2 Peter 2
But there arose ( εγενοντο δε ). Second aorist middle indicative of γινομα (cf. γινετα in 1:20).
False prophets also ( κα ψευδοπροφητα ). In contrast with the true prophets just pictured in 1:20f. Late compound in LXX and Philo, common in N.T. (Mt 7:15). Allusion to the O.T. times like Balaam and others (Jer 6:13; 28:9; Eze 13:9).
False teachers ( ψευδοδιδασκαλο ). Late and rare compound ( ψευδησ, διδασκαλος ) here alone in N.T. Peter pictures them as in the future here ( εσοντα, shall be) and again as already present ( εισιν, are, verse 17), or in the past ( επλανηθησαν, they went astray, verse 15).
Shall privily bring in ( παρεισαξουσιν ). Future active of παρεισαγω, late double compound παρεισαγω, to bring in ( εισαγω ), by the side ( παρα ), as if secretly, here alone in N.T., but see παρεισακτους in Ga 2:4 (verbal adjective of this same verb).
Destructive heresies ( αιρεσεις απωλειας ). Descriptive genitive, "heresies of destruction" (marked by destruction) as in Lu 16:8. Hαιρεσις (from αιρεω ) is simply a choosing, a school, a sect like that of the Sadducees (Ac 5:17), of the Pharisees (Ac 15:5), and of Christians as Paul admitted (Ac 24:5). These "tenets" (Ga 5:20) led to destruction.
Denying ( αρνουμενο ). Present middle participle of αρνεομα. This the Gnostics did, the very thing that Peter did, alas (Mt 26:70) even after Christ's words (Mt 10:33).
Even the Master ( κα τον δεσποτην ). Old word for absolute master, here of Christ as in Jude 1:4, and also of God (Ac 4:24). Without the evil sense in our "despot."
That bought them ( τον αγορασαντα αυτους ). First aorist active articular participle of αγοραζω, same idea with λυτροω in 1Pe 1:18f. These were professing Christians, at any rate, these heretics.
Swift destruction ( ταχινην απωλειαν ). See 1:14 for ταχινην and note repetition of απωλειαν. This is always the tragedy of such false prophets, the fate that they bring on ( επαγοντες ) themselves.
Lascivious doings ( ασελγειαις ). Associative instrumental ease after εξακολουθησουσιν (future active, for which verb see 1:16). See 1Pe 4:3 for this word.
By reason of whom ( δι' ους ). "Because of whom" (accusative case of relative, referring to πολλο, many). Αυτων (their) refers to ψευδοδιδασκαλο (false teachers) while πολλο to their deluded followers. See Ro 2:23f. for a picture of such conduct by Jews (quotation from Isa 52:5, with βλασφημεω used as here with δι' υμας, because of you).
The way of truth ( η οδος της αληθειας ). Hοδος (way) occurs often in N.T. for Christianity (Ac 9:2; 16:17; 18:25; 22:4; 24:14). This phrase is in Ge 24:48 as "the right road," and that is what Peter means here. So Ps 119:30. See again 2:15,21.
In covetousness ( εν πλεονεξια ). As did Balaam (verse 15). These licentious Gnostics made money out of their dupes. A merely intellectual Gnosticism had its fruit in immorality and fraud.
With feigned words ( πλαστοις λογοις ). Instrumental case. Πλαστος is verbal adjective (from πλασσω, to mould as from clay, for which see Ro 9:20), here only in N.T. "With forged words." See sample in 3:4.
Shall make merchandise of you ( υμας εμπορευσοντα ). Future middle of εμπορευομα (from εμπορος, a travelling merchant), old word, to go in for trade, in N.T. only here and Jas 4:13, which see. Cf. our emporium (Joh 2:16, market house).
Whose sentence ( οις το κριμα ). "For whom (dative case) the sentence" (verdict, not process κρισις ).
Now from of old ( εκπαλα ). Late and common compound adverb, in N.T. only here and 3:5.
Lingereth not ( ουκ αργε ). "Is not idle," old verb, αργεω (from αργος not working, alpha privative and εργον ), here only in N.T.
Slumbereth not ( ου νυσταζε ). Old and common verb (from νυω to nod), in N.T. only here and Mt 25:5. Note απωλεια (destruction) three times in verses 1-3.
