used by Jesus as he was dying (Lu 23:46). Here it is a banking figure and repeated in 2Ti 2:2.
According to the prophecies which went before on thee ( κατα τας προαγουσας επ σε προφητειας ). Intransitive use of προαγω, to go before. When Timothy first comes before us (Ac 16:2) "he was testified to" ( εμαρτυρειτο ) by the brethren. He began his ministry rich in hopes, prayers, predictions.
That by them thou mayest war the good warfare ( ινα στρατευη εν αυταις την καλην στρατειαν ). Cognate accusative ( στρατειαν, old word from στρατευω, in N.T. only here and 2Co 4:4) with στρατευη (second person singular middle present subjunctive of στρατευω, old verb chiefly in Paul in N.T., 1Co 9:7; 2Co 10:3). As if in defensive armour.
Holding faith and a good conscience ( εχων πιστιν κα αγαθην συνειδησιν ). Possibly as a shield (Eph 6:16) or at any rate possessing (Ro 2:20) faith as trust and a good conscience. A leader expects them of his followers and must show them himself.
Having thrust from them ( απωσαμενο ). First aorist indirect middle participle of απωθεω, to push away from one. Old verb (see Ro 11:1f.).
Made shipwreck ( εναυαγησαν ). First aorist active indicative of ναυαγεω, old verb from ναυαγος (shipwrecked, ναυς, ship, αγνυμ, to break), to break a ship to pieces. In N.T. only here and 2Co 11:25.
Concerning the faith ( περ την πιστιν ). Rather, "concerning their faith" (the article here used as a possessive pronoun, a common Greek idiom).
Hymenaeus ( Hυμεναιος ). The same heretic reappears in 2Ti 2:17. He and Alexander are the chief "wreckers" of faith in Ephesus.
Alexander ( Αλεξανδρος ). Probably the same as the one in 2Ti 4:14, but not the Jew of that name in Ac 19:33, unless he had become a Christian since then.
I delivered unto Satan ( παρεδωκα τω Σατανα ). See this very idiom ( παραδουνα τω Σατανα ) in 1Co 5:5. It is a severe discipline of apostolic authority, apparently exclusion and more than mere abandonment (1Th 2:18; 1Co 5:11; 2Co 2:11), though it is an obscure matter.
That they might be taught not to blaspheme ( ινα παιδευθωσιν μη βλασφημειν ). Purpose clause with ινα and first aorist passive subjunctive of παιδευω. For this use of this common late verb, see 1Co 11:32; 2Co 6:9.
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