With freedom ( τη ελευθερια ). Rather dative case instead of instrumental, "for freedom," "for the (article) freedom that belongs to us children of the freewoman" (4:31).
Did Christ set us free ( ημας Χριστος ηλευθερωσεν ). Effective aorist active indicative of ελευθεροω (from ερχομα, to go, go free).
Stand fast therefore ( στηκετε ουν ). See on Mr 3:31; 1Co 16:13 for this late word from perfect stem of ιστημ, "keep on standing therefore," "stay free since Christ set you free."
Be not entangled again ( μη παλιν ενεχεσθε ). "Stop being held in by a yoke of bondage." Common word for ensnare by trap. The Judaizers were trying to lasso the Galatians for the old yoke of Judaism.
I Paul ( εγω Παυλος ). Asserts all his personal and apostolic authority. For both words see also 1Th 2:16; 2Co 10:1; Col 1:23; Eph 3:1.
If ye receive circumcision ( εαν περιτεμνησθε ). Condition of third class and present passive subjunctive, a supposable case, but with terrible consequences, for they will make circumcision a condition of salvation. In that case Christ will help them not at all.
A debtor ( οφειλετης ). Common word from οφειλω, to owe for one who has assumed an obligation. See on Mt 6:12. See Ga 3:10. He takes the curse on himself.
Ye are severed from Christ ( κατηργηθητε απο Χριστου ). First aorist passive of καταργεω, to make null and void as in Ro 7:2,6.
Who would be justified by the law ( οιτινες εν νομω δικαιουσθε ). Present passive conative indicative, "ye who are trying to be justified in the law."
Ye are fallen away from grace ( της χαριτος εξεπεσατε ). Second aorist active indicative of εκπιπτω (with α variable vowel of the first aorist) and followed by the ablative case. "Ye did fall out of grace," "ye left the sphere of grace in Christ and took your stand in the sphere of law" as your hope of salvation. Paul does not mince words and carries the logic to the end of the course. He is not, of course, speaking of occasional sins, but he has in mind a far more serious matter, that of substituting law for Christ as the agent in salvation.
For we ( ημεις γαρ ). We Christians as opposed to the legalists.
Through the Spirit by faith ( πνευματ εκ πιστεως ). By the Spirit (Holy Spirit) out of faith (not law). Clear-cut repetition to make it plain.
Availeth anything ( ισχυε τ ). Old word to have strength ( ισχυς ). See on Mt 5:13. Neither Jew nor Greek has any recommendation in his state. See 3:28. All stand on a level in Christ.
Faith working through love ( πιστις δι' αγαπης ενεργουμενη ). Middle voice of ενεργεω and "through love," "the moral dynamic" (Burton) of Paul's conception of freedom from law.
Who did hinder you? ( τις υμας ενεκοψεν? ). First aorist active indicative of ενκοπτω, to cut in on one, for all the world like our use of one cutting in on us at the telephone. For this late verb see on Ac 24:4; 1Th 2:18. Note the singular τις. There was some ringleader in the business. Some one "cut in" on the Galatians as they were running the Christian race and tried to trip them or to turn them.
This persuasion ( η πεισμονη ). "The art of persuasion," the effort of the Judaizers to persuade you. Only here and in ecclesiastical writers.
This proverb Paul has in 1Co 5:6. It is merely the pervasive power of leaven that is involved in the proverb as in Mt 13:33, not the use of leaven as a symbol of evil.
Whosoever he be ( οστις εαν η ). Indefinite relative clause with εαν and subjunctive. It seems unlikely that Paul knew precisely who the leader was. In 1:6 he uses the plural of the same verb ταρασσω and see also αναστατουντες in verse 12.
Why am I still persecuted? ( τ ετ διωκομαι? ). Some of the Judaizers even circulated the slander that Paul preached circumcision in order to ruin his influence.
I would ( οφελον ). Would that, used as conjunction in wishes. See on 1Co 4:2; 2Co 11:1. Here a wish about the future with future indicative.
