2 Corinthians 8

The grace ( την χαριν ). As manifested in the collection in the churches, poor as they were. The Romans had lacerated Macedonia (Livy, XLV. 30).

Proof ( δοκιμη ). Tests as of metals as in 2:9.

Abundance ( περισσεια ). Late word from  περισσευω, to overflow.

Their deep poverty ( η κατα βαθους πτωχεια αυτων ).  Πτωχεια is old word from  πτωχευω, to be a beggar, as of Jesus in 8:9 (from  πτωχος, cowering in fear and poverty, as in Lu 14:13, but ennobled by Christ as in Mt 5:3; 2Co 8:9). Poverty down deep. Strabo (LX 419) has  κατα βαθους, down to the bottom.

Liberality ( απλοτητος ). From  απλους, single, simple (Mt 6:22). "The passage from single-mindedness or simplicity to liberality is not quite obvious" (Plummer). Perhaps "heartiness" supplies the connecting link. See also 9:11-13.

Beyond their power ( παρα δυναμιν ). "Alongside" with accusative like  υπερ δυναμιν in 1:8. Field (Ot. Nov.) quotes Josephus (Ant. iii. 6, 1) for  κατα δυναμιν and  παρα δυναμιν as here. Few give  κατα δυναμιν (according to actual ability). Paul commends this high pressure collection because of the emergency.

Of their own accord ( αυθαιρετο ). Old verbal adjective ( αυτοσ, αιρετος from  αιρεομα, to choose), of their own initiative, voluntary. Only here and verse 17 in N.T. Papyri often have  εκουσιως κα αυθαιρετως (willingly and voluntarily).

Beseeching us with much intreaty in regard of this grace ( μετα πολλης παρακλησεως δεομενο ημων την χαριν ). Literally, "with much intreaty begging of us the favour and the partnership in the ministry to the saints." The accusative ( χαριν ) after  δεομα is unusual. By  χαρις Paul means the privilege of giving (cf. Ac 24:27). Apparently Paul had been reluctant to press the Macedonians because of their manifest poverty. They demanded the right to have a share in it.

We had hoped ( ηλπισαμεν ). First aorist active indicative of  ελπιζω. "Expected," he means. They went beyond his hopes about them.

First they gave their own selves ( εαυτους εδωκαν πρωτον ). First aorist active indicative of  διδωμ (k aorist). "Themselves they gave first." That is the explanation of the generous giving.

Insomuch that we exhorted Titus ( εις το παρακαλεσα ημας Τιτον ). Use of  εις το and the infinitive for result with accusative of general reference ( ημας ). See Robertson, Grammar, p. 1003.

He had made a beginning before ( προενηρξατο ). First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb  προ-εν-αρχομα, still found only here and verse 10, to make a start before others.

Complete ( επιτελεσε ) First aorist (effective) active subjunctive of  επιτελεω, to finish, with perfective use of  επ in composition.

In this grace also ( κα εν ταυτη τη χαριτ ). This gifted church (1Co 12-14) had fallen behind in the grace of giving. Kindly irony in this allusion.

Proving ( δοκιμαζων ). Testing and so proving.

The sincerity also of your love ( κα το της υμετερας αγαπης γνησιον ). Old adjective, contraction of  γενεσιος ( γινομα ), legitimately born, not spurious. A collection is a test of one's love for Christ, not the only test, but a real one.

Though he was rich ( πλουσιος ων ). Concessive present participle  ων from  ειμ, to be.

Be became poor ( επτωχευσεν ). Ingressive aorist active indicative of  πτωχευω (see verse 2 on  πτωχεια ).

Through his poverty ( τη εκεινου πτωχεια ). Instrumental case, by means of.

Might become rich ( πλουτησητε ). Ingressive first aorist active subjunctive of  πλουτεω, to be rich with  ινα (that). See on Lu 1:53; 1Co 4:8.

Judgment ( γνωμην ). Deliberate opinion, but not a "command" ( επιταγη verse 8). Cf. 1Co 7:25.

A year ago ( απο περυσ ) From last year.

Not only to do, but also to will ( ου μονον το ποιησαι, αλλα κα το θελειν ). Articular infinitives the objects of  προενηρξασθε on which verb see verse 6). That is to say, the Corinthians promised before any others.

The readiness to will ( η προθυμια του θελειν ). Old word from  προθυμος ( προ, θυμος ), forwardness, eagerness (Ac 17:11). They were quick to pledge.

