Ephesians 3

For this cause ( τουτου χαριν ). Use of  χαριν (accusative of  χαρις ) as a preposition with the genitive and referring to the preceding argument about God's elective grace. It is possible that Paul started to make the prayer that comes in verses 14-21 when he repeats  τουτου χαριν. If so, he is diverted by his own words "the prisoner of Christ Jesus in behalf of you Gentiles" ( ο δεσμιος του Χριστου Ιησου υπερ υμων των εθνων ) to set forth in a rich paragraph (1-13) God's use of him for the Gentiles.

If so be that ye have heard ( ε γε ηκουσατε ). Condition of first class with  ε and first aorist active indicative and with the intensive particle  γε that gives a delicate touch to it all. On  οικονομιαν (stewardship, dispensation) see 1:9; 3:9; Col 1:25.

By revelation ( κατα αποκαλυψιν ). Not essentially different from  δι' αποκαλυψεως (Gal 1:12). This was Paul's qualification for preaching "the mystery" ( το μυστηριον. See 1:9).

As I wrote afore ( καθως προεγραψα ). First aorist active indicative of  προγραφω as in Ro 15:4, not picture forth as Ga 3:1. But when and where? Epistolary aorist for this Epistle? That is possible. A previous and lost Epistle as in 1Co 5:9? That also is abstractly possible. To the preceding discussion of the Gentiles? Possible and also probable.

In few words ( εν ολιγω ). Not =  προ ολιγου, shortly before, but as in Ac 26:28 "in brief space or time" =  συντονως (Ac 24:4), "briefly."

Whereby ( προς ο ). "Looking to which," "according to which."

When ye read ( αναγινωσκοντες ). This Epistle will be read in public.

My understanding in the mystery of Christ ( την συνεσιν μου εν τω μυστηριω του Χριστου ). My "comprehension" ( συνεσιν, Col 1:9; 2:2). Every sermon reveals the preacher's grasp of "the mystery of Christ." If he has no insight into Christ, he has no call to preach.

In other generations ( ετεραις γενεαις ). Locative case of time. He had already claimed this revelation for himself (verse 3). Now he claims it for all the other apostles and prophets of God.

To wit . Not in the Greek. But the infinitive ( εινα ) clause is epexegetical and gives the content of the revelation, a common idiom in the N.T.  Τα εθνη is in the accusative of general reference. Paul is fond of compounds with  συν and here uses three of them.

Fellow-heirs ( συνκληρονομα ). Late and rare (Philo, inscriptions and papyri). See also Ro 8:17.

Fellow-members of the body ( συνσωμα ). First found here and only here save in later ecclesiastical writers. Preuschen argues that it is equivalent to  συνδουλος in Col 1:7 ( σωμα in sense of  δουλος ).

Fellow-partakers ( συνμετοχα ). Another late and rare word (Josephus). Only here in N.T. In one papyrus in sense of joint possessor of a house.

For this verse see Col 1:25; Eph 1:19f.; 3:2.

Unto me who am less than the least of all saints ( εμο τω ελαχιστοτερω παντων αγιων ). Dative case  εμο with  ελοθη. The peculiar form  ελαχιστοτερω (in apposition with  εμο ) is a comparative ( -τερος ) formed on the superlative  ελαχιστος. This sort of thing was already done in the older Greek like  εσχατοτερος in Xenophon. It became more common in the Koine. So the double comparative  μειζοτεραν in 3Jo 1:4. The case of  αγιων is ablative. This was not mock humility (15:19), for on occasion Paul stood up for his rights as an apostle (2Co 11:5).

The unsearchable riches of Christ ( το ανεξιχνιαστον πλουτος του Χριστου ).  Ανεξιχνιαστος ( α privative and verbal of  εξιχνιαζω, to track out,  εξ and  ιχνος, track) appears first in Job 5:9; 9:10. Paul apparently got it from Job. Nowhere else in N.T. except Ro 11:33. In later Christian writers. Paul undertook to track out the untrackable in Christ.

To make see ( φωτισα ). First aorist active infinitive of  φοτιζω, late verb, to turn the light on. With the eyes of the heart enlightened (Eph 1:18) one can then turn the light for others to see. See Col 1:26.

To the intent that ( ινα ). Final clause.

Might be made known ( γνωρισθη ). First aorist passive subjunctive of  γνωριζω with  ινα. The mystery was made known to Paul (3:3) and now he wants it blazoned forth to all powers (Gnostic aeons or what not).

Through the church ( δια της εκκλησιας ). The wonderful body of Christ described in chapter Eph 2.

The manifold wisdom of God ( η πολυποικιλος σοφια του θεου ). Old and rare word, much-variegated, with many colours. Only here in N.T.  Ποικιλος (variegated) is more common (Mt 4:24).

According to the eternal purpose ( κατα προθεσιν των αιωνων ). "According to the purpose (1:11) of the ages." God's purpose runs on through the ages. "Through the ages one eternal purpose runs."

In confidence ( εν πεποιθησε ). Late and rare word from  πεποιθα. See 2Co 1:15.

Through our faith in him ( δια της πιστεως αυτου ). Clearly objective genitive  αυτου (in him).

That ye faint not ( μη ενκακειν ). Object infinitive with  μη after  αιτουμα. The infinitive (present active)  ενκακειν is a late and rare word (see already Lu 18:1; 2Th 3:13; 2Co 4:1,16; Ga 6:9) and means to behave badly in, to give in to evil ( εν, κακος ). Paul urges all his apostolic authority to keep the readers from giving in to evil because of his tribulations for them.

