They entered together ( κατα το αυτο εισελθειν ). Like επ το αυτο in 3:1. The infinitive εισελθειν is the subject of εγενετο.
So spake that ( λαλησα ουτως ωστε ). Infinitive again parallel to εισελθειν. With the result that, actual result here stated with ωστε and the aorist infinitive πιστευσα (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 999f.) rather than ωστε and the indicative like Joh 3:16. It was a tremendous first meeting.
That were disobedient ( ο απειθησαντες ). First aorist active articular participle, not the present απειθουντες as the Textus Receptus has it. But the meaning is probably the Jews that disbelieved, rather than that disobeyed. Strictly απειθεω does mean to disobey and απιστεω to disbelieve, but that distinction is not observed in Joh 3:36 nor in Ac 19:9; 28:24. The word απειθεω means to be απειθης, to be unwilling to be persuaded or to withhold belief and then also to withhold obedience. The two meanings run into one another. To disbelieve the word of God is to disobey God.
Made them evil affected ( εκακωσαν ). First aorist active indicative of κακοω, old verb from κακος, to do evil to, to ill-treat, then in later Greek as here to embitter, to exasperate as in Ps 105:32 and in Josephus. In this sense only here in the N.T. Evidently Paul preached the same message as in Antioch for it won both Jews and Gentiles, and displeased the rabbis. Codex Bezae adds here that "the chiefs of the synagogue and the rulers" brought persecution upon Paul and Barnabas just as was argued about Antioch. Outside the synagogue the Jews would poison the minds of the Gentiles against Paul and Barnabas. "The story of Thecla suggests a means, and perhaps the apostles were brought before the magistrates on some charge of interference with family life. The magistrates however must have seen at once that there was no legal case against them; and by a sentence of acquittal or in some other way the Lord gave peace" (Rackham). As we have it, the story of Paul and Thecla undoubtedly has apocryphal features, though Thecla may very well be an historical character here at Iconium where the story is located. Certainly the picture of Paul herein drawn cannot be considered authentic though a true tradition may underlie it: "bald, bowlegged, strongly built, small in stature, with large eyes and meeting eyebrows and longish nose; full of grace; sometimes looking like a man, sometimes having the face of an angel."
Long time therefore ( ικανον μεν ουν χρονον ). Accusative of duration of time (possibly six months) and note μεν ουν. There is an antithesis in εσχισθη δε (verse 4) and in verse 5 ( εγενετο δε ). After the persecution and vindication there was a season of great opportunity which Paul and Barnabas used to the full, "speaking boldly" ( παρρησιαζομενο as in 13:46 at Antioch in Pisidia, "in the Lord" ( επ τω κυριω ), upon the basis of the Lord Jesus as in 4:17f. And the Lord Jesus "bore witness to the word of his grace" as he always does, "granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands" ( διδοντ σημεια κα τερατα γινεσθα δια των χειρων αυτων ). Present participle ( διδοντ ) and present infinitive ( γινεσθα ) repetition of both signs and wonders (note both words) just as had happened with Peter and John and the other apostles (2:43; 4:29f.; 5:12; cf. Heb 2:4). The time of peace could not last forever with such a work of grace as this. A second explosion of persecution was bound to come and some of the MSS. actually have εκ δευτερου (a second time).
But the multitude of the city was divided ( εσχισθη δε το πληθος της πολεως ). First aorist passive indicative of σχιζω, old verb to split, to make a schism or factions as Sadducees and Pharisees (23:7). This division was within the Gentile populace. Part held ( ο μεν ησαν ), literally "some were with the Jews" ( συν τοις Ιουδαιοις ), part with the apostles ( ο δε συν τοις αποστολοις ). Common demonstrative of contrast ( ο μεν, ο δε, Robertson, Grammar, p. 694). The Jewish leaders made some impression on the Gentiles as at Antioch in Pisidia and later at Thessalonica (17:4f.). This is the first time in the Acts that Paul and Barnabas are termed "apostles" (see also verse 14). Elsewhere in the Acts the word is restricted to the twelve. Certainly Luke does not here employ it in that technical sense. To have followed Jesus in his ministry and to have seen the Risen Christ was essential to the technical use (1:22f.). Whether Barnabas had seen the Risen Christ we do not know, but certainly Paul had (1Co 9:1f.; 15:8). Paul claimed to be an apostle on a par with the twelve (Ga 1:1,16-18). The word originally means simply one sent (Joh 13:16) like messengers of the churches with the collection (2Co 8:23). The Jews used it of those sent from Jerusalem to collect the temple tribute. Paul applies the word to James the Lord's brother (Ga 1:19), to Epaphroditus (Php 2:25) as the messenger of the church in Philippi, to Silvanus and Timothy (1Th 2:6; Ac 18:5), apparently to Apollos (1Co 4:9), and to Andronicus and Junias (Ro 16:6f.). He even calls the Judaizers "false apostles" (2Co 11:13).
