1 Timothy 6

Under the yoke ( υπο ζυγον ). As slaves ( δουλο, bondsmen). Perhaps under heathen masters (1Pe 2:18). For the slave problem, see also Phm 1; Col 3:22; Eph 6:5; Tit 2:9. See Mt 11:29 for Christ's "yoke" ( ζυγον, from  ζευγνυμ, to join).

Their own masters ( τους ιδιους δεσποτας ). That is always where the shoe pinches. Our "despot" is this very Greek word, the strict correlative of slave ( δουλος ), while  κυριος has a wider outlook. Old word only here, Tit 2:9; 2Ti 2:21; 1Pe 2:18 for human masters. Applied to God in Lu 2:29; Ac 4:24,29 and to Christ in 2Pe 2:1.

The name of God ( το ονομα του θεου ). See Ro 2:24. If the heathen could say that Christian slaves were not as dependable as non-Christian slaves. Negative purpose with  ινα μη and present passive subjunctive ( βλασφημητα ).

Let not despise them ( μη καταφρονειτωσαν ). Negative imperative active third plural of  καταφρονεω, to think down on. See 4:12. He must not presume on the equality of Christian brotherhood not allowed by the state's laws. Some of these Christian slaves might be pastors of churches to which the master belonged. For the difficulty of the Christian master's position, see 1Co 7:22; Phm 1:16.

But rather ( αλλα μαλλον ). Render the Christian Master better service.

They that partake of the benefit ( ο της ενεργεσιας αντιλαμβανομενο ). For  ευεργεσιας (genitive case after participle) see Ac 4:9, only other N.T. example of this old word. Present middle participle of  αντιλαμβανω, old verb, to take in turn, to lay fast hold of, in N.T. only here, Lu 1:54; Ac 20:35.

Teacheth a different doctrine ( ετεροδιδασκαλε ). See 1:3 for this verb, present active indicative here in condition of first class.

Consenteth not ( μη προσερχετα ). Also condition of first class with  μη instead of  ου.  Προσερχομα (old verb, to come to, to approach, with dative) is common enough in N.T. (Heb 4:16; 7:25, etc.), but in the metaphorical sense of coming to one's ideas, assenting to, here only in N.T., but is so used in Philo and Irenaeus (Ellicott).

Sound words ( υγιαινουσιν λογοις ). See 1:10 for  υγιαινω.

The words of our Lord Jesus Christ ( τοις του κυριου ημων Ιησου Χριστου ). Either subjective genitive (the words from the Lord Jesus, a collection of his sayings in Lock's opinion like 5:18; Ac 20:35, at least in the Spirit of Jesus as Ac 16:7; 1Co 11:23) or objective genitive about Jesus like 2Ti 1:8; 1Co 1:18.

According to godliness ( κατα ευσεβειαν ). Promoting (designed for) godliness as in Tit 1:1.

He is puffed up ( τετυφωτα ). Perfect passive indicative of  τυφοω, for which see 3:6.

Knowing nothing ( μηδεν επισταμενος ). Present middle participle of  επισταμα. Ignorance is a frequent companion of conceit.

Doting ( νοσων ). Present active participle of  νοσεω, to be sick, to be morbid over, old word, only here in N.T.

Disputes of words ( λογομαχιας ). Our "logomachy." From  λογομαχεω (2Ti 2:14), and that from  λογος and  μαχομα, to fight over words, late and rare word, here only in N.T. See Plato (Tim. 1085 F) for "wars in words" ( μαχας εν λογοις ).

Whereof ( εξ ων ). "From which things."

Surmisings ( υπονοια ). Old word from  υπονοεω, to surmise, to suspect (Ac 25:18), only here in N.T. All these words are akin (envy,  φθονος, strife,  ερις, railings or slanders,  βλασφημια ), all products of an ignorant and conceited mind.

Wranglings ( διαπαρατριβα ). Late and rare (Clem. of Alex.) double compound ( δια, mutual or thorough,  παρατριβα, irritations or rubbings alongside). "Mutual irritations" (Field).

Corrupted in mind ( διεφθαρμενων τον νουν ). Perfect passive participle of  διαφθειρω, to corrupt, genitive case agreeing with  ανθρωπων (of men) and retaining the accusative  τον νουν.

Bereft of the truth ( απεστερημενων της αληθειας ). Perfect passive participle of  αποστερεω, old verb (1Co 6:8) with the ablative case after it ( αληθειας ).

A way of gain ( πορισμον ). Late word from  ποριζω, to provide, to gain. Only here in N.T. "Rich Christians." Predicate accusative with  εινα (indirect assertion) in apposition with  ευσεβειαν, the accusative of general reference.

With contentment ( μετα αυταρκειας ). Old word from  αυταρκης ( αυτοσ, αρκεω ) as in Php 4:11. In N.T. only here and 2Co 9:8. This attitude of mind is Paul's conception of "great gain."