For if God spared not ( ε γαρ ο θεος ουκ εφεισατο ). First instance ( γαρ ) of certain doom, that of the fallen angels. Condition of the first class precisely like that in Ro 11:21 save that here the normal apodosis ( υμων ου φεισετα ) is not expressed as there, but is simply implied in verse 9 by οιδεν κυριος ρυεσθα (the Lord knows how to deliver) after the parenthesis in verse 8.
Angels when they sinned ( αγγελων αμαρτησαντων ). Genitive case after εφεισατο (first aorist middle indicative of φειδομα ) and anarthrous (so more emphatic, even angels), first aorist active participle of αμαρτανω, "having sinned."
Cast them down to hell ( ταρταρωσας ). First aorist active participle of ταρταροω, late word (from ταρταρος, old word in Homer, Pindar, LXX Job 40:15; 41:23, Philo, inscriptions, the dark and doleful abode of the wicked dead like the Gehenna of the Jews), found here alone save in a scholion on Homer. Ταρταρος occurs in Enoch 20:2 as the place of punishment of the fallen angels, while Gehenna is for apostate Jews.
Committed ( παρεδωκεν ). First aorist active indicative of παραδιδωμ, the very form solemnly used by Paul in Ro 1:21,26,28.
To pits of darkness ( σειροις ζοφου ). Ζοφος (kin to γνοφοσ, νεφος ) is an old word, blackness, gloom of the nether world in Homer, in N.T. only here, verse 17; Jude 1:13; Heb 12:18. The MSS. vary between σειραις ( σειρα, chain or rope) and σειροις ( σειρος, old word for pit, underground granary). Σειροις is right (Aleph A B C), dative case of destination.
To be reserved unto judgment ( εις κρισιν τηρουμενους ). Present (linear action) passive participle of τηρεω. "Kept for judgment." Cf. 1Pe 1:4. Aleph A have κολαζομενους τηρειν as in verse 9. Note κρισις (act of judgment).
The ancient world ( αρχαιου κοσμου ). Genitive case after εφεισατο (with ε understood) repeated (the second example, the deluge). This example not in Jude. Absence of the article is common in the prophetic style like II Peter. For αρχαιος see Lu 9:8.
Preserved ( εφυλαξεν ). Still part of the long protasis with ε, first aorist active indicative of φυλασσω.
With seven others ( ογδοον ). "Eighth," predicate accusative adjective (ordinal), classic idiom usually with αυτον. See 1Pe 3:20 for this same item. Some take ογδοον with κηρυκα (eighth preacher), hardly correct.
A preacher of righteousness ( δικαιοσυνης κηρυκα ). "Herald" as in 1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 1:11 alone in N.T., but κηρυσσω is common. It is implied in 1Pe 3:20 that Noah preached to the men of his time during the long years.
When he brought ( επαξας ). First aorist active participle (instead of the common second aorist active επαγαγων ) of εισαγω, old compound verb to bring upon, in N.T. only here and Ac 5:28 (by Peter here also).
A flood ( κατακλυσμον ). Old word (from κατακλυζω, to inundate), only of Noah's flood in N.T. (Mt 24:38ff.; Lu 17:27; 2Pe 2:5).
Upon the world of the ungodly ( κοσμο ασεβων ). Anarthrous and dative case κοσμω. The whole world were "ungodly" ( ασεβεις as in 1Pe 4:18) save Noah's family of eight.
Turning into ashes ( τεφρωσας ). First aorist participle of τεφροω, late word from τεφρα, ashes (in Dio Cassius of an eruption of Vesuvius, Philo), here alone in N.T.
The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah ( πολεις Σοδομων κα Γομορρας ). Genitive of apposition after πολεις (cities), though it makes sense as possessive genitive, for Jude 1:7 speaks of the cities around these two. The third example, the cities of the plain. See Ge 19:24f.
Condemned them ( κατεκρινεν ). First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω, still part of the protasis with ε.
With an overthrow ( καταστροφη ). Instrumental case or even dative like θανατω with κατακρινω in Mt 20:18. But Westcott and Hort reject the word here because not in B C Coptic.
Having made them ( τεθεικως ). Perfect active participle of τιθημ.
An example ( υποδειγμα ). For which see Jas 5:10; Joh 13:15. Cf. 1Pe 2:21.