An onset ( ορμη ). A rush or impulse as in Jas 3:4. Old word, but only twice in the N.T. (here and James). It probably denotes not an actual attack so much as the open start, the co-operation of both Jews and Gentiles (the disaffected portion), "with their rulers" ( συν τοις αρχουσιν αυτων ), that is the rulers of the Jewish synagogue (13:27). The city officials would hardly join in a mob like this, though Hackett and Rackham think that the city magistrates were also involved as in Antioch in Pisidia (13:50).
To entreat them shamefully ( υβρισα ). First aorist active infinitive of υβριζω, old verb to insult insolently. See on Mt 22:6; Lu 18:32.
To stone ( λιθοβολησα ). First aorist active infinitive of λιθοβολεω, late verb from λιθοβολος ( λιθος, stone, βαλλω, to throw) to pelt with stones, the verb used of the stoning of Stephen (7:58). See on Mt 21:35. The plan to stone them shows that the Jews were in the lead and followed by the Gentile rabble. "Legal proceedings having failed the only resource left for the Jews was illegal violence" (Rackham).
They became aware of it ( συνιδοντες ). Second aorist (ingressive) active participle of συνοραω ( συνειδον ), old word to see together, to become conscious of as already in 12:12. In the N.T. only by Luke and Paul.
Fled ( κατεφυγον ). Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταφευγω, old verb, but in the N.T. only here and Heb 6:18. Paul and Barnabas had no idea of remaining to be stoned (lynched) by this mob. It is a wise preacher who always knows when to stand his ground and when to leave for the glory of God. Paul and Barnabas were following the directions of the Lord Jesus given to the twelve on their special tour of Galilee (Mt 10:23). Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia (still part of the Province of Galatia, though in another Regio), not far from the base of the Black Mountain. Professor Sterrett has apparently identified Lystra by an inscription about six hours (18 miles) south-southwest from Iconium near the village Khatyn Serai and Derbe probably near the village Losta or Zosta though its location is really not known. Lystra had been made a colony in B.C. 6 and Derbe was the frontier city of the Roman empire in the southeast. These are the only cities mentioned, but they were of importance and show that Paul kept to his plan of going to centres of influence. The new imperial road from Antioch and Iconium reached these cities.
The region round about ( την περιχωρον ) was "a high table land, ill-watered, bleak, but suited for sheep pasture" (Page).
And there they preached the gospel ( κακε ευαγγελιζομενο ησαν ). Periphrastic imperfect middle. We are to think of extensive evangelistic work perhaps with the assistance of disciples from Antioch and Iconium since Paul and Barnabas could not speak Lycaonian. Κακε is crasis for κα εκε.
At Lystra ( εν Λυστροις ). Neuter plural as in 16:2; 2Ti 3:11 while feminine singular in 14:6,21; 16:1. There was apparently no synagogue in Lystra and so not many Jews. Paul and Barnabas had to do open-air preaching and probably had difficulty in being understood by the natives though both Greek and Latin inscriptions were discovered here by Professor Sterrett in 1885. The incident narrated here (verses 8-18) shows how they got a real hearing among these rude heathen.
There sat ( εκαθητο ). Imperfect middle of καθημα. Was sitting. This case is very much like that in 3:1-11, healed by Peter. Possibly outside the gate (verse 13) or some public place.
Impotent in his feet ( αδυνατος τοις ποσιν ). Old verbal, but only here in the N.T. in this sense except figuratively in Ro 15:1. Elsewhere it means "impossible" (Mt 19:26). Locative case. Common in medical writers in the sense of "impotent." So Tobit 2:10; 5:9.
Had walked ( περιεπατησεν ). So best MSS., first aorist active indicative "walked," not περιεπεπατηκε, "had walked" (past perfect active).
The same ( ουτος ). Just "this one."