The completion also ( κα το επιτελεσα ). The finishing also (articular first aorist active infinitive).

Out of your ability ( εκ του εχειν ). "Out of the having," literally, and so, "out of what you can give" (verse 12).

Is there ( προκειτα ). Lies before one. Old word.

Acceptable ( ευπροσδεκτος ). See on 6:2.

According as a man hath ( καθο εαν εχη ). Indefinite comparative clause with  εαν and present subjunctive  εχε. Clearly God does not expect us to give what we do not have.

Not according as he hath not ( ου καθο ουκ εχε ). Note present indicative rather than subjunctive because a specific case is presented. See 9:7; Mr 12:43.

Others may be eased ( αλλοις ανεσις ). "Release to others."

Ye distressed ( υμιν θλιψις ). "To you tribulation." The verb  η (present subjunctive) with  ινα is not expressed.

By equality ( εξ ισοτητος ). Old word from  ισος, fair, equal. In N.T. only here and Col 4:1.

Abundancy ( περισσευμα ). Late word from  περισσευω like  περισσεια (verse 2) Cf. Mt 12:34.

Want ( υστερημα ). Late word from  υστερεω, to be in want. See also 9:12; Lu 21:4 (cf.  υστερησις in Mr 12:44).

Which putteth ( τω διδοντ ). Present active articular participle, "who is continually giving." Hence Titus is full of zealous care for you.

Very earnest ( σπουδαιοτερος ). "More earnest than ordinarily," comparative adjective.

We have sent with him ( συνεπεμψαμεν μετ' αυτου ). Epistolary aorist.

The brother ( τον αδελφον ). This may be, probably is, Luke who may also be the brother of Titus (see also 12:18) according to a common Greek idiom where the article is used as "his." But this idiom is not necessary. As a matter of fact, we do not know who this brother is.

Is spread through all the churches ( δια πασων των εκκλησιων ). No verb in the Greek (ellipsis).

But who was also appointed ( αλλα κα χειροτονηθεις ). Anacoluthon. The first aorist passive participle  χειροτονηθεις is from  χειροτονεω, old verb to stretch out the hands ( χειρ τεινω ) and so to vote in public. The idea is that this brother was chosen by the churches, not by Paul. Only here in N.T. save Ac 14:23 where it means to appoint without notion of raising the hands. In Ac 10:41 we have  προχειροτονεω.

To travel with us ( συνεκδημος ). Late word for travelling companion. So in the inscriptions ( συν, together with,  εκδημος, away from home).

Avoiding this ( στελλομενο τουτο ). Present middle participle of  στελλω, old verb, to set, to arrange. So "arranging for ourselves this."

That any man should blame us ( μη τις ημας μωμησητα ). Literally, "lest any one blame us" (negative purpose with  μη and first aorist middle subjunctive of  μωμεομα. See on 6:3, only other N.T. example).

Bounty ( αδροτητ ). Old word from  αδρος, thick, stout, ripe, rich, great as in 1Ki 1:9; 2Ki 10:6. Only here in N.T.

We take thought ( προνουμεν ). Old verb, to plan beforehand ( προ- ) as in Ro 12:17; 1Ti 5:8.

But also in the sight of men ( αλλα κα ενωπιον ανθρωπων ). It is not enough for one's financial accounts to be honourable ( καλα ) as God sees them, but they should be so kept that men can understand them also. A timely warning. Paul took the utmost pains that no suspicion could be attached to him in this collection.

Our brother ( τον αδελφον ημων ). Not Paul's personal brother, but a brother in Christ, one whom Paul had tested and was willing to trust. It may have been Tychicus or Apollos, but we do not know.

About Titus ( υπερ Τιτου ). There is no verb expressed. Supply "inquire." He endorses Titus up to the hilt. He is "my partner" ( κοινωνος εμος ) and "fellow-worker" ( συνεργος ).

Messengers of the churches ( αποστολο εκκλησιων ). Apostles in the general sense of "sent ones" (from  αποστελλω, to send) by the churches and responsible to the churches for the handling of the funds.

The glory of Christ ( δοξα Χριστου ). Financial agents, please observe.

The proof of your love ( την ενδειξιν της αγαπης υμων ). There is a word here for pastors and deacons who try to protect the churches from the denominational representatives of kingdom causes.

In the face of the churches ( εις προσωπον των εκκλησιων ). A great host is pictured as watching how the Corinthians will treat these duly accredited agents in the collection (Titus and the other two brethren). It requires courage to stand by such representatives of great causes before stingy saints.

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