Unto those that should live ungodly ( μελλοντων ασεβεσιν ). Rather, "unto ungodly men of things about to be" (see Heb 11:20 for this use of μελλοντων ). But Aleph A C K L read ασεβειν (present active infinitive) with μελλοντων = ασεβησοντων (future active participle of ασεβεω ), from which we have our translation.
And delivered ( κα ερυσατο ). First aorist middle of ρυομα as in Mt 6:13, still part of the protasis with ε.
Righteous Lot ( δικαιον Λοτ ). This adjective δικαιος occurs three times in verses 7,8. See Wisdom 10:6.
Sore distressed ( καταπονουμενον ). Present passive participle of καταπονεω, late and common verb, to work down, to exhaust with labor, to distress, in N.T. only here and Ac 7:24.
By the lascivious life of the wicked ( υπο της των αθεσμων εν ασελγεια αναστροφης ). "By the life in lasciviousness of the lawless." Αθεσμος (alpha privative and θεσμος ), late and common adjective (cf. αθεμιτος 1Pe 4:3) for rebels against law (of nature and conscience here). Αναστροφη is frequent in I Peter.
For ( γαρ ). Parenthetical explanation in verse 8 of the remark about Lot.
Dwelling ( ενκατοικων ). Present active participle of ενκατοικεω, old but rare double compound, here only in N.T.
In seeing and hearing ( βλεμματ κα ακοη ). "By sight (instrumental case of βλεμμα, old word, from βλεπω to see, here only in N.T.) and hearing" (instrumental case of ακοη from ακουω, to hear, common as Mt 13:14).
From day to day ( ημεραν εξ ημερας ). "Day in day out." Accusative of time and ablative with εξ. Same idiom in Ps 96:2 for the more common εξ ημερας εις ημεραν.
Vexed ( εβασανιζεν ). Imperfect active (kept on vexing) of βασανιζω, old word, to test metals, to torment (Mt 8:29).
With their lawless deeds ( ανομοις εργοις ). Instrumental case of cause, "because of their lawless (contrary to law) deeds." For ανομος see 2Th 2:8.
The Lord knoweth how ( οιδεν κυριος ). The actual apodosis of the long protasis begun in verse 4. God can deliver his servants as shown by Noah and Lot and he will deliver you. The idiomatic use of οιδα and the infinitive ( ρυεσθα present middle and see verse 7) for knowing how as in Mt 7:11; Jas 4:17.
The godly ( ευσεβεις ). Old anarthrous adjective (from ευ and σεβομα, to worship), in N.T. only here and Ac 10:2,7 (by Peter). For
temptation ( πειρασμου ) see Jas 1:2,12; 1Pe 1:6.
To keep ( τηρειν ). Present active infinitive of τηρεω after οιδεν.
Unrighteous ( αδικους ). As in 1Pe 3:18.
Under punishment ( κολαζομενους ). Present passive participle of κολαζω, old verb (from κολος, lopped off), in N.T. only here and Ac 4:21. Present tense emphasises continuity of the punishment. See κολασιν αιωνιον in Mt 25:46.
Chiefly ( μαλιστα ). Especially. He turns now to the libertine heretics (verses 2,7).
After the flesh ( οπισω σαρκος ). Hebraistic use of οπισω as with αμαρτιων (sins) in Isa 65:2. Cf. Mt 4:19; 1Ti 5:15.
Of defilement ( μιασμου ). Old word (from μιαινω Tit 1:15), here only in N.T.
Despise dominion ( κυριοτητος καταφρονουντας ). Κυριοτης is late word for lordship (perhaps God or Christ) (from Κυριος ), in Col 1:16; Eph 1:21; Jude 1:8. Genitive case after καταφρουντας (thinking down on, Mt 6:24).
Daring ( τολμητα ). Old substantive (from τολμαω, to dare), daring men, here only in N.T.
Self-willed ( αυθαδεις ). Old adjective (from αυτος and ηδομα ), self-pleasing, arrogant, in N.T. only here and Tit 1:7.
They tremble not to rail at dignities ( δοξας ου τρεμουσιν βλασφημουντες ). "They tremble not blaspheming dignities." Τρεμω is old verb (Mr 5:33), used only in present as here and imperfect. Here with the complementary participle βλασφημουντες rather than the infinitive βλασφημειν. See Jude 1:8. Perhaps these dignities ( δοξας ) are angels ( εςιλ ).