They which unsettle you ( ο αναστατουντες υμας ). Late verb from αναστατος, driven from one's abode, and in papyri in this sense as well as in sense of upsetting or disturbing one's mind (boy's letter) as here. In Ac 17:6; 21:38 we have it in sense of making a commotion.
Cut themselves off ( αποκοψοντα ). Future middle of αποκοπτω, old word to cut off as in Ac 27:32, here to mutilate.
Ye were called for freedom ( επ' ελευθερια εκληθητε ). The same point as in 5:1 made plainer by the use of επ' (on the basis of, for the purpose of). See 1Th 4:7 for this use of επ.
Only use not ( μονον μη ). No word for "use" in the Greek. Probably supply τρεπετε or στρεφετε, "turn not your liberty into an occasion for the flesh" ( εις αφορμην τη σαρκ ), as a spring board for license. On αφορμη, see on 2Co 5:12. Liberty so easily turns to license.
Even in this ( εν τω ). Just the article with εν, "in the," but it points at the quotation from Le 19:18. Jews (Lu 10:29) confined "neighbour" ( πλησιον ) to Jews. Paul uses here a striking paradox by urging obedience to the law against which he has been arguing, but this is the moral law as proof of the new love and life. See also Ro 13:8, precisely as Jesus did (Mt 22:40).
If ye bite and devour one another ( ε αλληλους δακνετε κα κατεσθιετε ). Condition of first class assumed as true. Two common and old verbs often used together of wild animals, or like cats and dogs.
That ye be not consumed one of another ( μη υπ' αλληλων αναλωθητε ). Negative final clause with first aorist passive subjunctive of αναλισκω, old word to consume or spend. In N.T. only here and Lu 9:54. There is a famous story of two snakes that grabbed each other by the tail and each swallowed the other.
Ye shall not fulfil ( ου μη τελεσητε ). Rather, "Ye will not fulfil." Strong double negative with aorist active subjunctive.
The lust of the flesh ( επιθυμιαν σαρκος ). Bad sense here as usual in Paul, but not so in 1Th 2:17; Php 1:23. The word is just craving or longing (from επι, θυμος, yearning after).
Lusteth against ( επιθυμε κατα ). Like a tug of war. This use of σαρξ as opposed to the Spirit (Holy Spirit) personifies σαρξ. Lightfoot argues that επιθυμε cannot be used with the Spirit and so some other verb must be supplied for it. But that is wholly needless, for the verb, like επιθυμια, does not mean evil desire, but simply to long for. Christ and Satan long for the possession of the city of Man Soul as Bunyan shows.
Are contrary the one to the other ( αλληλοις αντικειτα ). Are lined up in conflict, face to face ( αντι- ), a spiritual duel (cf. Christ's temptations), with dative case of personal interest ( αλληλοις ).
That ye may not do ( ινα μη ποιητε ). "That ye may not keep on doing" (present active subjunctive of ποιεω ).
That ye would ( α εαν θελητε ). "Whatever ye wish" (indefinite relative with εαν and present subjunctive).
Under the law ( υπο νομον ). Instead of "under the flesh" as one might expect. See Ga 3:2-6 for contrast between law and spirit. The flesh made the law weak (Rom 8:3; Heb 9:10,13). They are one and the same in result. See same idea in Ro 8:14. Note present tense of αγεσθε (if you are continually led by the Spirit). See verse 23.