Heard ( ηκουεν ). Imperfect active, was listening to Paul speaking ( λαλουντος ). Either at the gate or in the market place (17:17) Paul was preaching to such as would listen or could understand his Greek (Koine). Ramsay (St. Paul the Traveller, pp. 114, 116) thinks that the cripple was a proselyte. At any rate he may have heard of the miracles wrought at Iconium (verse 3) and Paul may have spoken of the work of healing wrought by Jesus. This man was "no mendicant pretender," for his history was known from his birth.
Fastening his eyes upon him ( ατενισας αυτω ). Just as in 13:9 of Paul and 1:10 which see. Paul saw a new hope in the man's eyes and face.
He had faith ( εχε πιστιν ). Present active indicative retained in indirect discourse.
To be made whole ( του σωθηνα ). Genitive of articular first aorist passive infinitive (purpose and result combined) of σωζω, to make sound and also to save. Here clearly to make whole or well as in Lu 7:50 (cf. Ac 3:16; 4:10).
Upright ( ορθος ). Predicate adjective. In this sense Galen and Hippocrates frequently use ορθος (erect, straight). Paul spoke in a loud ( μεγαλη ) voice so that all could hear and know.
He leaped up and walked ( ηλατο κα περιεπατε ). Rather, He leaped up with a single bound and began to walk. The second aorist middle indicative (with first aorist vowel α ) of αλλομα (late verb, in papyri) and inchoative imperfect active of περιπατεω, common verb to walk around. This graphic picture is concealed by the usual English rendering. It is possible that Luke obtained the vivid report of this incident from Timothy who may have witnessed it and who was probably converted during Paul's stay here (16:3). His father was a prominent Greek and his mother Eunice, possibly a widow, may have lived here with her mother Lois (2Ti 1:5).
Lifted up their voice ( επηραν την φωνην αυτων ). First aorist active of επαιρω. In their excitement they elevated their voices.
In the speech of Lycaonia ( Λυκαονιστ ). Adverb from verb λυκαονιζω, to use the language of Lycaonia found here alone, but formed regularly like Εβραιστ (Joh 5:2), Hελληνιστ (Ac 21:37), Ρωμαιστ (Joh 19:20). Paul was speaking in Greek, of course, but the excitement of the crowd over the miracle made them cry out in their native tongue which Paul and Barnabas did not understand. Hence it was not till preparations for offering sacrifice to them had begun that Paul understood the new role in which he and Barnabas were held.
In the likeness of men ( ομοιωθεντες ανθρωποις ). First aorist passive participle of ομοιω, to liken, with the associative instrumental case. In this primitive state the people hold to the old Graeco-Roman mythology. The story of Baucis and Philemon tells how Jupiter (Zeus) and Mercury (Hermes) visited in human form the neighbouring region of Phrygia (Ovid, Meta. VIII. 626). Jupiter (Zeus) had a temple in Lystra.
They called ( εκαλουν ). Inchoative imperfect began to call.
Barnabas, Jupiter ( τον Βαρναβαν Δια ). Because Barnabas was the older and the more imposing in appearance. Paul admits that he was not impressive in looks (2Co 10:10).
And Paul, Mercury ( τον δε Παυλον Hερμην ). Mercury ( Hερμης ) was the messenger of the gods, and the spokesman of Zeus. Hερμης was of beautiful appearance and eloquent in speech, the inventor of speech in legend. Our word hermeneutics or science of interpretation comes from this word (Heb 7:2; Joh 1:38).
Because he was the chief speaker ( επειδη αυτος ην ο ηγουμενος του λογου ). Paul was clearly "the leader of the talk." So it seemed a clear case to the natives. If preachers always knew what people really think of them! Whether Paul was alluding to his experience in Lystra or not in Ga 4:14, certainly they did receive him as an angel of God, as if "Mercury" in reality.
Whose temple was before the city ( του οντος προ της πωλεως ). The god (Zeus) is identified with his temple. He had a statue and temple there.
Oxen and garlands ( ταυρους κα στεμματα ). Probably garlands to put on the oxen before they were slain. It was common to sacrifice bullocks to Jupiter and Mercury.
Would have done sacrifice ( ηθελεν θυειν ). Imperfect indicative, wanted to offer sacrifice. He was planning to do it, and his purpose now became plain to Paul and Barnabas.