Brought into ( εισηνεγκαμεν, second aorist active stem with first aorist ending, common in the Koine),

carry out ( εξενεγκειν, second aorist active infinitive). Note play on the prepositions  εισ- and  εξ-.

Food ( διατροφας ). Plural, supports or nourishments (from  διατρεφω, to support). Old word, here only in N.T.

Covering ( σκεπασματα ). Plural, "coverings." Late word from  σκεπαζω, to cover. Here only in N.T.

We shall be content ( αρκεσθησομεθα ). First future passive of  αρκεω, to be content. Old word. See 2Co 12:9. This is the  αυταρκεια of verse 6.

There with ( τουτοις ). Associative instrumental case, "with these."

Desire to be rich ( βουλομενο πλουτειν ). The will ( βουλομα ) to be rich at any cost and in haste (Pr 28:20). Some MSS. have "trust in riches" in Mr 10:24. Possibly Paul still has teachers and preachers in mind.

Fall into ( εμπιπτουσιν εις ). See on 3:6 for  εν -- εις and 3:7 for  παγιδα (snare).

Foolish ( ανοητους ). See Ga 3:1,3.

Hurtful ( βλαβερας ). Old adjective from  βλαπτω, to injure, here alone in N.T.

Drown ( βυθιζουσιν ). Late word (literary Koine) from  βυθος (bottom), to drag to the bottom. In N.T. only here and Lu 5:7 (of the boat). Drown in the lusts with the issue "in destruction and perdition" ( εις ολεθρον κα απωλειαν ). Not annihilation, but eternal punishment. The combination only here, but for  ολεθρος, see 1Th 5:3; 2Th 1:9; 1Co 5:5 and for  απωλεια, see 2Th 2:3; Php 3:19.

The love of money ( η φιλαργυρια ). Vulgate, avaritia. Common word (from  φιλαργυρος, 2Ti 3:12, and that from  φιλοσ, αργυρος ), only here in N.T. Refers to verse 9 ( βουλομενο πλουτειν ).

A root of all kinds of evil ( ριζα παντων των κακων ). A root ( ριζα ). Old word, common in literal (Mt 3:10) and metaphorical sense (Ro 11:11-18). Field (Ot. Norv.) argues for "the root" as the idea of this predicate without saying that it is the only root. Undoubtedly a proverb that Paul here quotes, attributed to Bion and to Democritus ( την φιλαργυριαν εινα μητροπολιν παντων των κακων ), where "metropolis" takes the place of "root." Surely men today need no proof of the fact that men and women will commit any sin or crime for money.

Reaching after ( ορεγομενο ). Present middle participle of  ορεγω (see 3:1) with genitive  ης (which).

Have been led astray ( απεπλανηθησαν ). First aorist passive indicative of  αποπλαναω, old compound verb, in N.T. only here and Mr 13:22.

Have pierced themselves through ( εαυτους περιεπειραν ). First aorist active (with reflexive pronoun) of late compound  περιπειρω, only here in N.T. Perfective use of  περ (around, completely to pierce).

With many sorrows ( οδυναις πολλαις ). Instrumental case of  οδυνη (consuming, eating grief). In N.T. only here and Ro 9:2.

O man of God ( ω ανθρωπε θεου ). In N.T. only here and 2Ti 3:17, there general and here personal appeal to Timothy. Cf. De 33:1; 1Sa 2:27.

Flee ( φευγε ),

follow after ( διωκε ). Vivid verbs in present active imperative. The preacher can not afford to parley with such temptations.

Meekness ( πραυπαθιαν ). Late compound from  πραυπαθης, in Philo about Abraham, here only in N.T.

Fight the good fight ( αγωνιζου τον καλον αγωνα ). Cognate accusative with present middle imperative of  αγωνιζω, Pauline word (1Co 9:25; Col 1:29).

Lay hold on ( επιλαβου ). Second (ingressive) aorist middle imperative of  επιλαμβανω, "get a grip on." See same verb with genitive also in verse 19.

Thou wast called ( εκληθης ). First aorist passive of  καλεω as in 1Co 1:9; Col 3:15.

The good confession ( την καλην ομολογιαν ). Cognate accusative with  ωμολογησας (first aorist active indicative of  ομολογεω, the public confession in baptism which many witnessed. See it also in verse 13 of Jesus.

Who quickeneth all things ( του ζωογονουντος τα παντα ). Present active participle of  ζωογονεω ( ζωογονος, from  ζωοσ, γενω ), late word to give life, to bring forth alive, in N.T. only here and Ac 7:19. See 1Sa 2:6.

Before Pontius Pilate ( επ Ποντιου Πειλατου ). Not "in the time of," but "in the presence of."

Witnessed ( μαρτυρησαντος ). Note  μαρτυρεω, not  ομολογεω as in verse 12. Christ gave his evidence as a witness to the Kingdom of God. Evidently Paul knew some of the facts that appear in Joh 18.