Manifest ( φανερα ). Opposed to "hidden" ( κρυπτα ). Ancient writers were fond of lists of vices and virtues. Cf. Stalker's sermons on The Seven Cardinal Virtues and The Seven Deadly Sins. There are more than seven in this deadly list in verses 19-21. He makes the two lists in explanation of the conflict in verse 17 to emphasize the command in verses 13f. There are four groups in Paul's list of manifest vices: (I) Sensual sins like fornication ( πορνεια, prostitution, harlotry), uncleanness ( ακαθαρσια, moral impurity), lasciviousness ( ασελγεια, wantonness), sexual vice of all kinds prevailed in heathenism. (2) Idolatry ( ειδωλατρεια, worship of idols) and witchcraft ( φαρμακεια from φαρμακον, a drug, the ministering of drugs), but the sorcerers monopolized the word for a while in their magical arts and used it in connection with idolatry. In N.T. only here and Re 18:23. See Ac 19:19 περιεργα, curious arts. (3) Personal relations expressed by eight words, all old words, sins of the spirit, like enmities ( εξθρα, personal animosities), strife ( ερις, rivalry, discord), jealousies ( ζηλος or ζηλο, MSS. vary, our very word), wraths ( θυμο, stirring emotions, then explosions), factions ( εριθεια, from εριθος, day labourer for hire, worker in wool, party spirit), divisions ( διχοστασια, splits in two, διχα and στασις ), heresies ( αιρεσεις, the very word, but really choosings from αιρεομα, preferences), envyings ( φθονο, feelings of ill-will). Surely a lively list. (4)
Drunkenness ( μεθα, old word and plural, drunken excesses, in N.T. only here and Lu 21:34; Ro 13:13), revellings ( κωμο, old word also for drinking parties like those in honour of Bacchus, in N.T. only here and Ro 13:13; 1Pe 4:3).
And such like ( κα τα ομοια τουτοις ). And the things like these (associative instrumental τουτοις after ομοια, like). It is not meant to be exhaustive, but it is representative.
Forewarn ( προλεγω )
--did forewarn ( προειπον ). Paul repeats his warning given while with them. He did his duty then. Gentile churches were peculiarly subject to these sins. But who is not in danger from them?
Practise ( πρασσοντες ). Πρασσω is the verb for habitual practice (our very word, in fact), not ποιεω for occasional doing. The
habit of these sins is proof that one is not in the Kingdom of God and will not inherit it.
The fruit of the Spirit ( ο καρπος του πνευματος ). Paul changes the figure from
works ( εργα ) in verse 19 to fruit as the normal out-cropping of the Holy Spirit in us. It is a beautiful tree of fruit that Paul pictures here with nine luscious fruits on it:
Love ( αγαπη ). Late, almost Biblical word. First as in 1Co 13, which see for discussion as superior to φιλια and ερως.
Joy ( χαρα ). Old word. See on 1Th 1:6.
Peace ( ειρηνη ). See on 1Th 1:1.
Long-suffering ( μακροθυμια ). See on 2Co 6:6.
Kindness ( χρηστοτης ). See on 2Co 6:6.
Goodness ( αγαθωσυνη ). See on 2Th 1:11.
Faithfulness ( πιστις ). Same word as "faith." See on Mt 23:33; 1Co 13:7,13.
Meekness ( πραυτης ). See on 1Co 4:21; 2Co 10:1.
Temperance ( εγκρατεια ). See on Ac 24:25. Old word from εγκρατης, one holding control or holding in. In N.T. only in these passages and 2Pe 1:6. Paul has a better list than the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice), though they are included with better notes struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice, long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence.
Crucified the flesh ( την σαρκα εσταυρωσαν ). Definite event, first aorist active indicative of σταυροω as in 2:19 (mystical union with Christ). Paul uses σαρξ here in the same sense as in verses 16,17,19, "the force in men that makes for evil" (Burton).
With ( συν ). "Together with," emphasizing "the completeness of the extermination of this evil force" and the guarantee of victory over one's passions and dispositions toward evil.
By the Spirit let us also walk ( πνευματ κα στοιχωμεν ). Present subjunctive (volitive) of στοιχεω, "Let us also go on walking by the Spirit." Let us make our steps by the help and guidance of the Spirit.
Let us not be ( μη γινωμεθα ). Present middle subjunctive (volitive), "Let us cease becoming vainglorious" ( κενοδοξο ), late word only here in N.T. ( κενοσ, δοξα ). Once in Epictetus in same sense.
Provoking one another ( αλληλους προκαλουμενο ). Old word προκαλεω, to call forth, to challenge to combat. Only here in N.T. and in bad sense. The word for "provoke" in Heb 10:24 is παροξυσμον (our "paroxysm").
Envying ( φθονουντες ). Old verb from φθονος. Only here in N.T.
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