1 Timothy 2
First of all ( πρωτον παντων ). Take with παρακαλω. My first request (first in importance).
Intercessions ( εντευξεις ). Late word (Polybius, Plutarch, etc.), only here in N.T. and 4:5, though the verb εντυγχανω in Ro 8:27,34; 11:2,25. The other three words for prayer are common (Php 4:6).
For all men ( υπερ παντων ανθρωπων ). The scope of prayer is universal including all kinds of sinners (and saints).
For kings ( υπερ βασιλεων ). And this included Nero who had already set fire to Rome and laid it on the Christians whom he was also persecuting.
And all them that are in high place ( κα παντων των εν υπεροχη οντων ). Hυπεροχη is old word (from υπεροχος and this from υπερ and εχω ), but in N.T. only here and 1Co 2:1.
That we may lead ( ινα διαγωμεν ). Purpose clause with present active subjunctive of διαγω, an old and common verb, but in N.T. only here and Tit 3:3.
Tranquil ( ηρεμον ). Late adjective from the old adverb ηρεμα (stilly, quietly). Here only in N.T.
Quiet ( ησυχιον ). Old adjective, once in LXX (Isa 66:2), in N.T. only here and 1Pe 3:4.
Life ( βιον ). Old word for course of life (not ζωη ). So Lu 8:14.
Gravity ( σεμνοτητ ). Old word from σεμνος (Php 4:8), in N.T. only here, 3:4; Tit 2:7.
Acceptable ( αποδεκτον ). Late verbal adjective from αποδεχομα. In inscriptions and papyri. In N.T. only here and 5:4.
Willeth ( θελε ). God's wish and will in so far as he can influence men.
That all men should be saved ( παντας ανθρωπους σωθηνα ). First aorist passive infinitive of σωζω with accusative of general reference. See 1Co 10:33; 2Co 5:18f.
To the knowledge ( εις επιγνωσιν ). "The full knowledge" as in Col 1:6; Eph 4:13 (ten times in Paul). See 2Ti 3:7 for the whole phrase "full knowledge of the truth" ( αληθεια 14 times in the Pastorals). Paul is anxious as in Colossians and Ephesians that the Gnostics may not lead the people astray. They need the full intellectual apprehension of Christianity.
One God ( εις θεος ). Regular Pauline argument for a universal gospel (Ga 3:20; Ro 3:30; Eph 4:6).
One mediator ( εις μεσιτης ). Late word (Polybius, Philo) from μεσος (middle), a middle man. In N.T. only here, Ga 3:20; Heb 8:6; 9:15; 12:24.
Between God and men ( θεου κα ανθρωπων ). Ablative case (though objective genitive may explain it) after μεσιτης (notion of separation) as in Ro 10:12; Heb 5:14.
Himself man ( ανθρωπος ). No "himself" ( αυτος ) in the Greek.
A ransom for all ( αντιλυτρον υπερ παντων ). "A reminiscence of the Lord's own saying" (Lock) in Mt 20:28 (Mr 10:45) where we have λυτρον αντ πολλων. In the papyri υπερ is the ordinary preposition for the notion of substitution where benefit is involved as in this passage. Αντ has more the idea of exchange and αντιλυτρον υπερ combines both ideas. Λυτρον is the common word for ransom for a slave or a prisoner. Paul may have coined αντιλυτρον with the saying of Christ in mind (only one MS. of Ps 48:9 and Orph. Litt. 588). See Ga 1:4 "who gave himself for our sins."
The testimony ( το μαρτυριον ). Either the nominative absolute or the accusative absolute in apposition to the preceding clause like το αδυνατον in Ro 8:3.
In its own times ( καιροις ιδιοις ). Locative case as in 6:15; Tit 1:3. See Ga 6:9 for "due season." There is no predicate or participle here, "the testimony in its due seasons" (plural).
For which ( εις ο ). The testimony of Jesus in his self-surrender (verse 6). See εις ο in 2Ti 1:11.
I was appointed ( ετεθην εγω ). First aorist passive indicative of τιθημ.
Preacher and apostle ( κηρυξ κα αποστολος ). In 2Ti 1:10 Paul adds διδασκαλος (herald, apostle, teacher) as he does here with emphasis. In Col 1:23f. he has διακονος (minister). He frequently uses κηρυσσω of himself (1Co 1:23; 9:27; Ga 2:2; Ro 10:8f.).
I speak the truth, I lie not ( αληθειαν λεγω, ου ψευδομα ). A Pauline touch (Ro 9:1). Cf. Ga 1:20; 2Co 11:31. Here alone he calls himself "a teacher of the Gentiles," elsewhere apostle (Ro 11:13), minister (Ro 15:16), prisoner (Eph 3:1).
I desire ( βουλομα ). So Php 1:12.
The men ( τους ανδρας ). Accusative of general reference with the infinitive προσευχεσθα. The men in contrast to "women" ( γυναικας ) in 9. It is public worship, of course, and "in every place" ( εν παντ τοπω ) for public worship. Many modern Christians feel that there were special conditions in Ephesus as in Corinth which called for strict regulations on the women that do not always apply now.