Having heard ( ακουσαντες ). Such elaborate preparation "with the multitudes" ( συν τοις οχλοις ) spread rumours and some who spoke Greek told Paul and Barnabas. It is possible that the priest of Jupiter may have sent a formal request that the visiting "gods" might come out to the statue by the temple gates to make it a grand occasion. They rent their garments ( διαρρηξαντες ). First aorist active participle from διαρρηγνυμ, old verb to rend in two. Like the high priest in Mt 26:65 as if an act of sacrilege was about to be committed. It was strange conduct for the supposed gods!
Sprang forth ( εξεπηδησαν ). First aorist (ingressive) active indicative of εκπηδαω (note εκ ), old verb, here only in the N.T. It was all a sign of grief and horror with loud outcries ( κραζοντες ).
Sirs ( ανδρες ). Literally, Men. Abrupt, but courteous.
We also are men of like passions with you ( κα ημεις ομοιοπαθεις εσμεν υμιν ανθρωπο ). Old adjective from ομοιος (like) and πασχω, to experience. In the N.T. only here and Jas 5:17. It means "of like nature" more exactly and affected by like sensations, not "gods" at all. Their conduct was more serious than the obeisance of Cornelius to Peter (10:25f.). Hυμιν is associative instrumental case.
And bring you good tidings ( ευαγγελιζομενο ). No "and" in the Greek, just the present middle participle, "gospelizing you." They are not gods, but evangelists. Here we have Paul's message to a pagan audience without the Jewish environment and he makes the same line of argument seen in Ac 17:21-32; Ro 1:18-23. At Antioch in Pisidia we saw Paul's line of approach to Jews and proselytes (Ac 13:16-41).
That ye should turn from these vain things ( απο τουτων των ματαιων επιστρεφειν ). He boldly calls the worship of Jupiter and Mercury and all idols "vain" or empty things, pointing to the statues and the temple.
Unto the living God ( επ θεον ζωντα ). They must go the whole way. Our God is a live God, not a dead statue. Paul is fond of this phrase (2Co 6:16; Ro 9:26).
Who made ( ος εποιησεν ). The one God is alive and is the Creator of the Universe just as Paul will argue in Athens (Ac 17:24). Paul here quotes Ps 146:6 and has Ge 1:1 in mind. See also 1Th 1:9 where a new allegiance is also claimed as here.
In the generations gone by ( εν ταις παρωιχημεναις γενεαις ). Perfect middle participle from παροιχομα, to go by, old verb, here alone in the N.T.
Suffered ( ειασεν ). Constative aorist active indicative of εαω (note syllabic augment). Paul here touches God in history as he did just before in creation. God's hand is on the history of all the nations (Gentile and Jew), only with the Gentiles he withdrew the restraints of his grace in large measure (Ac 17:30; Ro 1:24,26,28), judgment enough for their sins.
To walk in their ways ( πορευεσθα ταις οδοις αυτων ). Present middle infinitive, to go on walking, with locative case without εν. This philosophy of history does not mean that God was ignorant or unconcerned. He was biding his time in patience.
And yet ( καιτο ). Old Greek compound particle ( κα το ). In the N.T. twice only, once with finite verb as here, once with the participle (Heb 4:3).
Without witness ( αμαρτυρον ). Old adjective ( α privative and μαρτυς, witness), only here in the N.T.
Left ( αφηκεν ). First aorist active ( κ aorist indicative of αφιημ ).
In that he did good ( αγαθουργων ). Present active causal participle of αγαθουργεω, late and rare verb (also αγαθοεργεω 1Ti 6:18), reading of the oldest MSS. here for αγαθοποιεω, to do good. Note two other causal participles here parallel with αγαθουργων, viz., διδους ("giving you") present active of διδωμι, εμπιπλων ("filling") present active of εμπιμπλαω (late form of εμπιμπλημ ). This witness to God (his doing good, giving rains and fruitful seasons, filling your hearts with food and gladness) they could receive without the help of the Old Testament revelation (Ro 1:20). Zeus was regarded as the god of rain (Jupiter Pluvius) and Paul claims the rain and the fruitful ( καρποφορουσ, καρπος, and φερω, fruit bearing, old word, here alone in N.T.) seasons as coming from God. Lycaonia was often dry and it would be an appropriate item. "Mercury, as the God of merchandise, was also the dispenser of food" (Vincent). Paul does not talk about laws of nature as if they governed themselves, but he sees the living God "behind the drama of the physical world" (Furneaux). These simple country people could grasp his ideas as he claims everything for the one true God.