Whereas ( οπου ). Loose use of οπου (in Xenophon) = "wherein."
Though greater ( μειζονες οντες ). Than the evil δοξα. Concessive participle and comparative adjective.
In might and strength ( ισχυ κα δυναμε ). Locative case. Both indwelling strength ( ισχυς, Mr 12:30) and ability ( δυναμις, Mt 25:15).
Railing judgment ( βλασφεμον κρισιν ). "Blasphemous accusation."
Against them ( κατ' αυτων ). The evil angels ( δοξα ).
Before the Lord ( παρα κυριω ). In God's presence. See Jude 1:9 and possibly Enoch 9.
But these ( ουτο δε ). The false teachers of verse 1.
As creatures ( ζωα ). Living creatures, old word, from ζωος (alive), Jude 1:10; Re 4:6-9.
Without reason ( αλογα ). Old adjective, in N.T. only here, Jude 1:10; Ac 25:27. Brute beasts like θηρια (wild animals).
Born ( γεγεννημενα ). Perfect passive participle of γενναω.
Mere animals ( φυσικα ). Old adjective in -ικος (from φυσις, nature), natural animals, here only in N.T.
To be taken ( εις αλωσιν ). "For capture" (old substantive, from αλοω, here only in N.T.).
And destroyed ( κα φθοραν ). "And for destruction" just like a beast of prey caught. See 1:4.
In matters whereof they are ignorant ( εν οις αγνοουσιν ). "In which things they are ignorant." Here εν οις = εν τουτοις α (in those things which), a common Greek idiom. For αγνοεω (present active indicative) see 1Th 4:13; 1Ti 1:7 for a like picture of loud ignoramuses posing as professional experts.
Shall in their destroying surely be destroyed ( εν τη φθορα αυτων φθαρησοντα ). Second future passive of φθειρω. Rhetorical Hebraism in the use of εν φθορα (same root as φθειρω ), word four times in II Peter. See Jude 1:10.
Suffering wrong ( αδικουμενο ). Present middle or passive participle of αδικεω to do wrong. So Aleph B P, but A C K L have κομιουμενο (future middle participle of κομιζω ), shall receive.
As the hire of wrong-doing ( μισθον αδικιας ). The Elephantine papyrus has the passive of αδικεω in the sense of being defrauded, and that may be the idea here. Peter plays on words again here as often in II Peter. The picture proceeds now with participles like ηγουμενο (counting).
Pleasure ( ηδονην ). See Jas 4:1,3.
To revel in the daytime ( την εν ημερα τρυφην ). "The in the daytime revel" (old word τρυφη from θρυπτω, to enervate, in N.T. only here and Lu 7:25).
Spots ( σπιλο ). Old word for disfiguring spot, in N.T. only here and Eph 5:27.
Blemishes ( μωμο ). Old word for blot (kin to μυω ), only here in N.T. See 1Pe 1:19 for αμωμος κα ασπιλος.
Revelling ( εντρυφωντες ). Present active participle of εντρυφαω, old compound for living in luxury, only here in N.T.
In their love-feasts ( εν ταις αγαπαις ). So B Sah, but Aleph A C K L P read απαταις (in their deceivings). If αγαπαις is genuine as it is in Jude 1:12, they are the only N.T. examples of this use of αγαπη.
While they feast with you ( συνευωχουμενο ). Present passive participle of late and rare verb συνευωχεω ( συν, together, and ευωχεω, to feed abundantly) to entertain with. Clement of Alex. (Paed. ii. I. 6) applies ευωχια to the αγαπη.
Of adultery ( μοιχαλιδος ). Rather, "of an adulteress," like Jas 4:4. Vivid picture of a man who cannot see a woman without lascivious thoughts toward her (Mayor). Cf. Mt 5:28.
That cannot cease ( ακαταπαστους ). Reading of A B in place of ακαταπαυστους (alpha privative and verbal of καταπαυω, to cease). "Unable to stop." This a late verbal, only here in N.T. It is probable that ακαταπαστους is merely a misspelling of ακαταπαυστους.