Your glory ( δοξα υμων ). As they could see.

I bow my knees ( καμπτω τα γονατα μου ). He now prays whether he had at first intended to do so at 3:1 or not. Calvin supposes that Paul knelt as he dictated this prayer, but this is not necessary. This was a common attitude in prayer (Lu 22:41; Ac 7:40; 20:36; 21:5), though standing is also frequent (Mr 11:25; Lu 18:11,13).

Every family ( πασα πατρια ). Old word ( πατρα is the usual form) from  πατηρ, descent from a common ancestor as a tribe or race. Some take it here as =  πατροτης, fatherhood, but that is most unlikely. Paul seems to mean that all the various classes of men on earth and of angels in heaven get the name of family from God the Father of all.

That he would grant you ( ινα δω υμιν ). Sub-final clause with  ινα and the second aorist active subjunctive of  διδωμ, to give. There are really five petitions in this greatest of all Paul's prayers (one already in 1:16-23), two by the infinitives after  ινα δω ( κραταιωθηναι, κατοικησα ), two infinitives after  ινα εξισχυσητε ( καταλαβεσθαι, γνωνα ), and the last clause  ινα πληρωθητε. Nowhere does Paul sound such depths of spiritual emotion or rise to such heights of spiritual passion as here. The whole seems to be coloured with "the riches of His glory."

That ye may be strengthened ( κραταιωθηνα ). First aorist passive infinitive of  κραταιοω, late and rare (LXX, N.T.) from  κραταιος, late form from  κρατος (strength). See Lu 1:80. Paul adds  δυναμε (with the Spirit). Instrumental case.

In the inward man ( εις τον εσω ανθρωπον ). Same expression in 2Co 4:16 (in contrast with the outward  εξω, man) and in Ro 7:22.

That Christ may dwell ( κατοικησα τον Χριστον ). Another infinitive (first aorist active) after  ινα δω.  Κατοικεω is an old verb to make one's home, to be at home. Christ ( Χριστον accusative of general reference) is asked to make his home in our hearts. This is the ideal, but a deal of fixing would have to be done in our hearts for Christ.

Being rooted and grounded in love ( εν αγαπη ερριζωμενο κα τεθεμελιωμενο ). But it is not certain whether  εν αγαπη should go with these participles or with the preceding infinitive  κατοικησα (dwell). Besides, these two perfect passive participles (from  ριζοω, old verb, in N.T. only here and Col 2:7, and from  θεμελιοω, see also Col 1:23) are in the nominative case and are to be taken with  ινα εξισχυσητε and are proleptically placed before  ινα. Verse 18 should really begin with these participles. Paul piles up metaphors (dwelling, rooted, grounded).

That ye may be strong ( ινα εξισχυσητε ). Sub-final clause again with  ινα and the first aorist active subjunctive of  εξισχυω, a late and rare compound (from  εξ, ισχυω ) to have full strength. Here only in N.T.

To apprehend ( καταλαβεσθα ). Second aorist middle infinitive of  καταλαμβανω, old and common verb, to lay hold of effectively ( κατα- ), here with the mind, to grasp (Ac 25:25).

With all the saints ( συν πασιν τοις αγιοις ). No isolated privilege. Fellowship open to all. Paul gives a rectangular (four dimension) measure of love (breadth  πλατος, length  μηκος, height  υψος, depth  βαθος, all common enough words).

And to know ( γνωνα τε ). Second aorist active infinitive with  εξισχυσητε.

Which passeth knowledge ( την υπερβαλλουσαν της γνωσεως ). Ablative case  γνωσεως after  υπερβαλλουσαν (from  υπερβαλλω ). All the same Paul dares to scale this peak.

That ye may be filled with all the fulness of God ( ινα πληρωθητε εις παν το πληρωμα του θεου ). Final clause again (third use of  ινα in the sentence) with first aorist passive subjunctive of  πληροω and the use of  εις after it. One hesitates to comment on this sublime climax in Paul's prayer, the ultimate goal for followers of Christ in harmony with the injunction in Mt 5:48 to be perfect ( τελειο ) as our heavenly Father is perfect. There is nothing that any one can add to these words. One can turn to Ro 8:29 again for our final likeness to God in Christ.

That is able to do ( τω δυναμενω ποιησα ). Dative case of the articular participle (present middle of  δυναμα ). Paul is fully aware of the greatness of the blessings asked for, but the Doxology ascribes to God the power to do them for us.

Above all ( υπερ παντα ). Not simply  παντα, but  υπερ beyond and above all.

Exceedingly abundantly ( υπερεκπερισσου ). Late and rare double compound ( υπερ, εκ, περισσου ) adverb (LXX, 1Th 3:10; 5:13; Eph 3:20). It suits well Paul's effort to pile Pelion on Ossa.

That we ask ( ων αιτουμεθα ). Ablative of the relative pronoun attracted from the accusative  α to the case of the unexpressed antecedent  τουτων. Middle voice ( αιτουμεθα ) "we ask for ourselves."

Or think ( η νοουμεν ). The highest aspiration is not beyond God's "power" ( δυναμιν ) to bestow.

In the church ( εν τη εκκλησια ). The general church, the body of Christ.

And in Christ Jesus ( κα εν Χριστω Ιησου ). The Head of the glorious church.

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