Gladness ( ευφροσυνης ). Old word from ευφρων ( ευ and φρην ), good cheer. In the N.T. only Ac 2:28 and here. Cheerfulness should be our normal attitude when we consider God's goodness. Paul does not here mention Christ because he had the single definite purpose to dissuade them from worshipping Barnabas and himself.
Scarce ( μολις ). Adverb in same sense as old μογις, from μολος, toil.
Restrained ( κατεπαυσαν ). Effective first aorist active indicative of καταπαυω, old verb in causative sense to make abstain from.
From doing sacrifice unto them ( του μη θυειν αυτοις ). Ablative case of the articular infinitive with redundant negative after κατεπαυσαν, regular Greek idiom (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 1094, 1171). It had been a harrowing and well-nigh a horrible ordeal, but finally Paul had won. If only nobody else had interposed!
But there came thither Jews from Antioch and Iconium ( Επηλθαν δε απο Αντιοχειας κα Ικονιου Ιουδαιο ). Came to or upon them, επηλθαν, second aorist (ingressive) indicative of επερχομα. Whether news of the miracle had reached those cities we do not know. These may have been travelling grain merchants. At any rate there was an interval in which Paul and Barnabas won some disciples (verse 22). There would be a natural reaction, even revulsion, in the minds of many who had come so near to worshipping Paul and Barnabas. The pendulum swings easily from one extreme to the other. The hostile Jews from Antioch and Iconium may even have followed Paul and Barnabas along the fine Roman road on purpose to keep them on the run. They had driven them out of Antioch and out of Iconium and now appear at Lystra at an opportune moment for their work.
Having persuaded the multitudes ( πεισαντες τους οχλους ). First aorist (effective) active participle of πειθω. They had complete success with many and struck at the psychological moment.
They stoned Paul ( λιθασαντες τον Παυλον ). First aorist active participle of λιθαζω, late verb from λιθος for throwing stones (used by Paul referring to this one incident when alone he was stoned, 2Co 11:25). The wounds inflicted may have left some of the scars ( στιγματα ) mentioned in Ga 6:17. They stoned Paul as the chief speaker (Mercury) and passed by Barnabas (Jupiter). It was a Jewish mode of punishment as against Stephen and these Jews knew that Paul was the man that they had to deal with. Hackett notes that the Jews with two exceptions incited the persecutions which Paul endured. The exceptions were in Philippi (16:16-40) and Ephesus (19:23-41).
Dragged him out of the city ( εσυρον εξω της πολεως ). They hurled Stephen outside of the city before stoning him ( 7:58 ). It was a hurried and irregular proceeding, but they were dragging (imperfect active of συρω, old verb) Paul out now.
Supposing that he were dead ( νομιζοντες αυτον τεθνηκενα ). Present active participle with infinitive (second perfect active of θνησκω ) in indirect discourse with accusative of general reference. The Jews are jubilant this time with memories of Paul's escape at Antioch and Iconium. The pagan mob feel that they have settled accounts for their narrow escape from worshipping two Jewish renegade preachers. It was a good day's work for them all. Luke does not say that Paul was actually dead.
Stood round about him ( κυκλωσαντων αυτον ). Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of κυκλοω, old verb from κυκλος (circle, cycle) to make a circle round, to encircle. The would-be murderers left and a group of disciples gathered round to see if Paul was dead or alive and, if dead, to bury him. In that group Timothy may very well have been along with Eunice and Barnabas. Timothy, a lad of about fifteen, would not soon forget that solemn scene (2Ti 3:11). But Paul suddenly (apparently a miraculous recovery) rose up ( αναστας ) and entered the city to the surprise and joy of the disciples who were willing to brave persecution with Paul.
With Barnabas ( συν τω Βαρναβα ). With the assistance of Barnabas. It was plainly unwise to continue in Lystra so that they set out on the next day ( τη επαυριον, ten times in Acts), shaken and bruised as Paul was. Derbe was some forty miles distant, near the pass to the Cilician Gates.
When they had preached the gospel to that city ( ευαγγελισαμενο την πολιν εκεινην ). Having evangelized (first aorist middle participle) that city, a smaller city and apparently with no trouble from the Jews.
Had made many disciples ( μαθητευσαντες ικανους ). First aorist active participle of μαθητευω from μαθητης, a learner or disciple. Late verb in Plutarch, to be a disciple (Mt 27:57 like Joh 19:38) and then to disciple (old English, Spenser), to make a disciple as in Mt 28:19 and here. Paul and Barnabas were literally here obeying the command of Jesus in discipling people in this heathen city.