From sin ( αμαρτιας ). Ablative case as in 1Pe 4:1 ( αμαρτιας ). Insatiable lust.
Enticing ( δελεαζοντες ). Present active participle of δελεαζω, to catch by bait as in verse 18; Jas 1:14.
Unsteadfast ( αστηρικτους ). Late verbal adjective (alpha privative and στηριζω ), in Longinus and Vettius Valens, here alone in N.T.
Exercised ( γεγυμνασμενην ). Perfect passive predicate participle with εχοντες, from γυμναζω precisely as in Heb 5:14. Rhetorical metaphor from the gymnasium.
In covetousness ( πλεονεξιας ). Genitive case after the participle.
Children of cursing ( καταρας τεκνα ). Hebraism like τεκνα υπακοης in 1Pe 1:14 = accursed ( καταρατο ).
Forsaking ( καταλειποντες ). Present active participle of καταλειπω (continually leaving) or καταλιποντες (second aorist active), having left.
The right way ( ευθειαν οδον ). "The straight way" of 1Sa 12:23 (cf. Mt 7:13f. for this use of οδος ), "the way of truth" (2:2).
They went astray ( επλανηθησαν ). First aorist passive indicative of πλαναω, like Mr 12:24.
The way of Balaam ( τη οδω του Βαλααμ ). Associative instrumental case after εξακολουθησαντες, for which verb see 1:16; 2:2. These false teachers, as shown in verse 13, followed the way of Balaam, "who loved the hire of wrong-doing" ( ος μισθον αδικιας ηγαπησεν ).
But he was rebuked ( ελεγξιν δε εσχεν ). "But he had rebuke." Second aorist active indicative of εχω and accusative of ελεγξις (late word from ελεγχω, a periphrasis for ελεγχω, here only in N.T.
For his own transgression ( ιδιας παρανομιας ). Objective genitive of παρανομια, old word (from παρανομος lawbreaker), here only in N.T.
A dumb ass ( υποζυγιον αφωνον ). Dumb is without voice, old word for idols and beasts. The adjective υποζυγιος ( υπο ζυγον ον ) "being under a yoke," is applied to the ass as the common beast of burden (papyri, Deissmann, Bible Studies, p. 160), in N.T. only here and Mt 21:5.
Spake ( φθεγξαμενον ). First aorist middle participle of φθεγγομα, old verb, to utter a sound, in N.T. only here, verse 18, Ac 4:18.
Stayed ( εκωλυσεν ). First aorist active indicative of κωλυω, to hinder.
Madness ( παραφρονιαν ). Only known example of this word instead of the usual παραφροσυνη or παραφρονησις. It is being beside one's wits.
Without water ( ανυδρο ). As in Mt 12:43; Lu 11:24. Old word for common and disappointing experience of travellers in the orient.
Mists ( ομιχλα ). Old word for fog, here alone in N.T.
Driven by a storm ( υπο λαιλαπος ελαυνομενα ). Λαιλαπς is a squall (Mr 4:37; Lu 8:23, only other N.T. examples). See Jas 3:4 for another example of ελαυνω for driving power of wind and waves.
For whom ( οις ). Dative case of personal interest.
The blackness ( ο ζοφος ). See verse 4 for this word.
Hath been reserved ( τετηρητα ). Perfect passive participle of τηρεω, for which see verses 4,9.
Great swelling words ( υπερογκα ). Old compound adjective ( υπερ and ογκος, a swelling, swelling above and beyond), in N.T. only here and Jude 1:16.
Of vanity ( ματαιοτητος ). Late and rare word (from ματαιος, empty, vain), often in LXX, in N.T. here, Ro 8:20; Eph 4:17.
By lasciviousness ( ασελγειαις ). Instrumental plural, "by lascivious acts." Note asyndeton as in 1:9,17.
Those who are just escaping ( τους ολιγως αποφευγοντας ). So A B read ολιγως (slightly, a little), while Aleph C K L P read οντως (actually). Ολιγως late and rare, only here in N.T. So again the Textus Receptus has αποφυγοντας (second aorist active participle, clean escaped) while the correct text is the present active αποφευγοντας.
From them that live in error ( τους εν πλανη αναστρεφομενους ). Accusative case after αποφευγοντας (escaping from) according to regular idiom. Peter often uses αναστρεφω and αναστροφη.