That thou keep ( τηρησα σε ). First aorist active infinitive of  τηρεω, with accusative of general reference ( σε ) in indirect command after  παραγγελλω.

Without spot ( ασπιλον ). Late adjective ( α privative,  σπιλος, spot, Eph 5:27). In inscription and papyri.

Without reproach ( ανεπιλημπτον ). See 3:2; 5:7.

Until the appearing ( μεχρ της επιφανειας ). "Until the epiphany" (the second epiphany or coming of Christ). Late word in inscriptions for important event like the epiphany of Caligula, in the papyri as a medical term. In 2Th 2:18 we have both  επιφανεια and  παρουσια. See Tit 2:13; 2Ti 1:10; 4:1,8.

In its own times ( καιροις ιδιοις ). Locative case. May be "in his own times." See 2:6. Clearly not for us to figure out.

Who is the blessed and only Potentate ( ο μακαριος κα μονος δυναστης ). "The happy and alone Potentate."  Δυναστης, old word, in N.T. only here, Lu 1:52; Ac 8:27 (the Eunuch). See 1:11 for  μακαριος.

The King of kings ( ο βασιλευς των βασιλευοντων ). "The King of those who rule as kings." Oriental title. So with "Lord of lords." See Re 10:16.

Who only hath immortality ( ο μονος εχων αθανασιαν ). "The one who alone has immortality."  Αθανασια ( αθανατος,  α privative and  θανατος ), old word, in N.T. only here and 1Co 15:53f. Domitian demanded that he be addressed as "Dominus et Deus noster." Emperor worship may be behind the use of  μονος (alone) here.

Unapproachable ( απροσιτον ). See Ps 104:2. Late compound verbal adjective ( α privative,  προσ, ιενα, to go). Here only in N.T. Literary Koine word.

Nor can see ( ουδε ιδειν δυνατα ). See  αορατον in Col 1:15 and also Joh 1:18; Mt 11:27. The "amen" marks the close of the doxology as in 1:17.

In this present world ( εν τω νυν αιων ). "In the now age," in contrast with the future.

That they be not high-minded ( μη υψηλοφρονειν ). Present active infinitive with negative in indirect command after  παραγγελλε, "not to be high-minded." Only instance of the word save some MSS. of Ro 11:20 (for  μη υψηλαφρονε ) and a scholion on Pindar.

Have their hope set ( ηλπικενα ). Perfect active infinitive of  ελπιζω.

On the uncertainty of riches ( επ πλουτου αδηλοτητ ). Literary Koine word ( αδηλοτης ), only here in N.T. A "vigorous oxymoron" (White). Cf. Ro 6:4. Riches have wings.

But on God ( αλλ' επ θεω ). He alone is stable, not wealth.

Richly all things to enjoy ( παντα πλουσιως εις απολαυσιν ). "A lavish emphasis to the generosity of God" (Parry).  Απολαυσις is old word from  απολαυω, to enjoy, in N.T. only here and Heb 11:25.

That they do good ( αγαθοεργειν ). Late word ( αγαθος,  εργω ), in N.T. only here and Ac 14:17.

Rich in good works ( πλουτειν εν εργοις καλοις ). See Lu 12:21 "rich toward God" and Mt 6:19f. for "treasures in heaven."

Ready to distribute ( ευμεταδοτους ). Late and rare verbal ( ευ, μετα, διδωμ ). Free to give, liberal. Only here in N.T.

Willing to communicate ( κοινωνικους ). Old adjective, ready to share, gracious, liberal again. Only here in N.T. See Ga 6:6; Php 4:15.

Laying up in store ( αποθησαυριζοντας ). Late literary word ( απο and  θησαυριζω ), only here in N.T. Same paradox as in Mt 6:19f., "laying up in store" by giving it away.

Which is life indeed ( της οντως ζωης ). See 5:3 for  οντως. This life is merely the shadow of the eternal reality to come.

Guard that which is committed unto thee ( την παραθηκην φυλαξον ). "Keep (aorist of urgency) the deposit."  Παραθηκην (from  παρατιθημ, to place beside as a deposit, 2Ti 2:2), a banking figure, common in the papyri in this sense for the Attic  παρακαταθηκη (Textus Receptus here, 2Ti 1:12,14). See substantive also in 2Ti 1:12,14.

Turning away from ( εκτρεπομενος ). Present middle participle of  εκτρεπω, for which see 1:6; 5:15.

Babblings ( κενοφωνιας ). From  κενοφωνος, uttering emptiness. Late and rare compound, in N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:16.

Oppositions ( αντιθεσεις ). Old word ( αντι, θεσις ), antithesis, only here in N.T.

Of the knowledge which is falsely so called ( της ψευδωνυμου γνωσεως ). "Of the falsely named knowledge." Old word ( ψευδησ, ονομα ). Our "pseudonymous." Only here in N.T.

Have erred ( ηστοχησαν ). First aorist active indicative of  αστοχεω. See 1:6 for this word.

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