They returned to Lystra and to Iconium, and to Antioch ( υπεστρεψαν εις την Λυστραν κα εις Ικονιον κα εις Αντιοχειαν ). Derbe was the frontier city of the Roman empire. The quickest way to return to Antioch in Syria would have been by the Cilician Gates or by the pass over Mt. Taurus by which Paul and Silas will come to Derbe in the second tour (Ac 15:41-16:1), but difficult to travel in winter. But it was necessary to revisit the churches in Lystra, Iconium, Antioch in Pisidia and to see that they were able to withstand persecution. Paul was a Roman citizen though he had not made use of this privilege as yet for his own protection. Against mob violence it would count for little, but he did not hesitate. Paul had been stoned in Lystra, threatened in Iconium, expelled in Antioch. He shows his wisdom in conserving his work.
Confirming ( επιστηριζοντες ). Late verb (in LXX), in N.T. only in Ac 14:22; 15:32,41, to make more firm, to give additional ( επ ) strength. Each time in Acts the word is used concerning these churches.
To continue in the faith ( εμμενειν τη πιστε ). To remain in with locative, old verb. It is possible that πιστις here has the notion of creed as Paul uses it later (Col 1:23 with επιμενω; 1Ti 5:8). It seems to be here more than trust or belief. These recent converts from heathenism were ill-informed, were persecuted, had broken family and social ties, greatly needed encouragement if they were to hold out.
We must ( δε ημας ). It does not follow from this use of "we" that Luke was present, since it is a general proposition applying to all Christians at all times (2Ti 3:12). Luke, of course, approved this principle. Knowling asks why Timothy may not have told Luke about Paul's work. It all sounds like quotation of Paul's very language. Note the change of construction here after παρακαλουντες (infinitive of indirect command, εμμενειν, but οτ δε, indirect assertion). They needed the right understanding of persecution as we all do. Paul frankly warned these new converts in this heathen environment of the many tribulations through which they must enter the Kingdom of God (the culmination at last) as he did at Ephesus (Ac 20:20) and as Jesus had done (Joh 16:33). These saints were already converted.
And when they had appointed for them elders in every church ( χειροτονησαντες δε αυτοις κατ' εκκλησιαν πρεσβυτερους ). They needed also some form of organization, though already churches. Note distributive use of κατα with εκκλησιαν (2:46; 5:42; Tit 1:5). Χειροτονεω (from χειροτονος, extending the hand, χειρ, hand, and τεινω, to stretch) is an old verb that originally meant to vote by show of the hands, finally to appoint with the approval of an assembly that chooses as in 2Co 8:19, and then to appoint without regard to choice as in Josephus (Ant. XIII. 2, 2) of the appointment of Jonathan as high priest by Alexander. So in Ac 10:41 the compound προχειρατονεω is used of witnesses appointed by God. But the seven (deacons) were first selected by the Jerusalem church and then appointed ( καταστησομεν ) by the apostles. That is probably the plan contemplated by Paul in his directions to Titus (Tit 1:5) about the choice of elders. It is most likely that this plan was the one pursued by Paul and Barnabas with these churches. They selected the elders in each instance and Paul and Barnabas "ordained" them as we say, though the word χειροτονεω does not mean that. "Elders" were mentioned first in 11:30. Later Paul will give the requirements expected in these "elders" or "bishops" (Php 1:1) as in 1Ti 3:1-7; Tit 1:5-9. It is fairly certain that these elders were chosen to correspond in a general way with the elders in the Jewish synagogue after which the local church was largely copied as to organization and worship. Paul, like Jesus, constantly worshipped and spoke in the synagogues. Already it is plain, as at Antioch in Syria (11:26), that the Christians can no longer count on the use of the Jewish synagogue. They must have an organization of their own. The use of the plural here implies what was true at Philippi (Php 1:1) and Ephesus (Ac 20:17,28) that each church (one in each city) "had its college of elders" (Hackett) as in Jerusalem (21:18). Elder ( πρεσβυτερος ) was the Jewish name and bishop ( επισκοπος ) the Greek name for the same office. "Those who are called elders in speaking of Jewish communities are called bishops in speaking of Gentile communities" (Hackett). Hovey rightly holds against Hackett that teaching was a normal function of these elders, pastors or bishops as they were variously called (1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:9; 1Co 12:28,30; Eph 4:11).