Liberty ( ελευθεριαν ). Promising "personal liberty," that is license, after the fashion of advocates of liquor today, not the freedom of truth in Christ (Joh 8:32; Ga 5:1,13).
Themselves bondservants ( αυτο δουλο ). "Themselves slaves" of corruption and sin as Paul has it in Ro 6:20.
Of whom ( ω ). Instrumental case, but it may mean "of what."
Is overcome ( ηττητα ). Perfect passive indicative of ητταω (from ηττων, less) old verb, in N.T. only here, verse 20; 2Co 12:13.
Of the same ( τουτω ). "By this one (or thing)."
Is brought into bondage ( δεδουλωτα ). Perfect passive indicative of δουλοω. Like Paul again (Ro 6:16,18; 8:21).
After they have escaped ( αποφυγοντες ). Second aorist active participle here (see verse 18).
The defilements ( τα μιασματα ). Old word miasma, from μιαινω, here only in N.T. Our "miasma." The body is sacred to God. Cf. μιασμου in verse 10.
They are again entangled ( παλιν εμπλακεντες ). Second aorist passive participle of εμπλεκω, old verb, to inweave (noosed, fettered), in N.T. only here and 2Ti 2:4.
Overcome ( ηττωντα ). Present passive indicative of ητταοω, for which see verse 19, "are repeatedly worsted." Predicate in the condition of first class with ε. It is not clear whether the subject here is "the deluded victims" (Bigg) or the false teachers themselves (Mayor). See Heb 10:26 for a parallel.
Therein ( τουτοις ). So locative case (in these "defilements"), but it can be instrumental case ("by these," Strachan).
With them ( αυτοις ). Dative of disadvantage, "for them."
Than the first ( των πρωτων ). Ablative case after the comparative χειρονα. See this moral drawn by Jesus (Mt 12:45; Lu 11:26).
It were better ( κρειττον ην ). Apodosis of a condition of second class without αν, as is usual with clauses of possibility, propriety, obligation (Mt 26:24; 1Co 5:10; Ro 7:7; Heb 9:26).
Not to have known ( μη επεγνωκενα ). Perfect active infinitive of επιγινωσκω (cf. επιγνωσε, verse 20) to know fully.
The way of righteousness ( την οδον της δικαιοσυνης ). For the phrase see Mt 21:33, also the way of truth (2:2), the straight way (2:15).
After knowing it ( επιγνουσιν ). Second aorist active participle of επιγινωσκω (just used) in the dative plural agreeing with αυτοις (for them).
To turn back ( υποστρεψα ). First aorist active infinitive of υποστρεφω, old and common verb, to turn back, to return.
From ( εκ ). Out of. So in Ac 12:25 with υποστρεφω. With ablative case. See Ro 7:12 for αγια applied to η εντολη (cf. 1Ti 6:14). II Peter strikes a high ethical note (1:5ff.).
Delivered ( παραδοθεισης ). First aorist passive participle feminine ablative singular of παραδιδωμ.
It has happened ( συμβεβηκεν ). Perfect active indicative of συμβαινω, for which see 1Pe 4:12.
According to the true proverb ( το της αληθους παροιμιας ). "The word ( το used absolutely, the matter of, as in Mt 21:21; Jas 4:14) of the true proverb" ( παροιμια a wayside saying, for which see Joh 10:6; 16:25,29). The first proverb here given comes from Pr 26:11. Εξεραμα is a late and rare word (here only in N.T., in Diosc. and Eustath.) from εξεραω, to vomit.
The sow that had washed ( υς λουσαμενη ). Hυς, old word for hog, here only in N.T. Participle first aorist direct middle of λουω shows that it is feminine (anarthrous). This second proverb does not occur in the O.T., probably from a Gentile source because about the habit of hogs. Epictetus and other writers moralize on the habit of hogs, having once bathed in a filthy mud-hole, to delight in it.
To wallowing ( εις κυλισμον ). "To rolling." Late and rare word (from κυλιω, Mr 9:20), here only in N.T.
In the mire ( βορβορου ). Objective genitive, old word for dung, mire, here only in N.T. J. Rendel Harris (Story of Ahikar, p. LXVII) tells of a story about a hog that went to the bath with people of quality, but on coming out saw a stinking drain and went and rolled himself in it.
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