Lifting up holy hands ( επαιροντας οσιους χειρας ). Standing to pray. Note also οσιους used as feminine (so in Plato) with χειρας instead of οσιας. The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up "clean hands" (morally and spiritually clean). See Lu 24:50. Adverb οσιως in 1Th 2:10 and οσιοτης in Eph 4:24.
Without wrath and disputing ( χωρις οργης κα διαλογισμου ). See Php 2:14.
In like manner that women ( οσαυτως γυναικας ). Βουλομα must be repeated from verse 8, involved in οσαυτως (old adverb, as in Ro 8:26). Parry insists that προσευχομενας (when they pray) must be supplied also. Grammatically that is possible (Lock), but it is hardly consonant with verses 11-15 (White).
Adorn themselves ( κοσμειν εαυτας ). Present active infinitive after βουλομα understood. Old word from κοσμος (arrangement, ornament, order, world). See Lu 21:5; Tit 2:10. See 1Co 11:5ff. for Paul's discussion of women's dress in public worship.
In modest apparel ( εν καταστολη κοσμιω ). Καταστολη is a late word (a letting down, καταστελλω, of demeanour or dress, arrangement of dress). Only here in N.T. Κοσμιος is old adjective from κοσμος and means well-arranged, becoming. W. H. have adverb in margin ( κοσμιως ).
With shamefastness ( μετα αιδους ). Old word for shame, reverence, in N.T. only here and Heb 12:28.
Sobriety ( σωφροσυνης ). Old word, in N.T. only here, verse 15, and Ac 26:15 (Paul also).
Not with braided hair ( μη εν πλεγμασιν ). Old word from πλεκω, to plait, to braid, for nets, baskets, here only in N.T. Cf. 1Pe 3:1 ( εμπλοκης ).
And gold ( εν χρυσιω ). Locative case with εν repeated. Some MSS. read χρυσω. Both used for gold ornaments.
Or pearls ( η μαργαριταις ). See Mt 7:6 for this word.
Or costly raiment ( η ιματισμω πολυτελε ). Hιματισμος a common Koine word from ιματιζω, to clothe. Πολυτελης, old word from πολυς and τελος (great price). See Mr 14:3.
Becometh ( πρεπε ). Old word for seemly. Paul wishes women to wear "becoming" clothes, but θεοσεβειαν (godliness, from θεοσεβης, Joh 9:31, θεοσ, σεβομα, worship) is part of the "style" desired. Only here in N.T. Good dress and good works combined.
In quietness ( εν ησυχια ). Old word from ησυχιος. In N.T. only here, Ac 22:2; 2Th 3:12.
In all subjection ( εν παση υποταγη ). Late word (Dion. Hal., papyri), in N.T. only here, 2Co 9:13; Ga 2:5. See 1Co 14:33-35.
I permit not ( ουκ επιτρεπω ). Old word επιτρεπω, to permit, to allow (1Co 16:7). Paul speaks authoritatively.
To teach ( διδασκειν ). In the public meeting clearly. And yet all modern Christians allow women to teach Sunday school classes. One feels somehow that something is not expressed here to make it all clear.
Nor to have dominion over a man ( ουδε αυθεντειν ανδρος ). The word αυθεντεω is now cleared up by Kretschmer (Glotta, 1912, pp. 289ff.) and by Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary. See also Nageli, Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus and Deissmann, Light, etc., pp. 88f. Αυτοδικεω was the literary word for playing the master while αυθεντεω was the vernacular term. It comes from αυτ-εντες, a self-doer, a master, autocrat. It occurs in the papyri (substantive αυθεντης, master, verb αυθεντεω, to domineer, adjective αυθεντικος, authoritative, "authentic"). Modern Greek has αφεντες = Effendi = "Mr."
Was first formed ( πρωτος επλασθη ). Note πρωτος, not πρωτον, first before Eve. First aorist passive indicative of πλασσω, old verb, in N.T. only here and Ro 9:20 (cf. Ge 2:7f.).
Being beguiled ( εξαπατηθεισα ). First aorist passive participle of εξαπατεω, old compound verb, in N.T. only by Paul (2Th 2:3; 1Co 3:18; 2Co 11:3; Ro 7:11; 16:18; 1Ti 2:14). Not certain that εξ- here means "completely deceived" in contrast to simplex ( ουκ ηπατηθη ) used of Adam, though possible.
Hath fallen ( γεγονεν ). Second perfect indicative active, permanent state. See 1Co 11:7.
Through the child-bearing ( δια της τεκνογονιας ). Late and rare word (in Aristotle). Here alone in N.T. From τεκνογονος and this from τεκνον and root γενω. This translation makes it refer to the birth of the Saviour as glorifying womanhood. That is true, but it is not clear that Paul does not have mostly in mind that child-bearing, not public teaching, is the peculiar function of woman with a glory and dignity all its own. "She will be saved" ( σωθησετα ) in this function, not by means of it.
If they continue ( εαν μεινωσιν ). Condition of third class, εαν with first aorist active subjunctive of μενω, to continue. Note change to plural from the singular ( σωθησετα ).
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