Had prayed with fasting ( προσευξαμενο μετα νηστειων ). It was a serious matter, this formal setting apart of these "elders" in the churches. So it was done in a public meeting with prayer and fasting as when Paul and Barnabas were sent forth from Antioch in Syria (13:3) on this mission tour.
They commended them to the Lord ( παρεθεντο αυτους τω κυριω ). Second aorist middle indicative of παρατιθημ. Old and solemn word, to entrust, to deposit as in a bank (1Ti 1:18; 2Ti 2:2). Cf. παραθηκη in 1Ti 6:20; 2Ti 1:12,14. It was all that they could now do, to commit them to the Lord Jesus. Jesus used this word on the cross (Lu 22:32).
On whom they had believed ( εις ον πεπιστευκεισαν ). Past perfect indicative (without augment) of πιστευω. They had "trusted" in Jesus (2Ti 1:12) and Paul now "entrusts" them to him with confidence. It was a solemn and serious occasion in each instance as it always is to set apart men for the ministry. These men may not have been ideal men for this service, but they were the only ones available and they were chosen from the actual membership in each instance, men who knew local conditions and problems.
When they had spoken the word in Perga ( λαλησαντες εν Περγη τον λογον ). Now they stopped and preached in Perga which they had apparently not done before (see 13:13f.). After leaving Antioch they passed on through Pisidia, as if Antioch was not strictly in Pisidia (see on 13:14) and into Pamphylia. They crossed from Perga to Attaleia, the port of Perga, sixteen miles down the Cestus, and capital of Pamphylia, to find a ship for Antioch in Syria. It is now called Adala and for long was the chief harbour of the south coast of Asia Minor. We do not know why they did not revisit Cyprus, perhaps because no permanent Gentile churches were founded there.
They sailed away to Antioch ( απεπλευσαν εις Αντιοχειαν ). Effective aorist active indicative of αποπλεω, to sail off. They had been gone some eighteen months.
They had been committed ( ησαν παραδεδομενο ). Periphrastic past perfect passive of παραδιδωμ, old and common verb. High and serious thoughts filled the hearts of these first returned missionaries as they neared home. The grace of God had been with them. They had fulfilled ( επληρωσαν ) the work to which they had been set apart by the Holy Spirit with the prayers of the Antioch church. They now had a wondrous story to tell.
Gathered the church together ( συναγαγοντες την εκκλησιαν ). Second aorist active participle of συναγω. It "was the first missionary meeting in history" (Furneaux). It was not hard to get the church together when the news spread that Paul and Barnabas had returned. "The suitability of the Gospel to become the religion of the world had not before been put to the test" (Furneaux). Doubtless many "wise-acres" had predicted failure as they did for William Carey and for Adoniram Judson and Luther Rice.
Rehearsed ( ανηγγελλον ). Imperfect active. It was a long story for they had many things to tell of God's dealings "with them" ( μετ' αυτων ) for God had been "with them" all the while as Jesus had said he would be (Mt 28:20, μεθ' υμων ). Paul could recount some of the details given later in 2Co 11.
And how ( κα οτ ). Or "and that" in particular, as the upshot of it all.
He had opened a door of faith unto the Gentiles ( ηνοιξεν τοις εθνεσιν θυραν πιστεως ). Three times in Paul's Epistles (1Co 16:9; 2Co 2:12; Col 4:3) he employed the metaphor of "door," perhaps a reminiscence of the very language of Paul here. This work in Galatia gained a large place in Paul's heart (Ga 4:14f.). The Gentiles now, it was plain, could enter the kingdom of God (verse 22) through the door of faith, not by law or by circumcision or by heathen philosophy or mythology.
And they tarried no little time ( διετριβον δε χρονον ουκ ολιγον ). Imperfect active of διατριβω, old verb to rub hard, to consume, with accusative of extent of time. It was a happy time of fellowship. The experiment entered upon by the church of Antioch was now a pronounced success. It was at the direct command of the Holy Spirit, but they had prayed for the absent missionaries and rejoiced at their signal success. There is no sign of jealousy on the part of Barnabas when Paul returns as the chief hero of the expedition. A new corner has been turned in the history of Christianity. There is a new centre of Christian activity. What will Jerusalem think of the new developments at Antioch? Paul and Barnabas made no report to Jerusalem.
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